Osaka, Japan
Osaka, Japan

Osaka University , or Handai , is a national university located in Osaka, Japan. It is the sixth oldest university in Japan as the Osaka Prefectural Medical College, and one of Japan's National Seven Universities. Numerous prominent scientists have worked at Osaka University such as the Nobel Laureate in Physics Hideki Yukawa. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Osaka University and Hoya Corporation | Date: 2015-02-26

A therapeutic instrument (20), includes: a support member (25) having a tongue-shaped supporting portion (50) for supporting a sheet-like therapeutic agent; a nozzle member (23) having a cylindrical portion (30) in which the supporting portion (50) supporting the therapeutic agent can be housed, and having an opening (34) through which the supporting portion (50) can be loaded and unloaded in/from a tip of the cylindrical portion (30); a syringe unit (22) that acts a positive pressure in the cylindrical portion (30) for pushing-out the therapeutic agent housed in the cylindrical portion (30) together with the supporting portion (50) to outside the cylindrical portion (30) through the opening (34); and a water flow forming part including a plurality of protrusions (53) formed on a surface of the supporting portion (50) so as to form a water flow at a place where the supporting portion (50) and the therapeutic agent are faced each other, when a medical water is fed into the cylindrical portion (30) in a state in which the therapeutic agent is housed in the cylindrical portion together with the supporting portion (50).


An intracerebral current simulation method including a first step of providing head image data; a second step of forming a three-dimensional brain model including micro-polyhedron units; a third step of providing first information which includes conditions under which a coil is placed on a patients head, an electric current is applied to the coil, and the patients reaction to the magnetic stimulation is observed, the conditions including a position and orientation of the coil, an electric current applied to the coil, and a structure relating to a generated magnetic field of the coil; and a fourth step of calculating an eddy current or electric field induced inside each of the micro-polyhedron units on the basis of the first information provided in the third step and second information which includes conductivity assigned to each micro-polyhedron unit. Also disclosed is a transcranial magnetic stimulation device and system.


To allow an implantable device including an electronic circuit to be implanted in the head in a more preferable manner in terms of appearance and safely. This implantable device is used for a brain-machine interface or the like. A casing of an implantable device configured to be implanted in a human head has an outer convexity surface matching an external shape of a resected skull related to at least a craniotomy site of the artificial bone designed in accordance with a skull shape of each person in order to fill the craniotomy site. That is, the outer convexity surface of the artificial bone is provided with two functions: the original function of filling the craniotomy site as the artificial bone and a function of serving as the casing of the implantable device.


Patent
Osaka University, Daiei Co. and Tokusen Kogyo Co. | Date: 2016-09-16

There is provided an open back type sterilized gown including a main panel including: a front panel; and a left-side back panel and a right-side back panel linked with the front panel, wherein an elastic body having an ended annular shape is provided at a neckline part formed at the main panel, and the elastic body can maintain the neckline part of the sterilized gown in an annular shape surrounding a neck part of a wearer in a non-deformed state, and opens on a back side so as to allow a neck part of the wearer to pass through a back side of the neckline part in a deformed state.


Patent
CellSeed and Osaka University | Date: 2016-10-12

The present invention aims to provide an artificial tissue that can efficiently reproduce myocardial tissue function and that can be used in an actual implantation and produced by culturing. The present invention relates to a graft material for treating myocardial disease, the graft material including a cell sheet containing adipocytes.


Patent
Osaka University | Date: 2015-02-17

Disclosed are bridged nucleosides and nucleotides. The nucleosides of the present invention have a 2,4-bridged structure and are represented by formula I below: An oligonucleotide containing a 2,4-bridged artificial nucleotide of the present invention has a binding affinity for single-stranded RNA comparable to that of known 2,4-BNA/LNA and higher nuclease resistance than LNA. In particular, since the oligonucleotide has a much higher binding affinity for single-stranded RNA than S-oligo, it is expected that the oligonucleotide is applicable to nucleic acid drugs.


Patent
Osaka University | Date: 2016-08-12

By analyzing a Jatropha genome, NF-YB-encoding genes of SEQ ID NOs: 1 to 11, fragments of NF-YB-encoding genes of SEQ ID NOs: 12 and 13, and genes relating thereto were found. By transforming Jatropha with these NF-YB-encoding genes and the like, it is possible to overexpress a NF-YB polypeptide and so on, and to significantly improve the productivity of protein synthesis involved by the NF-YB polypeptide, and to significantly improve the dry stress resistance, for example. As a result, it is possible to create dry stress resistant Jatropha capable of ensuring high growth even under water deficient conditions.


