Watanabe M.,Osaka University of Economics |
Kawata Y.,Osaka University of Economics
B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy | Year: 2017
An individual perceived risk often differs from an objective risk based on the scientific evidence; risks about nuclear power generation and food technology including genetic modification and food irradiation are typical such cases. However, the extent to which welfare loss is caused by the disparity between perceived and scientific risks is unclear. Based on this gap in the literature, we conduct a discrete choice experiment to estimate the welfare loss. At the same time, we must tackle two issues arising in the estimation: endogeneity and ambiguity in the perceived risk. We construct an empirical model based on maxmin expected utility to consider ambiguity and apply a control function approach to alleviate endogeneity bias. The results show that 1) the disparity between perceived and scientific risks causes a significant welfare loss; 2) the ambiguity in the perceived risk exacerbates the welfare loss; and 3) endogeneity largely biases welfare measurement. © 2017 by De Gruyter 2017.
Lin M.H.,Osaka University of Economics |
Kawasaki A.,Kagoshima University
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2012
In a hub-spoke airline network, the spoke market is generally larger than the rim market. In the rim market, the potential scales of demand for the connecting and direct flights are different. Passengers differentiate among the flights of carriers. This study demonstrates that for new entrants, entering the rim market with direct flights could be preferable, if the degree of product differentiation is sufficiently small, or the scale of direct flights demand is large. This may explain the phenomenon that entrants usually enter the market with rim routes. Welfare analysis suggests the necessity for a transport policy to guide potential entrants to enter the socially preferable route. © 2011 the author(s). Papers in Regional Science © 2011 RSAI.
Hattori K.,Osaka University of Economics
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2013
This paper investigates firm incentives for developing environmentally clean technologies in a simple two-country model with international oligopoly and lack of regulatory commitment, and compares the incentives under price and quantity regulations with and without policy cooperation between governments. We examine whether policy coordination (choices of policy instruments or policy harmonization) encourages environmental innovation when firms have strategic innovation incentives that may influence future regulation. In a case where policies are non-cooperatively set by governments, quantity regulations yield a greater static benefit for countries; however, dynamically, price regulations encourage more innovation than quantity regulations when environmental damages are not so large. Under both price and quantity regulation regimes, cooperative policy harmonization necessarily enhances net benefits in each country, whereas it discourages firms' innovation incentives when environmental damages are not so small. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
Hattori K.,Osaka University of Economics
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2010
In this paper, we construct a political-economy model of strategic environmental policymaking with different degrees of product differentiation and different market structures, and examine how strategic voting decisions are affected by the choice of environmental policy instruments (tax or standard). We show that in a Cournot market structure, voters elect tax-setting policymakers who are more green than themselves when product differentiation and/or environmental externalities are more prominent. In a Bertrand market structure, they elect more green tax-setting policymakers than themselves. On the other hand, they elect standard-setting policymakers who are less green than themselves. The results confirm the advantage of the overall use of emission tax over that of emission standard regarding the welfare effect of strategic voting. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Kawamori T.,Osaka University of Economics |
Lin M.H.,Osaka University of Economics
Operations Research Letters | Year: 2012
This work investigates whether an airline should offer vertically differentiated services that are substitutes for its own services. Under a general setting, we show that offering only one type of service in any particular city-pair market is necessary for the airline's profit maximization. This result justifies a common assumption in the literature that an airline offers only one type of service in a particular market. Further, this result can explain the empirical finding that airlines that offer a one-stop service are less likely to provide a nonstop service in the same market than those that do not do so. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Takahara R.,Osaka University of Economics
Sangyō eiseigaku zasshi = Journal of occupational health | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the characteristics of the age-job satisfaction relationship for public school teachers. Past studies examining this relationship have found both linear and non-linear relationships. However, such studies have yet to examine these relationships by comparing job satisfaction of teachers with that of company employees in the same cultural context. In order to investigate the characteristics of Japanese teachers' working environment, we examined how different the age-job satisfaction relationships were between teachers and company employees.METHODS: We conducted hierarchical polynomial regression analyses with four job satisfaction variables to compare the age-job satisfaction relationships of Japanese public elementary, junior and high school teachers with Japanese professional and technical workers who belonged to their respective labor unions.RESULTS: 1) Among teachers, the effects of age on overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with pay were significantly negative, and the effects of age on satisfaction with human relationships and working hours were not significant. 2) Among company employees, these four kinds of satisfactions had U shaped relationships with age. 3) Compared to company employees, teachers showed higher intrinsic satisfaction and lower extrinsic satisfaction.CONCLUSIONS: The age-job satisfaction relationship for teachers decreases with age. This result may be explained by the excessive workload of Japanese teachers, a characteristic of their working environment. Elderly teachers' burnout may be related to this characteristic. It may be necessary for elderly teachers to be supported in order to enhance their job satisfaction, especially extrinsic satisfaction.
