Hyderabad, India
Hyderabad, India

The Osmania University ఉస్మానియా విశ్వవిద్యాలయము جامعہ عثمانیہ is a public state university located in Hyderabad, India, and founded in 1918 with the help of chief Architect of Mahbub Ali Khan - Nawab Sarwar Jung It was established and named after the last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan. It is the first Indian university to have Urdu as a medium of instruction.In 2012, the university was placed sixth among the Nation's Premier Universities in Humanities, science and Commerce stream, which bagged the 'University with Potential for Excellence' status. The Main Campus is ranked tenth among the State Universities, as published by India Today. As of 2012, the university hosts 3,700 international students from more than 80 nations.The OU is one of the largest university systems in the subcontinent with over 300,000 students on its campuses and affiliated colleges. It is particularly known for its faculty of Engineering and Technology, Law, Arts, science, Commerce and Management departments. Osmania Medical College was once a part of the university. However, it is now under the supervision of NTR University of Health science.The university is a chief intellectual centre in Hyderabad, and its alumni and faculty members include many distinguished individuals, including former Prime Minister of India P. V. Narasimha Rao.The state government has appointed Prof S Satyanarayana as vice chancellor of the University.The University is accredited by the NAAC with an 'A' Grade and conferred with the status of 'University with Potential for Excellence' by the UGC, New Delhi. Wikipedia.

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Ulaganathan K.,Osmania University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Lignocellulosic biomass, though available in massive volumes, is not used for production of bioethanol due to existence of several barriers which escalate the cost of production. Microorganisms possess different proteins associated with different stages of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Though a large number of such proteins have been identified, their specificities and expression levels are not suitable for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Additionally, the host organism used for bioethanol production may not be tolerant to temperature, pH and ethanol stresses. Hence, the host organisms and the proteins used for bioethanol production needs to be engineered to suit the conditions for ethanol production. Engineering the host strain and altering specificities of proteins employed for bioethanol production can be achieved by genetic engineering techniques, where the gene of interest is isolated first, manipulated in vitro and introduced back into the host organism. Recently, a number of precision genome engineering techniques have been developed which facilitate modification of genes / genomic regions directly in the organism of interest without the need for isolating the genes/genomic regions. These techniques include (a). The bacterial immunity based CRISPR/Cas system, (b). Xanthomonas transcription-activator-like effector nuclease based TALEN system, (c). Zinc finger domain based ZFN system, (d). Long region recognizing-nuclease based meganuclease system and (e). Oligonucleotide based YOGE system. Protein engineering studies and whole genome sequencing of bioethanol producing strains have shown that alteration of one or more nucleotides can bring out large changes that facilitate increased production of cellulosic bioethanol. These precision engineering techniques can supplement genetic engineering to bring out alteration in specificities of enzymes and change the host's tolerance to various stress levels by specific alteration of genomic regions. In this review, various methods of genome engineering available and their possible application for breaking barriers in lignocellulosic bioethanol production are discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Kavi Kishor P.B.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Kavi Kishor P.B.,Osmania University | Sreenivasulu N.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Sreenivasulu N.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Sreenivasulu N.,International Rice Research Institute
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

Proline has been recognized as a multi-functional molecule, accumulating in high concentrations in response to a variety of abiotic stresses. It is able to protect cells from damage by acting as both an osmotic agent and a radical scavenger. Proline accumulated during a stress episode is degraded to provide a supply of energy to drive growth once the stress is relieved. Proline homeostasis is important for actively dividing cells as it helps to maintain sustainable growth under long-term stress. It also underpins the importance of the expansion of the proline sink during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth and the initiation of seed development. Its role in the reproductive tissue is to stabilize seed set and productivity. Thus, to cope with abiotic stress, it is important to develop strategies to increase the proline sink in the reproductive tissue. We give a holistic account of proline homeostasis, taking into account the regulation of proline synthesis, its catabolism, and intra- and intercellular transport, all of which are vital components of growth and development in plants challenged by stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Kora A.J.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Sashidhar R.B.,Osmania University
Journal of Antibiotics | Year: 2015

Presently, silver nanoparticles produced by biological methods have received considerable significance owing to the natural abundance of renewable, cost-effective and biodegradable materials, thus implementing the green chemistry principles. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized using chemical methods, most biogenic silver nanoparticles are protein capped, which imparts stability and biocompatibility, and enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, we compared the antibacterial effect of two biogenic silver nanoparticles produced with natural plant gums: gum ghatti and gum olibanum against Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial interaction with nanoparticles was probed both in planktonic and biofilm modes of growth; employing solid agar and liquid broth assays for inhibition zone, antibiofilm activity, inhibition of growth kinetics, leakage of intracellular contents, membrane permeabilization and reactive oxygen species production. In addition, cytotoxicity of the biogenic nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells, a human carcinoma cell line. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti (Ag NP-GT) was greater than that produced with gum olibanum (Ag NP-OB). This could be attributed to the smaller size (5.7 nm), monodispersity and zeta potential of the Ag NP-GT. The study suggests that Ag NP-GT can be employed as a cytotoxic bactericidal agent, whereas Ag NP-OB (7.5 nm) as a biocompatible bactericidal agent. © 2015 Japan Antibiotics Research Association.

