Fujiidera, Japan
Fujiidera, Japan

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Ogawa M.,Osaka Prefecture University | Kariya Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Kitakaze T.,Osaka Prefecture University | Yamaji R.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Muscle atrophy increases the production of reactive oxygen species and the expression of atrophy-related genes, which are involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of β-carotene on oxidative stress (100 μm-H2O2)-induced muscle atrophy in murine C2C12 myotubes. β-Carotene (10 μm) restored the H2O2-induced decreased levels of myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin (P< 0·05, n 3) and decreased the H2O2-induced increased levels of ubiquitin conjugates. β-Carotene reduced the H2O2-induced increased expression levels of E3 ubiquitin ligases (Atrogin-1 and MuRF1) and deubiquitinating enzymes (USP14 and USP19) (P< 0·05, n 3) and attenuated the H2O2-induced nuclear localisation of FOXO3a. Furthermore, we determined the effects of β-carotene on denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Male ddY mice (8 weeks old, n 30) were divided into two groups and orally pre-administered micelle with or without β-carotene (0·5 mg once daily) for 2 weeks, followed by denervation in the right hindlimb. β-Carotene was further administered once daily until the end of the experiment. At day 3 after denervation, the ratio of soleus muscle mass in the denervated leg to that in the sham leg was significantly higher in β-carotene-administered mice than in control vehicle-administered ones (P< 0·05, n 5). In the denervated soleus muscle, β-carotene administration significantly decreased the expression levels of Atrogin-1, MuRF1, USP14 and USP19 (P< 0·05, n 5) and the levels of ubiquitin conjugates. These results indicate that β-carotene attenuates soleus muscle loss, perhaps by repressing the expressions of Atrogin-1, MuRF1, USP14 and USP19, at the early stage of soleus muscle atrophy. © 2012 The Authors.


Mitani T.,Osaka Prefecture University | Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Nakano Y.,Osaka Womens Junior College | Inui H.,Osaka Prefecture University | Yamaji R.,Osaka Prefecture University
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor and plays a critical role in the development and progression of androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Castration results in hypoxia in prostate cancer cells, and hypoxia enhances transcriptional activity of AR through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α at low serum androgen levels mimicking the castration-resistant stage. However, HIF-1α is necessary but not sufficient for hypoxia-activated AR transactivation, and the molecular mechanism that regulates AR function in castration-resistant prostate cancer remains unclear. Here, we report that β-catenin is required for HIF-1α- mediated AR transactivation in hypoxic LNCaP prostate cancer cells under low androgen conditions. HIF-1α and β-catenin coordinately enhanced AR N-terminal and C-terminal interaction. β-Catenin accumulated in the nucleus in the HIF-1α protein- positive cells of LNCaP xenografts in castrated mice. In LNCaP cells, when HIF-1α was knocked down or was exogenously expressed in the cytoplasm, hypoxia-induced nuclear localization of β-catenin was inhibited. β-Catenin formed a complex with HIF-1β both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. Hypoxia increased the amount of a complex composed of AR and β-catenin, and knockdown of HIF-1α attenuated the recruitment of AR and β-catenin to the androgen response elements (AREs) of androgen-responsive genes. Furthermore, together with β-catenin, HIF-1α bound to the AREs in the presence of androgen. These results demonstrate that (i) HIF-1α and β-catenin coordinately enhance AR transactivation by accelerating N-terminal and C-terminal interaction; (ii) HIF-1α promotes nuclear translocation of β-catenin in hypoxia; and (iii) AR, HIF-1α, and β-catenin form a ternary complex on AREs. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Horiuchi H.,Osaka Prefecture University | Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Adachi T.,Minatogawa College | Nakano Y.,Osaka Womens Junior College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2014

S-Equol is enantioselectively produced from the isoflavone daidzein by gut microflora and is absorbed by the body. An increase of pancreatic b-cell death is directly associated with defects in insulin secretion and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we demonstrate that only the S-enantiomer has suppressive effects against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. S-Equol reduced alloxan-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, whereas R-equol had no effects. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the enantiomers in estrogenic activity. The cytoprotective effects of S-equol were stronger than those of its precursor daidzein and were blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The cytoprotection was diminished when cells were incubated with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), but not an estrogen receptor inhibitor. S-Equol increased intracellular cAMP levels in an enantioselective manner. S-Equol, but not R-equol, induced phosphorylation of cAMPresponse element-binding protein at Ser 133, and induced cAMP-response element-mediated transcription, both of which were diminished in the presence of H89. Taken together, these results show that S-equol enantioselectively increases the survival of INS-1 cells presumably through activating PKA signaling. Thus, S-equol might have applications as an anti-type 2 diabetic agent. © 2014, Center for Academic Publications Japan. All rights reserved.