Brueckner J.K.,University of California at Irvine |
Lin M.H.,Osaka University of Economics
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2016
This paper provides the first analysis of the trade-off between convenient flight connections and airport congestion, a fundamental but untreated element in the economics of hub-and-spoke networks. A continuous spatial model illustrates this trade-off in a framework where a small gap between flight operating times raises congestion while also shortening a connecting passenger's layover time. When the passenger's cost per unit of layover time rises, the monopoly airline chooses to narrow the gap between its flights, yielding shorter layovers but more congestion. A discrete spatial model, where flights congest one another only if they operate in the same discrete period, makes this layover-cost effect discontinuous: the monopoly carrier concentrates (deconcentrates) its flights when this cost is high (low) relative to the costs of congestion. When fringe carriers are present, however, the hub carrier always concentrates its flights, either partially or fully. But the presence of a second hub carrier leads to an equilibrium mirroring the monopoly outcome: the carriers concentrate their flights in different periods when the layover cost is high and deconcentrate them otherwise. The paper also presents a welfare analysis, showing that movement from the equilibrium to the social optimum typically requires greater carrier separation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
ep Koubaa Eleuch A.,Osaka University of Economics
International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance | Year: 2011
Purpose: This study aims to assess Japanese patients' healthcare service quality perceptions and to shed light on the most meaningful service features. It follows-up a study published in IJHCQA Vol. 21 No. 7. Design/methodology/approach: Through a non-linear approach, the study relied on the scatter model to detect healthcare service features' importance in forming overall quality judgment. Findings: Japanese patients perceive healthcare services through a linear compensatory process. Features related to technical quality and staff behavior compensate for each other to decide service quality. Research limitations/implications: A limitation of the study is the limited sample size. Non-linear approaches could help researchers to better understand patients' healthcare service quality perceptions. The study highlights a need to adopt an evolution that enhances technical quality and medical practices in Japanese healthcare settings. Originality/value: The study relies on a non-linear approach to assess patient overall quality perceptions in order to enrich knowledge. Furthermore, the research is conducted in Japan where healthcare marketing studies are scarce owing to cultural and language barriers. Japanese culture and healthcare system characteristics are used to explain and interpret the results. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Sone H.,Osaka University of Economics
Proceedings - 7th International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, IMIS 2013 | Year: 2013
Abstract-This paper discusses tradition and innovation in Japanese long-established companies and aims to demonstrate the unique characteristics of such companies with a focus on e-business. While it is thought that long-established companies hold stubbornly to tradition and that their management practices are archaic, in actuality, they are flexible in their adaptation to change. Among those adaptations, it is necessary to examine their response to the rapid development of e-business in recent years.To begin, we will provide overview of several long-establish companies upon which our study is based, including Kongo Gumi, and Yasuda-Nenju and Chuuboku-Chaya. © 2013 IEEE.
Watanabe M.,Osaka University of Economics
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2010
This article develops a nonparametric method to consistently estimate mean willingness to pay (WTP) in various discrete response valuation methods. The advantage of this method is that it can consistently estimate unconditional mean WTP with astonishing ease under some assumptions of the bid distribution. In addition, we develop a method for estimating the best linear predictor for conditional mean WTP using a linear projection. This method is applicable to single-bounded and double-bounded contingent valuation, and some forms of choice experiment. © The Author (2010). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved.