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Radic S.,University of Zagreb | Peharec Stefanic P.,University of Zagreb | Lepedus H.,Osijek Agricultural Institute | Roje V.,University of Zagreb | Pevalek-Kozlina B.,University of Zagreb
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

The present study investigated the effects of salinity on the perennial species Centaurea ragusina L. interesting as a potential cash crop plant. Plants grown in culture conditions were subjected to increasing salt (0-600. mM NaCl) or mannitol (300. mM) treatments for two weeks. Effects of isoosmotic concentrations of NaCl (150. mM) and mannitol were compared and discussed in order to discriminate possible differences in C. ragusina response to ionic (NaCl) and osmotic (mannitol) components of salinity. C. ragusina plants used Na and to a lesser extent Cl ions as a primary osmotica though with higher salinity, proline accumulation increased as well. Concurrently, with increasing salinity significant reductions in plant K, Mg and Ca concentrations occurred. In addition, lower salt concentrations induced leaf succulence and increased leaf relative water content (RWC). A threshold salinity above which C. ragusina L. showed signs of damage and growth inhibition was reached at 300. mM. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in salinized plants seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging processes. Regardless of the high induction of antioxidative system and massive proline accumulation, mannitol caused decrease of RWC and oxidative damage to proteins and lipids. Considering the abundance of some photosynthetic proteins (Rubisco, D1, LHCI, LHII and FNR) and PSII efficiency, it can be concluded that both salt and mannitol impaired photosynthesis in C. ragusina though salt to a much lesser extent. The results suggest that the major reason for the particular threshold of salinity tolerance in C. ragusina can be attributed to limited dilution capacity of succulent tissue. The tolerance strategies of C. ragusina to moderate salinity seem to include osmotic adjustment achieved through salt ions uptake as a dominant strategy but also highly inducible antioxidative defense. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hristov N.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Mladenov N.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Djuric V.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Kondic-Spika A.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine genotype × environment interactions (GEI) obtained in wheat production in southeast Europe for protein content, sedimentation value, and loaf volume. Twenty wheat genotypes divided in two groups with different combinations of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were analyzed in 15 environments (E). In a combined analysis of variance, effects of genotype, environment, and their interaction (GEI).were highly significant for almost all theanalyzed traits. All the three traits were influenced more by location than by year, with protein content and sedimentation value being more responsive to changes in environmental conditions than loaf volume.The genotypes with high protein content had the regression coefficient value (b) close to 1, The genotypes with high protein content had the regression coefficient value (b) close to 1,. There were no significant differences in average values for the analyzed traits and adaptability parameters between the two groups of genotypes. It means that, concerning wheat quality improvement, genotypes with different HMW-GSs on the Glu-1D locus could be recommended for growing in southeast Europe. It is necessary to take into account the differences in adaptability of protein content to either positive or negative environmental changes that were observed between the groups. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Simek R.,Osijek Agricultural Institute | Novoselovic D.,Osijek Agricultural Institute
Poljoprivreda | Year: 2012

Mutations are origin of novel variabilities. With developing new methods there are new possibilities for plant breeding for desirable characteristics. The aim of this paper is to introduce a method of reverse genetics, particularly TILLING method, and its potential for future scientific work and creating new improved cultivars for both, quantitative and qualitative characteristics. It can be used for plant breeding and getting new information on molecular level. Mutations in TILLING method are induced with chemical reagent ethyl methanesulfonate - EMS. The function of EMS is to cause mismatch in DNA heteroduplex. TILLING can be used in a numerous plant species. EcoTILLING is the method used for studying natural populations. Both of these methods have advantage for not being trans-genetic, but labour and cost effective. Source

Dugalic K.,Osijek Agricultural Institute | Mihaljevic I.,Osijek Agricultural Institute
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simple sugar addition including (glucose, G; fructose, F; sucrose, S; and trehalose, T) on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of apple purée processed by freezing and freeze-drying and stored for 6 months. The apple polyphenol profile was mostly preserved in the freeze-dried samples with sugar addition during 6 months of storage, whereas the polyphenol profile in frozen samples consists only of quercetin glycosides, of which rutin had the largest share. After 6 months, the highest level of polyphenols was detected in frozen 'Idared' and 'Fuji' apple purée with addition of T 5% (12.2 and 16.7 mg/100 g FW, respectively), whereas in freeze-dried apple purée the highest TPC was in 'Idared' and 'Fuji' with addition of T 1% (16.3 and 13.6 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Results indicate that sugar addition before processing could have potential for enhancing product quality. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Spanic V.,Osijek Agricultural Institute | Buerstmayr H.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Drezner G.,Osijek Agricultural Institute
Periodicum Biologorum | Year: 2012

Background and Purpose: Genetic diversity is the material basis for crop improvement. In this study, genetic diversity of 30wheat genotypeswas evaluated at theDNAlevel using 24 simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers. Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed according to the modified CTAB-method. Microsatellite analysis was performed using fluorescent fragment detection on a LI-COR 4200 DNA. Results and Discussion: The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 14 with an average number of 8.44 alleles per locus. The highest number of alleles per locus was detected in the genome A with 7.2, compared to 5.9 and 5.0 for genomes B and D, respectively. The highest number of alleles was recorded at chromosome 7 (9.5), while the lowest number of alleles was detected at chromosomes 3 and 4 (5.0 and 5.3). The smallest genetic distance characterized genotypes Super Zitarka and Zitarka, Tena and Osjecanka, Tena and Bezostaja, Lela and Toras, Janica and Alka, Felix and Seka.Genotypes Pipi and Courtot showed the least genetic similiarities with rest of the genotypes. Conclusions: The identification of genetic diversity should be a good tool of selecting genotypes in breeding programs. Source

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