Patent
Osaka University | Date: 2014-10-08

Provided is a polypeptide comprising an R domain of CRM197 and comprising one or more amino acid substitutions or deletions at positions selected from the group consisting of 391, 460, 466, 467, 468, 472, 507, and 520 of the R domain.


Patent
Osaka University | Date: 2015-06-02

A rotary electric machine includes a rotor that rotates around a rotation axis serving as a center and has a plurality of salient poles protruding in directions perpendicular to the rotation axis, and a stator that includes an annular structural body disposed radially outside the rotor and surrounding the rotor, and 6n windings provided along a circumferential direction of the structural body, a field signal for generating field magnetic flux and a drive signal for driving the rotor as a three-phase rotary electric machine being superimposed on each other to be input to each of the windings. n is a natural number equal to or larger than one.


Patent
Osaka University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2016-08-19

A resist-pattern-forming method comprises: patternwise exposing a predetermined region of a resist material film to a first radioactive ray that is ionizing radiation or nonionizing radiation; floodwise exposing the resist material film to a second radioactive ray that is nonionizing radiation; baking the resist material film; and developing the resist material film to form a resist pattern. The resist material film is made from a photosensitive resin composition comprising a chemically amplified resist material. The chemically amplified resist material comprises a base component that is capable of being made soluble or insoluble in a developer solution by an action of an acid and a generative component that is capable of generating a radiation-sensitive sensitizer and an acid upon an exposure. A van der Waals volume of the acid generated from the generative component is no less than 3.010^(28 )m^(3).


A pattern-forming method comprises patternwise exposing a predetermined region of a resist material film made from a photosensitive resin composition comprising a chemically amplified resist material to a first radioactive ray that is ionizing radiation or nonionizing radiation having a wavelength of no greater than 400 nm. The resist material film patternwise exposed is floodwise exposed to a second radioactive ray that is nonionizing radiation having a wavelength greater than the wavelength of the nonionizing radiation for the patternwise exposing and greater than 200 nm. The chemically amplified resist material comprises a base component, and a generative component that is capable of generating a radiation-sensitive sensitizer and an acid upon an exposure. The generative component comprises a radiation-sensitive sensitizer generating agent. The radiation-sensitive sensitizer generating agent comprises a compound represented by formula (A).


Patent
Osaka University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2016-08-19

A pattern-forming method comprises applying a chemically amplified resist material on an antireflective film formed on a substrate to form a resist material film. The resist material film is patternwise exposed to ionizing radiation or nonionizing radiation having a wavelength of no greater than 400 nm. The resist material film patternwise exposed is floodwise exposed to nonionizing radiation having a wavelength greater than the nonionizing radiation for the patternwise exposing and greater than 200 nm. The resist material film floodwise exposed is baked. The resist material film baked is developed with a developer solution. An extinction coefficient of the antireflective film for the nonionizing radiation employed for the floodwise exposing is no less than 0.1. The chemically amplified resist material comprises a base component and a generative component that is capable of generating a radiation-sensitive sensitizer and an acid upon an exposure.


A large Group III nitride crystal of high quality with few defects such as a distortion, a dislocation, and warping is produced by vapor phase epitaxy. A method for producing a Group III nitride crystal includes: a first Group III nitride crystal production process of producing a first Group III nitride crystal 1003 by liquid phase epitaxy; and a second Group III nitride crystal production process of producing a second Group III nitride crystal 1004 on the first crystal 1003 by vapor phase epitaxy. In the first Group III nitride crystal production process, the surfaces of seed crystals 1003a (preliminarily provided Group III nitride) are brought into contact with an alkali metal melt, a Group III element and nitrogen are cause to react with each other in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere in the alkali metal melt, and the Group III nitride crystals are bound together by growth of the Group III nitride crystals grown from the seed crystals 1003a to produce a first crystal 1003.


