Yokomi M.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Wheat P.,University of Leeds |
Mizutani J.,Kobe University
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2017
The purpose of this study is to clarify the impact of low cost carriers (LCCs) on non-aeronautical revenues in 26 UK airports from 1999 to 2008. Increasingly non-aeronautical revenues have become an important source for airport revenue. Our literature review highlights that there is little consensus in empirical results concerning LCC impact on non-aeronautical revenues, some of these report positive impact while others show negative impact. We estimate a non-aeronautical revenue function which includes frequency share of LCC, Air Transport Movements (ATMs), number of passengers and population of hinterland of each observed airports as explanatory variables. In addition to this, we produce marginal revenue estimates for both the case of capacity constrained and capacity unconstrained circumstance in airports. As a result, in the case of a non-capacity constrained airport, on average, the marginal revenue of an additional LCC ATM is £147 while for non-LCC ATM it is £226. On the other hand, in the case of a capacity constrained airport, on average, substituting one non-LCC ATM with an LCC ATM reduces revenue by £79. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
Shibuya K.,Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science |
Kuboyama N.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Tanaka J.,Kurume University
Physiological Measurement | Year: 2014
It is possible to examine bilateral primary motor cortex (M1) activation during a sustained motor task using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in which it is assumed that increased oxygenation reflects cortical activation. The purpose of this study was to examine bilateral M1 activation in response to graded levels of force production during a unilateral finger task. Ten healthy right-handed male subjects participated in this study. NIRS probes were placed over the cortex to measure M1 activity while the subjects performed the finger task. The subjects performed a 10 s finger task at 20%, 40%, and 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Symmetrical activation was found over both M1 areas at all force levels investigated. In the contralateral M1, there were significant differences in oxygenation between 20% and 60% MVC, as well as between 40% and 60% MVC. In the ipsilateral M1, there were significant differences among all force levels. These results indicate the ipsilateral M1 takes part in muscle force control. © 2014 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.
PubMed | Osaka University of Commerce, Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science and Niigata University of Health and Welfare
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of applied physiology | Year: 2016
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to examine bilateral motor cortex activation during a sustained motor task in brain areas where increased oxygenation reflects cortical activation. This study examines the time course of activation of the bilateral motor cortex during a moderate-intensity handgrip task.Ten healthy right-handed male subjects participated in this study. Functional NIRS probes were placed over the cortex to measure motor cortical activations while the subjects performed a 180-s handgrip task incrementally [30-60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at 0.17% increase/s]Contralateral primary motor cortex (ContraM1) oxygenation values significantly increased from baseline between 40 and 120 s after the start of the motor task (p < 0.05). Moreover, the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (IpsiM1) oxygenation values significantly increased from baseline between 140 and 180 s after the start of the motor task (p < 0.05). IpsiM1 oxygenation gradually increased from 140 to 180 s, whereas ContraM1 oxygenation gradually decreased from 120 to 180 s after the start of the motor task.These results suggest that the complementary functions of IpsiM1 become activated in response to the working of the ContraM1 during a continuous handgrip task.
Matsunaga Y.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Yamauchi N.,Osaka University |
Okuyama N.,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Voluntas | Year: 2010
This article is an empirical examination of the government failure theory using a cross-country data set. The government failure theory is represented in the major existing literature as providing a sound explanatory basis for an interesting characteristic of the nonprofit sector, that is, there is a large variability in nonprofit sector size from one place to another. Salamon et al. (Social origins of civil society: An overview, Working Papers of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, 2000) examined this theory using the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (CNP) data set, and consequently rejected the government failure theory. However, by applying the panel analysis approach to the CNP data set, this article shows that the government failure theory should not have been so easily rejected. © 2010 International Society for Third-Sector Research and The John's Hopkins University.
