Porto-Fett A.C.S.,Oser Technologies |
Campano S.G.,Hawkins Inc. |
Call J.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Shoyer B.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011
This study was conducted to investigate control of Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple during storage at 4°C. In phase I, scrapple was formulated, with or without citrate-diacetate (0.64%), by a commercial processor to contain various solutions or blends of the following antimicrobials: (i) lactate-diacetate (3.0 or 4.0%), (ii) lactate-diacetate-propionate (2.0 or 2.5%), and (iii) levulinate (2.0 or 2.5%). Regardless of whether citrate-diacetate was included in the formulation, without the subsequent addition of the targeted antimicrobials pathogen levels increased ca. 6.4 log CFU/g within the 50-day storage period. In the absence of citrate-diacetate but when the targeted antimicrobials were included in the formulation, pathogen numbers increased by ca. 1.3 to 5.2 log CFU/g, whereas when citrate-diacetate was included with these antimicrobials, pathogen numbers increased only by ca. 0.7 to 2.3 log CFU/g. In phase II, in the absence of citrate-diacetate, when the pH of the lactate-diacetate-propionate blend (2.5%) was adjusted to pH 5.0 or 5.5 pathogen numbers remained unchanged (≤0.5 log CFU/g increase) over 50 days, whereas when citrate-diacetate was included with the lactate-diacetate- propionate blend adjusted to pH 5.0 or 5.5, pathogen numbers decreased by 0.3 to 0.8 log CFU/g. In phase III, when lower concentrations of the lactate-diacetate-propionate blend (1.5 or 1.94%) were adjusted to pH 5.5, pathogen numbers increased by ca. 6.0 and 4.7 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas when the mixture was adjusted to pH 5.0, pathogen numbers increased by ≤0.62 log CFU/g. Thus, scrapple formulated with lactate-diacetatepropionate (1.5 and 1.94% at pH 5.0) is an unfavorable environment for outgrowth of L. monocytogenes.
Porto-Fett A.C.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Campano S.G.,Hawkins Inc. |
Smith J.L.,Oser Technologies |
Oser A.,Oser Technologies |
And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010
Viability of Listeria monocytogenes was monitored on frankfurters formulated with or without potassium lactate and sodium diacetate at a ratio of ca. 7:1 and treated with lauric arginate (LAE; 22 or 44 ppm) using the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC®) delivery method. Without antimicrobials, pathogen numbers remained relatively constant at ca. 3.3 log CFU/package for ca. 30 d, but then increased to ca. 8.4 log CFU/package over 120 d. Regardless of whether or not lactate and diacetate were included, when treated with LAE, pathogen numbers decreased from ca. 3.3 log CFU/package to ca. 1.5 log CFU/package within 2 h, but then increased to 7.3 and 6.7 log CFU/package, respectively, after 120 d. When frankfurters were formulated with lactate and diacetate and treated with LAE, pathogen numbers decreased by ca. 2.0 log CFU/package within 2 h and remained relatively unchanged over the 120 d. These data confirm that LAE provides an initial lethality towards L. monocytogenes and when used in combination with reduced levels/ratio of lactate and diacetate as an ingredient for frankfurters provides inhibition throughout shelf life.