Patent
Osaka University, Itochu Plastics Inc. and Panasonic | Date: 2015-03-03

A large Group III nitride crystal of high quality with few defects such as a distortion, a dislocation, and warping is produced by vapor phase epitaxy. A method for producing a Group III nitride crystal includes: a first Group III nitride crystal production process of producing a first Group III nitride crystal 1003 by liquid phase epitaxy; and a second Group III nitride crystal production process of producing a second Group III nitride crystal 1004 on the first crystal 1003 by vapor phase epitaxy by causing a Group III element metal to react with an oxidizing agent and nitrogen-containing gas. In the first Group III nitride crystal production process, the surfaces of seed crystals 1003a (preliminarily provided Group III nitride) are brought into contact with an alkali metal melt, a Group III element and nitrogen are cause to react with each other in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere in the alkali metal melt, and the Group III nitride crystals are bound together by growth of the Group III nitride crystals grown from the seed crystals 1003a to produce a first crystal 1003.


Patent
Osaka University and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. | Date: 2016-12-02

An object of the present invention is to provide a biomarker that can be used as a precise diagnostic marker for MetS or arteriosclerosis risk. The present invention provides a C1q-adiponectin complex comprising naturally occurring adiponectin and C1q.


Patent
Osaka University, Jmc Corporation and Fuyo Corporation | Date: 2016-04-08

A pulsatile flow generating pump for a catheter simulator, which makes it possible to conveniently perform catheter operation training is provided. The pump (10) includes a cylinder (13) provided inside with a piston performing a reciprocating motion; a driving motor (15) causing the piston to perform a reciprocating motion; a link mechanism (19) converting the rotational motion of the driving motor (15) to the reciprocating motion of the piston; an extrusion port (86b), through which a liquid inside the cylinder is extruded to the outside by the piston; a suction port (86a), through which a liquid from the outside is sucked into the cylinder; and a control unit 70 for controlling the rotation of the driving motor 15. The control unit 70 controls the driving motor 15 so as to output pulsatile flows at a rate of 20 times to 200 times per minute.


Patent
Tokyo Electron and Osaka University | Date: 2014-12-15

A substrate treatment system for treating a substrate, includes: a treatment station in which a plurality of treatment apparatuses which treat the substrate are provided; an interface station which directly or indirectly delivers the substrate between an exposure apparatus which is provided outside the substrate treatment system and performs exposure of patterns on a resist film on the substrate, and the substrate treatment system; a light irradiation apparatus which performs post-exposure using UV light on the resist film on the substrate after the exposure of patterns is performed; and a post-exposure station which houses the light irradiation apparatus and is adjustable to a reduced pressure or inert gas atmosphere, wherein the post-exposure station is connected to the exposure apparatus directly or indirectly via a space which is adjustable to a reduced pressure or inert gas atmosphere.


A method for manufacturing a semiconductor device includes: thermally-oxidizing a surface of a to-be-processed base made by SiC as body material to form a silicon dioxide film, by supplying gas containing oxidation agent to the surface of the to-be-processed base; exchanging ambient gas containing the oxidation agent after forming the silicon dioxide film, by decreasing a partial pressure of the oxidation agent in the ambient gas to 10 Pa or less; and after exchanging the ambient gas, lowering a temperature of the to-be-processed base.


Patent
Osaka University and TOHO Engineering Co. | Date: 2015-03-11

There are provided a processing method for a wide-bandgap semiconductor substrate and an apparatus therefor that use no abrasives or no abrasive grains, or no solution having a large environmental burden at all, can process a single crystal, which is SiC, GaN, AlGaN, or AlN, at a variety of processing speed, can obtain a surface of higher quality than the quality of a surface finished by CMP, and also have an excellent compatibility with a clean room. A catalytic substance having a function of promoting the direct hydrolysis of a work piece (5) or promoting the hydrolysis of an oxide film on the surface of the work piece is used as a processing reference plane (3). In the presence of water (1), the work piece is brought into contact with or extremely close to the processing reference plane at a predetermined pressure.