Kuboyama N.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Shibuya K.,Niigata University of Health and Welfare
Journal of Physiological Anthropology | Year: 2015
The effect of fatiguing exercise on the ipsi- and contralateral frontal cortex has not been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) the frontal cortex oxygenation response to a prolonged fatiguing repetitive handgrip exercise performed at maximal voluntary contraction. It was found a significant oxyhemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) increase (p < 0.05), accompanied by a smaller and delayed deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) decrease (p < 0.05), in both hemispheres. Then, it was indicated higher delayed oxygenation in ipsilateral oxygenation compared to contralateral oxygenation. These results provide further evidence that the complemental interaction between the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex during the fatiguing maximal exercise. © 2015 Kuboyama and Shibuya.
Matsushima M.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Matsunaga Y.,Osaka University of Commerce
Voluntas | Year: 2015
This paper empirically examines how and what facets of social capital relate to one’s subjective well-being in Japan by using data from the Japan General Survey 2010. It further scrutinises whether the relationship between well-being and volunteering changes throughout one’s life course. The result reveals that social capital overall positively correlates with subjective well-being. It further suggests that trust and volunteering have a positive relation to one’s subjective well-being, whereas membership did not. It also became apparent that volunteering is associated with one’s subjective well-being differently depending on one’s life stage measured by age category such that volunteers in their 1950s are less happy than volunteers in their 1960s. The results of analysis therefore suggest that the relationship between volunteering and well-being is not straightforward, and that this issue requires even further investigation. © 2015, International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.
Mizutani J.,Osaka University of Commerce
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2011
In 2003, Japan Airlines and Japan Air System merged to become an equal rival to All Nippon Airways, which had significant market power in the domestic air transportation market in Japan. This paper examines the merger effects on the competition structure of the air transportation market using conduct parameter and theoretical price approaches. We test to see if the merger changed the market structure because there had been a leader-follower relationship among three carriers before the merger, and we had an equal competitor relationship between two carriers after the merger. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Sugita H.,Osaka University of Commerce |
Irimajiri M.,Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University
Anthrozoos | Year: 2016
This study investigated veterinarians’ attitudes toward euthanasia of companion animals in Japan. A nationwide survey was conducted with 932 veterinarians in small animal practices. It examined the number of times they administered euthanasia, their moral criteria for choosing euthanasia for animals, and their behavioral criteria for suggesting euthanasia to owners. According to the data analyses, on average the veterinarians administered euthanasia 2.48 times a year. For many veterinarians, two conditions were necessary to justify euthanasia for animals: “the animals are incurable and suffering” and “the owners request to euthanize the animals.” In the absence of either condition, the veterinarians were inclined to disapprove of choosing euthanasia. If the owners requested further treatment, 67% showed clear disapproval of choosing euthanasia for animals with serious medical conditions. Meanwhile, more than 76% showed clear disapproval of euthanizing healthy animals when the owners requested it. These results indicate that the owners’ request takes precedence over the animals’ condition for suffering animals, but not for healthy animals. For animals with serious medical conditions, 56% of the veterinarians answered that they would or might suggest euthanasia to the owners even though the owners requested further treatment. In this situation, for some veterinarians, the animals’ condition rather than the owners’ request might become a determinant in suggesting euthanasia to owners, even if their moral judgments were against choosing euthanasia for the animals. A decrease in the owners’ or the animals’ quality of life and the owners’ inability to pay were not primary factors in choosing or suggesting euthanasia. Having an experience of euthanizing their own animals was a key factor for the veterinarians which increased not only the number of times they administered euthanasia but also the degree of their moral approval of choosing euthanasia and their behavioral willingness to suggest it to owners. © 2016 ISAZ.
PubMed | Osaka University of Commerce and Niigata University of Health and Welfare
Type: | Journal: Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2015
The effect of fatiguing exercise on the ipsi- and contralateral frontal cortex has not been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) the frontal cortex oxygenation response to a prolonged fatiguing repetitive handgrip exercise performed at maximal voluntary contraction. It was found a significant oxyhemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) increase (p < 0.05), accompanied by a smaller and delayed deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) decrease (p < 0.05), in both hemispheres. Then, it was indicated higher delayed oxygenation in ipsilateral oxygenation compared to contralateral oxygenation. These results provide further evidence that the complemental interaction between the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex during the fatiguing maximal exercise.
Osaka University of Commerce | Entity website
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