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Hwang C.J.,Chungbuk National University | Choi D.-Y.,Yeungnam University | Jung Y.Y.,Chungbuk National University | Lee Y.-J.,Halla University | And 6 more authors.
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2016

Approximately, 7-10 million people in the world suffer from Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the protective effect of estrogens against nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage in PD. In this study, we investigated whether estrogen affects 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced behavioral impairment in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-deficient mice. MPTP (15 mg/kg, four times with 1.5-h interval)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration was evaluated in ERα wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments (Rotarod test, Pole test, and Gait test), activation of microglia and astrocytes, and neuroinflammation after MPTP injection were observed in ERα KO mice compared to those in WT mice. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) after MPTP injection showed fewer TH-positive neurons in ERα KO mice than WT mice. Levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, metabolite of dopamine) were also lowered in ERα KO mice after MPTP injection. Interestingly, a higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B was found in the substantia nigra and striatum of ERα KO mice after MPTP injection. We also found an increased activation of p38 kinase (which positively regulates MAO B expression) in ERα KO mice. In vitro estrogen treatment inhibited neuroinflammation in 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridium (MPP. +)-treated cultured astrocyte cells; however, these inhibitory effects were removed by p38 inhibitor. These results indicate that ERα might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival through inhibition of p38 pathway. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Jeong S.-H.,Chungnam National University | Kim J.-S.,Seoul National University | Shin J.W.,Chungnam National University | Kim S.,Chungnam National University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2013

Previous studies have demonstrated an association of osteopenia/ osteoporosis with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Since vitamin D takes part in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus found in the body and plays an important role in maintaining proper bone structure, decreased bone mineral density in patients with BPPV may be related to decreased serum vitamin D. We measured the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 100 patients (63 women and 37 men, mean age ± SD = 61.8 ± 11.6) with idiopathic BPPV and compared the data with those of 192 controls (101 women and 91 men, mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 11.3) who had lived in the same community without dizziness or imbalance during the preceding year. The selection of the controls and acquisition of clinical information were done using the data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower in the patients with BPPV than in the controls (mean ± SD = 14.4 ± 8.4 versus 19.1 ± 6.8 ng/ml, p = 0.001). Furthermore, patients with BPPV showed a higher prevalence of decreased serum vitamin D (<20 ng/ml, 80.0 vs. 60.1 %, p < 0.001) than the controls. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, proteinuria, regular exercise and the existence of decreased bone mineral density demonstrated that vitamin D insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) and deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were associated with BPPV with the odds ratios of 3.8 (95 % confidence interval = 1.51-9.38, p = 0.004) and 23.0 (95 % confidence interval = 6.88-77.05, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated an association between idiopathic BPPV and decreased serum vitamin D. Decreased serum vitamin D may be a risk factor of BPPV. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Cho S.H.,Chungbuk National University | Park M.H.,Chungbuk National University | Lee H.P.,Chungbuk National University | Back M.K.,Chungbuk National University | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Pharmacal Research | Year: 2014

Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth arising from the ovary and with poor prognosis that usually have resistant to all currently available treatments. Whether (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal (butenal) synthesized by Maillard reaction from fructose-tyrosine, has potential therapeutic activity against human ovarian cancer was investigated using two ovarian cancer cell lines (PA-1, SK-OV-3). We found that butenal could inhibit NF-κB/STAT3 activity, thereby inducing apoptotic cell death of ovarian cancer cells. We treated with several concentration of butenal each cell line differently (PA-1; 5, 10 and 15 μg/ml, SK-OV-3; 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml). First, ovarian cancer cell lines exhibited constitutively active NF-κB, and treatment with butenal abolished this activation as indicated by DNA binding activity. Second, butenal suppressed activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 as indicated by decreased phosphorylation and inhibition of Janus kinase-2 phosphorylation. Third, butenal induced expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as proteolytic cleavage of PARP, Bax and activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Lastly, combination of butenal and TRAIL causes enhanced induction of apoptosis. Overall, our results indicate that butenal mediates its anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects through activation of multiple cell signaling pathways and enhances the TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These data suggested that butenal may be a potential anti-cancer agent in ovarian cancer. © 2014 The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea.

Choi K.E.,Chungbuk National University | Jung Y.S.,Chungbuk National University | Kim D.H.,Chungbuk National University | Song J.K.,Chungbuk National University | And 8 more authors.
Archives of Pharmacal Research | Year: 2014

It has been known that myriocin inhibits melanoma growth. However, the effects and action mechanisms of myriocin on lung cancer cell growth have not been reported. In this study, we examined whether myriocin isolated from Mycelia sterilia inhibits cell growth of lung cancer cells (A549 and NCI-H460) as well as possible signaling pathways involved in cell growth inhibition. Different concentrations of myriocin inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells through the induction of apoptotic cell death. Consistent with cancer cell growth inhibition, myriocin induced the expression of death receptors (DRs) as well as p-JNK and p-p38 in both cell lines. Moreover, the combination of myriocin with DR4 ligand TRAIL, and other well known anti-tumor drugs (docetaxel and cisplatin) synergistically inhibited cancer cell growth, and induced DR4 expression. These results showed that myriocin inhibits lung cancer cells growth through apoptosis via the activation of DR4 pathways, and enhanced anti-cancer effects with well known drugs. Thus, our study indicates that myriocin could be effective for lung cancer cells as an anti-cancer drug and/or a conjunction agent with well known anti-cancers. © 2014 The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea.

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