A method includes: generating a peroxide radical on a dielectric substrate surface by treating the dielectric substrate surface with atmospheric pressure plasma using a rare gas; fixing a functional group forming a coordinate bond with a silver ion, by reacting a grafting agent; and applying a silver-containing composition to the substrate surface, followed by heating and curing the silver-containing composition, to thereby form a silver thin film layer, the silver-containing composition containing a silver compound (A) represented by Formula (1) and an amine compound (B) represented by Formula (2), the silver compound (A) being contained in an amount of 10 to 50% by mass, the amine compound (B) being contained in an amount of 50 to 90% by mass, relative to a total amount of 100% by mass of the silver compound (A) and the amine compound (B). The method enables to form a metal film having high adhesiveness even on the surface of a fluorine resin, which is suitable as a dielectric substrate due to its property of avoidance of delay in signal transmission speed or increase in power consumption, but has extremely low adhesiveness. [C. 1]^(1): a hydrogen atom, -(CY_(2))a-CH_(a), or -((CH_(2))b-O-CHZ)c-CH_(3); R^(2): -(CY_(2))d-CH_(3) or -((CH_(2))e-O-CHZ)f-CH_(3); Y: a hydrogen atom or -(CH_(2))g-CH_(3); Z: a hydrogen atom or -(CH_(2))h-CH_(3); a: an integer of 0 to 8; b: an integer of 1 to 4; c: an integer of 1 to 3; d: an integer of 1 to 8; e: an integer of 1 to 4; f: an integer of 1 to 3; g: an integer of 1 to 3; h: an integer of 1 or 2)


Provided is a mutant protein obtained by mutating a specific amino acid residue of HMGR, a rate-limiting enzyme of isoprene monomer biosynthesis in the polyisoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. The present invention relates to a mutant protein, wherein at least one amino acid residue selected from the group consisting of amino acid residues at positions 91, 225, 257, 287, 339, 411, 470, 509 and 574 of the Arabidopsis thaliana 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase shown by SEQ ID NO:1 and amino acid residues at positions corresponding to the foregoing in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is deleted or replaced with another amino acid residue.


Patent
Japan Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International and Osaka University | Date: 2017-04-05

[Object] To provide a compact, high-output actuator device allowing force control. [Solution] An actuator device 1000 includes an electromagnetic coil member 110 provided over a prescribed width on an outer circumference of a cylinder 100, and a movable element 200 slidable as a piston in the cylinder 100. The movable element 200 has a magnetic member 202, and is moved relatively by excitation of the electromagnetic coil member 110. Fluid is supplied to first and second chambers 106a and 106b such that when the movable element 200 is to be moved relatively, the movable element 200 is driven in the same direction.


Patent
IHI Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2017-03-29

Provided is a magnetic wave gear device (1A) in which: a low-speed rotor (10) is disposed between a stator (30) and a high-speed rotor (20) and has first magnetic bodies (11) and first permanent magnets (12), magnetic poles of which face the same direction, alternately in a circumferential direction; the high-speed rotor has second magnetic bodies (21) and second permanent magnets (22), magnetic poles of which face the same direction as the first permanent magnets, alternately in the circumferential direction; the stator has third magnetic bodies (31) provided with slots (34) in which coils (33) can be wound, and third permanent magnets (32), magnetic poles of which face the same direction as the first permanent magnets, alternately in the circumferential direction; and a relationship of Ns=NlNh is satisfied when Nl is the number of magnetic poles of the low-speed rotor, Nh is the number of pole pairs of the high-speed rotor, and Ns is the number of slots of the stator.


Patent
Osaka University | Date: 2017-03-15

A thermal convection generating chip (1) includes a rotatory body (2), a thermal convection pathway (11) provided in the rotatory body (2), and a supply path (12A to 12C) that supplies a liquid to the thermal convection pathway (11). The supply path (12A to 12C) includes a liquid receiving section (121) that receives the liquid and a suction passage (122) that provides communication between the liquid receiving section (121) and the thermal convection pathway (11), and sucks the liquid in the liquid receiving section (121) by capillary action. The suction passage (122) has a first region (122a) extending between a midsection of the suction passage (122) and the thermal convection pathway (11), and a second region (122b) extending between the midsection of the suction passage (122) and the liquid receiving section (121). The liquid in the first region (122a) is separated from the liquid in the second region (122b) through rotation of the rotatory body (2) to be supplied to the thermal convection pathway (11).


The present invention provides a drug delivery enhancer comprising, as an active ingredient, a substance that activates a lysophospholipid receptor, the enhancer being intended to be used for enhancing the delivery of a therapeutic drug for a disease involving abnormal blood vessel formation to an affected area; a pharmaceutical composition for treating a disease involving abnormal blood vessel formation, the composition comprising, as an active ingredient, a substance that activates a lysophospholipid receptor; and a method for screening for a therapeutic drug for a disease involving abnormal blood vessel formation, the method comprising selecting a substance that activates a lysophospholipid receptor specifically expressed in vascular endothelial cells of an affected area.


A chemically amplified resist material of the present invention is used in a process including: patternwise exposing a predetermined region of resist material film to ionizing radiation or nonionizing radiation; floodwise exposing the resist material film patternwise exposed to nonionizing radiation; baking the resist material film floodwise exposed; and developing resist material film to form a resist pattern, the chemically amplified resist material containing: (1) base component; and (2) a component that is capable of generating a radiation-sensitive sensitizer and an acid upon an exposure, wherein the component (2) contains, among (a) a radiation-sensitive acid-and-sensitizer generating agent, (b) a radiation-sensitive sensitizer generating agent, and (c) a radiation-sensitive acid generating agent: the components (a) and (b); the components (b) and (c); or all of the components (a) to (c), and wherein the component (b) contains a compound represented by formula (A).


Patent
Osaka University and Tokyo Electron | Date: 2017-02-22

A chemically amplified resist material is used in a process including: patternwise exposing a predetermined region of a resist material film to a first radioactive ray that is ionizing radiation or nonionizing radiation; floodwise exposing the resist material film to a second radioactive ray that is nonionizing radiation; baking the resist material film; and developing the resist material film to form a resist pattern, the chemically amplified resist material containing (1) a base component that is capable of being made soluble or insoluble in a developer solution by an action of an acid and (2) a component that is capable of generating a radiation-sensitive sensitizer and an acid upon an exposure, wherein the component (2) contains a component (a), any two among components (a) to (c), or all of components (a) to (c), wherein a van der Waals volume of the acid generated from the component (2) is no less than 3.0 x 10^(-28) m^(3)_(.)


Patent
Osaka University and TOHO Engineering Co. | Date: 2017-03-15

There are provided a processing method for a wide-bandgap semiconductor substrate and an apparatus therefor that use no abrasives or no abrasive grains, or no solution having a large environmental burden at all, can process a single crystal, which is SiC, GaN, AlGaN, or AlN, at a variety of processing speed, can obtain a surface of higher quality than the quality of a surface finished by CMP, and also have an excellent compatibility with a clean room. A catalytic substance having a function of promoting the direct hydrolysis of a work piece (5) or promoting the hydrolysis of an oxide film on the surface of the work piece is used as a processing reference plane (3). In the presence of water (1), the work piece is brought into contact with or extremely close to the processing reference plane at a predetermined pressure.


Patent
Osaka University | Date: 2017-04-05

A rotary electric machine includes a rotor that rotates around a rotation axis serving as a center and has a plurality of salient poles protruding in directions perpendicular to the rotation axis, and a stator that includes an annular structural body disposed radially outside the rotor and surrounding the rotor, and 6 x n windings provided along a circumferential direction of the structural body, a field signal for generating field magnetic flux and a drive signal for driving the rotor as a three-phase rotary electric machine being superimposed on each other to be input to each of the windings. n is a natural number equal to or larger than one.


Patent
Osaka University and Hoya Corporation | Date: 2017-01-25

A therapeutic instrument (20), includes: a support member (25) having a tongue-shaped supporting portion (50) for supporting a sheet-like therapeutic agent; a nozzle member (23) having a cylindrical portion (30) in which the supporting portion (50) supporting the therapeutic agent can be housed, and having an opening (34) through which the supporting portion (50) can be loaded and unloaded in/from a tip of the cylindrical portion (30); a syringe unit (22) that acts a positive pressure in the cylindrical portion (30) for pushing-out the therapeutic agent housed in the cylindrical portion (30) together with the supporting portion (50) to outside the cylindrical portion (30) through the opening (34); and a water flow forming part including a plurality of protrusions (53) formed on a surface of the supporting portion (50) so as to form a water flow at a place where the supporting portion (50) and the therapeutic agent are faced each other, when a medical water is fed into the cylindrical portion (30) in a state in which the therapeutic agent is housed in the cylindrical portion together with the supporting portion (50).