Mitani T.,Osaka Prefecture University | Yamaji R.,Osaka Prefecture University | Higashimura Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor controlling development or progression of prostate cancer. Androgen ablation by castration is an effective therapy for prostate cancer, whereas eventually most of the tumors convert from a hormone-sensitive to a hormone-refractory disease state and grow even in a low androgen environment (e.g., 0.1 nM 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) like the castration-resistant stage. Androgen ablation results in hypoxia, and solid tumors possess hypoxic environments. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, which is composed of HIF-1α and HIF-1β/ARNT subunits, functions as a master transcription factor for hypoxia-inducible genes. Here, we report that hypoxia enhances AR transactivation in the presence of 0.05 and 0.1 nM DHT in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF-1α inhibited hypoxia-enhanced AR transactivation. Its inhibition by HIF-1α siRNA was canceled by expression of a siRNA-resistant form of HIF-1α. HIF-1α siRNA repressed hypoxia-stimulated expression of the androgen-responsive NKX3.1 gene in the presence of 0.1 nM DHT, but not in the absence of DHT. In hypoxia, HIF-1α siRNA-repressed AR transactivation was restored in mutants in which HIF-1α lacked DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, a dominant negative form of HIF-1α canceled hypoxia-enhanced AR transactivation, and HIF-1β/ARNT siRNAs had no influence on hypoxia-enhanced AR transactivation. These results indicate that hypoxia leads to HIF-1α-mediated AR transactivation independent of HIF-1 activity and that HIF-1β/ARNT is not necessarily required for the transactivation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Atarashi K.,Osaka Prefecture University | Murata Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Yamaji R.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, inhibits AR function and reduces the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a notable target gene of AR. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which resveratrol inhibits AR function. Although the protein levels of AR were decreased by resveratrol treatment for 24 h, the decrease could not fully account for the suppression of AR function. The total and the nuclear AR levels were not affected after incubation with 10 μM resveratrol for 3 h, whereas resveratrol inhibited the binding of AR to the enhancer region of PSA and decreased the acetylation of AR even at this early phase. Inhibition of transcription by resveratrol was weaker in the AR acetylation site mutant than in the wild-type. In later phase (24 h) after incubation with resveratrol, the ligand-induced nuclear accumulation of AR was markedly decreased by resveratrol. These data show that resveratrol inhibits DNA binding of AR, presumably by decreasing its level of acetylation and suggest that acetylation of AR is involved in its accumulation in the nucleus. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Higashimura Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Nakajima Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Yamaji R.,Osaka Prefecture University | Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2011

Hypoxia up-regulates the expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in a cell type-specific manner. It is unknown whether this occurs in breast cancer. Here, we report that hypoxia up-regulates the GAPDH gene expression through breast cancer-specific molecular mechanisms in MCF-7 cells. Mutation analysis identified a novel hypoxia response element (HRE), in addition to the HRE found previously in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Knockdown and overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α indicated that HIF-1 contributed to the up-regulation of GAPDH gene expression by hypoxia. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and plasmid immunoprecipitation analyses revealed the presence of HIF-1α on the novel HRE in both hypoxic cell lines, a mutation in either the novel HRE or its 3′-flanking GC-box resulted in a reduction of hypoxia-increased GAPDH promoter activity only in MCF-7 cells. ChIP analysis showed that Sp1 bound to the GC-box in MCF-7 cells, but not in LNCaP cells, in normoxia and hypoxia. Knockdown of Sp1 reduced hypoxia-increased promoter activity and expression level of GAPDH in MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that in MCF-7 cells, the activation of HIF-1 on the novel HRE contributes to the breast cancer-specific hypoxic induction of GAPDH gene expression and absolutely depends on the presence of Sp1 on the GC-box. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Mitani T.,Osaka Prefecture University | Ito Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Nakano Y.,Osaka Womens Junior College | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2014

Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is known to enhance the cyto-toxicity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, breast cancer MCF-7 cells acquire resistance to doxorubicin under hypoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells. Resver-atrol and its derivative 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-trans-stilbene, but not 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxy-trans-stilbene, cancelled hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin at a concentration of 10 mm. Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) catalyzes the conversion of doxorubicin to its metabolite doxorubicinol, which is much less effective than doxorubicin. Hypoxia increased the expression of CBR1 at both mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of CBR1 inhibited hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a repressed the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1. Resveratrol repressed the expression of HIF-1a protein, but not HIF-1a mRNA, and decreased hypoxia-activated HIF-1 activity. Resveratrol repressed the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Likewise, 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-trans-stilbene decreased the hypoxia-induced expression of CBR1 protein, but not 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxy-trans-stilbene. Furthermore, resveratrol decreased the expression of HIF-1a protein even in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in hypoxia. Theses results indicate that in MCF-7 cells, HIF-1a-increased CBR1 expression plays an important role in hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin and that resveratrol and 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-trans-stilbene decrease CBR1 expression by decreasing HIF-1a protein expression, perhaps through a proteasome-independent pathway, and consequently repress hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin.


Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Takagi T.,Osaka Prefecture University | Nakano Y.,Osaka Womens Junior College | Yamaji R.,Osaka Prefecture University | Inui H.,Osaka Prefecture University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the master regulator of prostate cell growth. Here, to better understand AR signaling, we searched for AR-interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening and identified protein arginine methyltransferase 10 (PRMT10) as one of the interacting proteins. PRMT10 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, such as prostate. Immunostaining showed that PRMT10 was expressed in the nucleus of both epithelia and stroma of rat prostate. In human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, PRMT10 co-immunoprecipitated with AR in both the presence and absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Knockdown of PRMT10 by siRNA decreased DHT-dependent LNCaP cell growth and induction of prostate-specific antigen, an AR-target gene, without apparent loss of AR. DHT decreased PRMT10 at both the mRNA and protein levels. The decrease in PRMT10 was canceled by knockdown of AR or an AR antagonist. These results indicate that PRMT10 plays an important role in androgen-dependent proliferation of prostate cancer cells. © 2015 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.


Mitani T.,Osaka Prefecture University | Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tanimori S.,Osaka Prefecture University | Nakano Y.,Osaka Womens Junior College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2014

Androgen-dependent prostate cancer inevitably progresses to incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after androgen deprivation therapy. Because castration-induced hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a enhances the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR) at low androgen levels mimicking the castration-resistant stage, HIF-1α is expected to be a promising target for suppression of growth of CRPC. We investigated the effect of resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) on the growth of human prostate cancer LNCaP xenografts in castrated male BALB/cSlc-nu/nu mice (5 wk old). The mice were administered a control diet or a resveratrol diet (4 g/kg diet) for 40 d. The resveratrol diet significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to the control diet. In LNCaP xenografts, dietary resveratrol decreased the protein level of HIF-1α, but not the AR coactivator β-catenin, and reduced the mRNA levels of androgen-responsive genes. In the control group, β-catenin was predominantly localized in the nucleus with HIF-1α in LNCaP xenografts, whereas dietary resveratrol inhibited the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In hypoxic LNCaP cells at a low androgen level mimicking the castration-resistant stage, hypoxia-induced nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was inhibited by resveratrol. Furthermore, resveratrol repressed the expression level of HIF-1α even in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor and suppressed hypoxia-enhanced AR transactivation. These results indicate that dietary resveratrol represses nuclear localization of β-catenin by decreasing the HIF-1α expression, perhaps in a proteasome-independent manner, and inhibits β-catenin-mediated AR signaling; this contributes to suppression of tumor growth of CRPC. © 2014, Center for Academic Publications Japan. All rights reserved.


Harada N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Inoue K.,Osaka Prefecture University | Yamaji R.,Osaka Prefecture University | Nakano Y.,Osaka Womens Junior College | Inui H.,Osaka Prefecture University
Cancer Science | Year: 2012

The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, whereas mutant AR lacking the C-terminal ligand-binding domain functions in a ligand-independent manner. In the present study we report that the C-terminal truncated AR, which we named AR-NH1 (the N-terminal fragment of AR cleaved in the neighborhood of helix 1 of the ligand-binding domain), is produced in LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cells. The AR-NH1 of ~90 kDa was observed in an androgen-independent LNCaP subline and was further accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. MG132 treatment caused the accumulation of AR-NH1 even in parent LNCaP cells. AR-NH1 was produced in the absence of ligand or in the presence of the AR antagonist bicalutamide, whereas AR agonists suppressed its production. AR-NH1 was detected with different AR antibodies recognizing amino acid residues 1-20 and 300-316 and was also generated from exogenous AR. Both siRNA-mediated AR knockdown and treatment with a serine protease inhibitor (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride) reduced AR-NH1 levels. According to the predicted cleavage site (between amino acid residues 660-685) and its nuclear localization, it is assumed that AR-NH1 functions as a constitutively active transcription factor. These data suggest that AR-NH1 is produced under hormone therapy and contributes to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer due to its ligand-independent transcriptional activity. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

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