In this analysis, the boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable stretching sheet due to a nanofluid with the effects of magnetic field, slip boundary condition and thermal radiation have been investigated. The transport equations used in the analysis took into account the effect of Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. The solution for the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration depends on parameters viz. thermal radiation parameter R, Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion parameter Nb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Eckert number Ec, magnetic parameter M and slip parameters. Similarity transformation is used to convert the governing non-linear boundary-layer equations into coupled higher order non-linear ordinary differential equations. These equations are numerically solved using fourth order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. An analysis has been carried out to elucidate the effects of governing parameters corresponding to various physical conditions. Numerical results are obtained for distributions of velocity, temperature and concentration, as well as, for the skin friction, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number for several values of governing parameters. The results indicate that the local Nusselt number decreases with an increase in both Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt. However, the local Sherwood number increases with an increase in both thermophoresis parameter Nt and Lewis number Le, but it decreases as the values of Nb increase. Besides, it was found that the surface temperature of a sheet increases with an increase in the Eckert number Ec. A comparison with previous studies available in the literature has been done and we found an excellent agreement with it. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Veeraboina P.,MoS and T | Ratnam G.Y.,Osmania University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

A solar water heating system (SWHS) is a device that makes available the thermal energy of the incident solar radiation for use in various water heating applications. SWHS largely depends on the performance of the collector's efficiency at capturing the incident solar radiation and transferring it to the water. With today's SWHS, water can be heated up to temperatures of 60-80 °C. Heated water is collected in a tank insulated to prevent heat loss. Circulation of water from the tank through the collectors and back to the tank continues automatically due to the thermosiphon principle. The hot water generated finds many end-use applications in domestic, commercial, and industrial sectors. India has the highest energy intensities in Asia. Very little investment and priority are being given to increase of the efficiency. On the other hand, the India has a high potential for developing energy production from renewable energy sources (RES): solar, water, wind and biomass. However, these potentials are not studied and exploited enough and the present situation for their utilization is not so good. Although energy is a critical foundation for economic growth and social progress of any country, there are many constraints for RES development in all of them (political, technological, financial, legislative, educational, etc.). Obviously, defining development strategies and new support measures is necessary since renewable energy sources can make an important contribution to the regional energy supply and security. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the solar water heating system (opportunities) in India. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rao S.L.N.,Osmania University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

The low incidence of neurolathyrism, its absence in several communities traditionally consuming Lathyrus sativus and the likely benefits of its inclusion as part of a normal diet are reviewed. The metabolism/detoxification of ODAP which is unique to humans may be a crucial factor in this regard. The presence of homoarginine in the pulse which has received scant attention in the past could make this an invaluable pulse since it could contribute to a sustained generation of NO. NO is well recognized for its role in cardiovascular physiology and general well-being and thus a daily dietary intake of homoarginine through small quantities of L. sativus may be of advantage and deserves to be exploited. The detoxification of ODAP in humans could spotlight the pulse further for its non-neurotoxic attributes. Activation of PKC by ODAP adds a new dimension to explore its possible therapeutic potentials in areas such as Alzheimer's disease, hypoxia, and long term potentiation. These novel approaches to both ODAP and homoarginine might entirely change our perception of this poor man's pulse. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ganesh A.,Osmania University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

The review of the literature shows that the pyrazoline derivatives is quite stable and has inspired chemists, to utilize pyrazoline fragment in bioactive moieties, to synthesize new pyrazoline derivatives. The past studies of pyrazoline derivative revealed that they are useful in pharmaceutical and agrochemical research. Pyrazoline derivatives display various biological activities such as antitumor, antitubercular, antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant etc.

Narra M.R.,Osmania University
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate widely applied in agriculture and aquaculture, induces oxidative stress due to free-radical generation and changes in the antioxidant defense system. The present study investigated the short-term effect of CPF exposure on the oxidative and antioxidant systems and their recovery responses in metabolically active tissues (gills, hepatopancreas [HP], and leg muscle) of freshwater crab Barytelphusa guerini. Crabs were exposed to a sublethal concentration of CPF (0.07 mg L-1) for a total of 8 days (at intervals of 1, 2, 4, and 8 days) in clean water. The following oxidative stress markers were measured: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butylcholinesterase (BChE), and ATPase; antioxidants i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO), conjugating enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lipid content. CPF exposure led to a significant decrease in the activity of oxidative stress markers as follows: AChE (84%), BChE (46%), and gills Na+/K+ ATPase (62%). At the end of the recovery period, enzyme levels were recovered except in leg muscle. Total lipids and SOD decreased; CAT and LPO levels increased; and GPx, GR, and GST showed tissue-specific activities. Maximum recovery was observed in GPx followed by GR in HP tissue of crab. Nevertheless, these responses apparently grant successful adaptation for survival in a pesticide-extreme environment. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

Statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events by lowering the blood cholesterol. Many genes involved in the pharmacodynamic pathway of statins have been part of pharmacogenetic research in patients with hypercholesterolemia, with an emphasis on genes involved in the cholesterol pathway. The present study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the association between the genetic variants of lipoprotein lipase gene [HindIII (+/+)/HindIII (-/-)], multiple drug resistance gene (C3435T) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (4a/4b) with clinical outcome including an increased risk of recurrent stroke or death in ischemic stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy. 525 stroke patients and 500 healthy controls were involved in the study. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with patients post-event to determine stroke outcome. Blood samples were collected and genotypes determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction digestion technique. A significant association of MDR1 and LPL gene variants with bad outcome in stroke patients on atorvastatin therapy was found. However, there was no significant association of 27 bp VNTR polymorphism of eNOS gene with outcome. MDR analysis was carried out to analyze gene-gene interaction involving these gene variants contributing to clinical outcome of patients on stratin therapy but no significant interaction between these variants was observed. In conclusion the individuals with HindIII (-/-) genotype of LPL and CC genotype of MDR1 gene would benefit more from atorvastatin therapy. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Osmania University | Date: 2010-11-25

The present disclosure relates to identifying and characterizing polynucleotide sequences encoding proteins more particularly from Cajanus cajan, that are associated with abiotic stress responses in plants. In particular, the present disclosure provides a method for producing abiotic stress tolerant transgenic plant, more specifically salt, drought, heat and/or cold stress tolerant plant.

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