Matsunaga Y.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Yamauchi N.,Osaka University |
Okuyama N.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Voluntas | Year: 2010
This article is an empirical examination of the government failure theory using a cross-country data set. The government failure theory is represented in the major existing literature as providing a sound explanatory basis for an interesting characteristic of the nonprofit sector, that is, there is a large variability in nonprofit sector size from one place to another. Salamon et al. (Social origins of civil society: An overview, Working Papers of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, 2000) examined this theory using the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (CNP) data set, and consequently rejected the government failure theory. However, by applying the panel analysis approach to the CNP data set, this article shows that the government failure theory should not have been so easily rejected. © 2010 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The John's Hopkins University.
Kuboyama N.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Shibuya K.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2015
The effect of fatiguing exercise on the ipsi- and contralateral frontal cortex has not been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) the frontal cortex oxygenation response to a prolonged fatiguing repetitive handgrip exercise performed at maximal voluntary contraction. It was found a significant oxyhemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) increase (p < 0.05), accompanied by a smaller and delayed deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) decrease (p < 0.05), in both hemispheres. Then, it was indicated higher delayed oxygenation in ipsilateral oxygenation compared to contralateral oxygenation. These results provide further evidence that the complemental interaction between the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex during the fatiguing maximal exercise. © 2015 Kuboyama and Shibuya.
Mizutani J.,Osaka University of Commerce
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2011
In 2003, Japan Airlines and Japan Air System merged to become an equal rival to All Nippon Airways, which had significant market power in the domestic air transportation market in Japan. This paper examines the merger effects on the competition structure of the air transportation market using conduct parameter and theoretical price approaches. We test to see if the merger changed the market structure because there had been a leader-follower relationship among three carriers before the merger, and we had an equal competitor relationship between two carriers after the merger. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Sugita H.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Irimajiri M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Anthrozoos | Year: 2016
This study investigated veterinarians’ attitudes toward euthanasia of companion animals in Japan. A nationwide survey was conducted with 932 veterinarians in small animal practices. It examined the number of times they administered euthanasia, their moral criteria for choosing euthanasia for animals, and their behavioral criteria for suggesting euthanasia to owners. According to the data analyses, on average the veterinarians administered euthanasia 2.48 times a year. For many veterinarians, two conditions were necessary to justify euthanasia for animals: “the animals are incurable and suffering” and “the owners request to euthanize the animals.” In the absence of either condition, the veterinarians were inclined to disapprove of choosing euthanasia. If the owners requested further treatment, 67% showed clear disapproval of choosing euthanasia for animals with serious medical conditions. Meanwhile, more than 76% showed clear disapproval of euthanizing healthy animals when the owners requested it. These results indicate that the owners’ request takes precedence over the animals’ condition for suffering animals, but not for healthy animals. For animals with serious medical conditions, 56% of the veterinarians answered that they would or might suggest euthanasia to the owners even though the owners requested further treatment. In this situation, for some veterinarians, the animals’ condition rather than the owners’ request might become a determinant in suggesting euthanasia to owners, even if their moral judgments were against choosing euthanasia for the animals. A decrease in the owners’ or the animals’ quality of life and the owners’ inability to pay were not primary factors in choosing or suggesting euthanasia. Having an experience of euthanizing their own animals was a key factor for the veterinarians which increased not only the number of times they administered euthanasia but also the degree of their moral approval of choosing euthanasia and their behavioral willingness to suggest it to owners. © 2016 ISAZ.
Osaka University of Commerce | Entity website
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