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Osaka, Japan

Osaka University , or Handai , is a national university located in Osaka, Japan. It is the sixth oldest university in Japan as the Osaka Prefectural Medical College, and one of Japan's National Seven Universities. Numerous prominent scientists have worked at Osaka University such as the Nobel Laureate in Physics Hideki Yukawa. Wikipedia.

Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance by producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are genomic DNA-based net-like structures that capture bacteria and fungi. Although NETs also express antiviral factors, such as myeloperoxidase and α-defensin, the involvement of NETs in antiviral responses remains unclear. We show that NETs capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and promote HIV-1 elimination through myeloperoxidase and α-defensin. Neutrophils detect HIV-1 by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR7 and TLR8, which recognize viral nucleic acids. Engagement of TLR7 and TLR8 induces the generation of reactive oxygen species that trigger NET formation, leading to NET-dependent HIV-1 elimination. However, HIV-1 counteracts this response by inducing C-type lectin CD209-dependent production of interleukin (IL)-10 by dendritic cells to inhibit NET formation. IL-10 suppresses the reactive oxygen species-dependent generation of NETs induced upon TLR7 and TLR8 engagement, resulting in disrupted NET-dependent HIV-1 elimination. Therefore, NET formation is an antiviral response that is counteracted by HIV-1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kimura T.,Osaka University
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Magnetoelectric (ME) multiferroics are materials that combine coupled electric and magnetic dipoles. Studies of ME multiferroics are a time-honored research subject because of their potential for future electronic devices. Recent discoveries have revealed that ferroelectricity can be induced by complex internal arrangements of magnetic moments. This new family of multiferroics is called magnetically induced ferroelectrics. Magnetically induced ferroelectrics are known to show giant ME effects, i.e., changes in ferroelectric polarization upon application of an external magnetic field. However, their ME effects usually occur at temperatures that are too low and at applied external fields (> ∼0.1 T) that are too high to be of practical use. Thus, the quest for a robust room-temperature ME effect is a major challenge in ME research. Lately, some ferrites with hexagonal crystal structures, termed hexaferrites, have been found to show ME effects at room temperature and low magnetic fields (∼0.01 T). The results represented an important step toward practical applications using the ME effect in magnetically induced ferroelectrics. This review introduces structure, magnetism, and resulting magnetoelectricity of hexaferrite systems, which are promising candidate materials for ME devices. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Suzuki T.,Osaka University
Chemical Reviews

The progress made in the area of iridium-catalyzed oxidation is discussed. Gelman reported the oxidation of secondary alcohols using an air-stable Ir pincer complex and Jensen developed a dihydride iridium PCP pincer complex and applied it to the oxidation of phenylethanol in the presence of tert-butylethylene as an oxidant. Lin reported the oxidative lactonization of 1,4- and 1,5-diols using IrH5(P-iPr3)2 with acetone as the oxidant. Suzuki reported a mild Tishchenko-type reaction using an iridium aminoalkoxide catalyst and Williams reported the one-pot synthesis of amides from alcohols. Williams reported that N-alkylation of phenylethylamine and tryptamine with alcohols proceeds with the [Ir(cod)Cl]2-dppf catalyst system. Ishii reported the synthesis of quinolines and pyroles from aminoalcohols and ketones in the presence of several iridium catalyst systems and KOH without any solvent. Source

Fujifilm Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-05-26

An insufflation system configured to supply a predetermined gas into a body cavity of a subject includes: an automatic air supply conduit line configured to automatically supply a gas into the body cavity to maintain a predetermined pressure in the body cavity; a manual air supply conduit line configured to supply a gas into the body cavity by a manual operation; a function selection button provided in an endoscope; and a control unit configured to cause, in accordance with an operation of the function selection button, an air supply conduit line selected by an operation of the function selection button to be in a communication state, and cause a non-selected air supply conduit line to be in a disconnection state.

SCREEN Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-03-24

An inspection apparatus according to an aspect of the present invention inspects a solar cell that is of a photo device. The inspection apparatus includes: an irradiation part that irradiates the solar cell with pulse light emitted from a femtosecond laser that is of a light source; an electromagnetic wave detection part that detects an electromagnetic wave pulse emitted from the solar cell in response to the irradiation of the solar cell with the pulse light; and a PL light detection part that detects photoluminescence light generated in the solar cell in response to the irradiation of the solar cell with the pulse light.

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