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Messina, Italy

Marcantoni C.,Ospedale Cannizzaro | Emmanuele C.,Pathology Unit | Scolari F.,Ospedale di Montichiari
Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2016

Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy-related problems associated with persistently elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies. The kidney is a major target organ in both primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. This review describes several aspects of the renal involvement in the primary form of the syndrome, in particular the histological pattern of the so-called antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN). APSN is a vascular nephropathy characterized by small vessel vaso-occlusive lesions associated with fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries, recanalizing thrombi in arteries and arterioles, and focal atrophy, a constellation of morphological lesions suggestive of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. © 2016, Italian Society of Nephrology. Source

Esposito F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | De Martino M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | D'Angelo D.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Mussnich P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 5 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2015

Numerous studies have established that High Mobility Group A (HMGA) proteins play a pivotal role on the onset of human pituitary tumors. They are overexpressed in pituitary tumors, and, consistently, transgenic mice overexpressing either the Hmga1 or the Hmga2 gene develop pituitary tumors. In contrast with HMGA2, HMGA1 overexpression is not related to any rearrangement or amplification of the HMGA1 locus in these tumors. We have recently identified 2 HMGA1 pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7, acting as competitive endogenous RNA decoys for HMGA1 and other cancer related genes. Here, we show that HMGA1 pseudogene expression significantly correlates with HMGA1 mRNA levels in growth hormone and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas likely inhibiting the repression of HMGA1 through microRNAs action. According to our functional studies, these HMGA1 pseudogenes enhance the proliferation and migration of the mouse pituitary tumor cell line, at least in part, through their upregulation. Our results point out that the overexpression of HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7 could contribute to increase HMGA1 levels in human pituitary tumors, and then to pituitary tumorigenesis. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Simonelli M.,Humanitas Cancer Center | Rosti G.,Ospedale Santa Maria di Ca Foncello | Banna G.L.,Ospedale Cannizzaro | Pedrazzoli P.,Fondazione Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a carattere Scientifico Policlinico San Matteo
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Based on the high chemosensitivity of germ-cell tumors (GCTs), the concept of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) has been developed worldwide and investigated through many clinical trials. It has been carried out in different clinical settings, ranging from resistant or absolute refractory disease to chemosensitive relapse. HDCT with stem-cell support has been also explored as a part of first-line strategy for poor-prognosis patients. Patients and methods: Our review summarized results from clinical trials evaluating the role of HDCT in patients with advanced GCTs. So far available data were obtained through a Medline search of English-language literature. Results: Several phase II trials and retrospective series have shown a possible benefit for GCT patients with recurrent disease as well as in first-line setting. Despite these results, data derived from randomized phase III studies failed to demonstrate any survival advantage for HDCT over conventional chemotherapy. Conclusions: The role of HDCT in GCTs remains controversial. We need new prospective studies based on prognostic factors with multiple transplants of carboplatin and etoposide as the preferred high dose regimen. At present, based mainly on retrospective and phase II studies, HDCT may represent a therapeutic option for patients with primary refractory disease or for those with a second or further relapse. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Pignata S.,Istituto Nazionale Tumori | Scambia G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Ferrandina G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Sorio R.,Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose Carboplatin/paclitaxel is the standard first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian Cancer-2 (MITO-2), an academic multicenter phase III trial, tested whether carboplatin/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) was more effective than standard chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IC to IV ovarian cancer (age ≤ 75 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤ 2) were randomly assigned to carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 5 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 or to carboplatin AUC 5 plus PLD 30 mg/m2, every 3 weeks for six cycles. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). With 632 events in 820 enrolled patients, the study would have 80% power to detect a 0.80 hazard ratio (HR) of PFS. Results Eight hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned. Disease stages III and IV were prevalent. Occurrence of PFS events substantially slowed before obtaining the planned number. Therefore, in concert with the Independent Data Monitoring Committee, final analysis was performed with 556 events, after a median follow-up of 40 months. Median PFS times were 19.0 and 16.8 months with carboplatin/PLD and carboplatin/paclitaxel, respectively (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.13; P = .58). Median overall survival times were 61.6 and 53.2 months with carboplatin/PLD and carboplatin/paclitaxel, respectively (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.12; P = .32). Carboplatin/PLD produced a similar response rate but different toxicity (less neurotoxicity and alopecia but more hematologic adverse effects). There was no relevant difference in global quality of life after three and six cycles. Conclusion Carboplatin/PLD was not superior to carboplatin/paclitaxel, which remains the standard first-line chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. However, given the observed CIs and the different toxicity, carboplatin/PLD could be considered an alternative to standard therapy. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

Zannoni G.F.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Improta G.,Laboratory of Clinical Research and Advanced Diagnostics | Chiarello G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Pettinato A.,Ospedale Cannizzaro | And 4 more authors.
Virchows Archiv | Year: 2014

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer with characteristic biological features and aggressive clinical behavior. OCCCs show a pattern of gene mutations different from other type I ovarian malignancies, notably a higher frequency of PIK3CA mutations. In low grade serous ovarian cancer, KRAS and BRAF mutations are frequent, but little data are available on the mutational status of these genes in OCCCs. To clarify this issue, we designed a clinicopathological study with the aim to establish the incidence of KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF hot spot mutations in OCCC. Between December 2006 and June 2012, 22 patients with a proven diagnosis of OCCC were admitted to our Institutions. In all cases, final diagnosis was established according to FIGO and WHO criteria. All women received complete surgical staging. The PyroMark Q24 system (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) was used for pyrosequencing analysis of KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF hot spot regions on 2.5-μm sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from primary OCCC. Pyrosequencing analysis of KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF hot spot regions revealed the presence of mutations only at codon 12 in exon 2 of KRAS in 3 of 22 (14 %) cases. We found no mutations in the hot spot regions of NRAF (exons 2, 3, 4) or BRAF (exon 15). The median age of women with a KRAS mutated OCCC was 74 years. These OCCC were unilateral FIGO stage IA lesions in two cases associated with foci of endometriosis. We conclude that in 14 % of OCCCs, a KRAS mutation occurs in codon 2 exon 2. NRAS and BRAF mutations were not found. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source

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