Patent
IHI Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2017-01-18

There are provided a core portion (2a) including a plurality of single layer units (U) laminated in a direction of a center axis (R), each of the single layer units (U) including a plurality of magnetic body pieces (2f) annularly arranged around the center axis (R) in a state where the magnetic body pieces (2f) are in contact with each other, and each of the magnetic body pieces (2f) including a plurality of openings (2g); and a plurality of fastening bolts (2b) that are respectively inserted through a plurality of penetration holes (2e) which are the plurality of openings (2g) continuously connected to each other in the direction of the center axis (R). In the single layer units (U) adjacent to each other, contact positions of the magnetic body pieces (2f) are different from each other.


Patent
Chugai Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha and Osaka University | Date: 2017-03-22

It was discovered that antigen-binding molecules comprising (i) a domain that binds to a molecule expressed on the surface of cells having immune response-suppressing functions, and (ii) a T cell receptor complex-binding domain exhibit more superior antitumor effects than conventional antigen-binding molecules by crosslinking T cells with cells having immune response-suppressing functions, and damaging the cells having immune response-suppressing functions.


A silver particle synthesizing method includes reducing a dispersant from first silver particles each covered with the dispersant to obtain second silver particles. The method further includes synthesizing third silver particles each having a larger particle diameter than the second silver particles by causing a reaction between a silver compound and a reductant in a liquid phase containing the second silver particles.


Patent
Osaka University | Date: 2017-04-12

An object of the present invention is to provide an adjuvant for a mucosal vaccine with high safety that induces a sufficient immune response in a mucosal membrane. According to the present invention, an adjuvant for a mucosal vaccine containing a protein complex composed of hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponents HA1 and HA2, and mutant subcomponent HA3 of botulinum toxin is provided.


Matsushita K.,Osaka University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2017

Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) utilizes inhomogeneities in the distribution of cell-cell adhesion molecules on cell membranes for collective cell migration. A simple example of an inhomogeneity is a front-side (leading-edge) polarization in the distribution at the early streaming stage. Experiments have shown that the polarized cell-cell adhesion induces side-by-side contact between cells [Beug, Nature (London) 274, 445 (1978)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/274445a0]. This result is counterintuitive, as one would expect cells to align front to front in contact with each other on the basis of front-side polarization. In this work, we theoretically examine whether front-side polarization induces side-by-side contact in collective cell migration. We construct a model for expressing cells with this polarization based on the two-dimensional cellular Potts model. By a numerical simulation with this model, we find cell-cell alignment wherein cells form lateral arrays with side-by-side contacts as observed in the experiments. ©2017 American Physical Society.


Suzuki J.,Osaka University
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning | Year: 2017

This paper proposes an estimator of mutual information for both discrete and continuous variables and applies it to the Chow–Liu algorithm to find a forest that expresses probabilistic relations among them. The state-of-the-art assumes that the continuous variables are Gaussian and that the graphical model under discrete and continuous variables is ANOVA. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain the maximum likelihood of three connected variables such that the center is Gaussian and the other two are discrete, and thus, the state-of-the-art restricts the class to the forest such that there is no Gaussian node between discrete variables. The proposed method executes in a general setting without any assumptions, preparing several meshes, computing the mutual information values, and selecting the maximum value. We prove that the number of meshes to be prepared is at most O(log2⁡n) and that the estimated mutual information is no larger than zero if and only if the variables are independent for large n. Finally, we apply the proposed method to the problems of gene differential analysis and relation discovery between gene expression and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). In particular, for the latter experiment, we demonstrate that the proposed method successfully captures the relation among them but that the state-of-the-art fails because of the merits and demerits of the proposed and existing methods. © 2016


Millrine D.,University of Cardiff | Kishimoto T.,Osaka University
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2017

Thalidomide and its derivatives are immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) known for their sedative, teratogenic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Commonly used in the treatment of cancers such as multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), IMiDs have also been used in the treatment of an inflammatory skin pathology associated with Hansen's disease/leprosy. They have also shown promise in the treatment of autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent structural and experimental observations have revolutionized our understanding of these properties by revealing the fundamental molecular events underpinning IMiD activity. We review these findings, their relevance to IMiD therapy in immunological disorders, and discuss how further research might unlock the vast clinical potential of these compounds. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Numerical simulations demonstrate that mid-infrared pulses are arbitrarily shaped during the differential frequency mixing of two femtosecond near-infrared pulses propagating in an engineered quasi-periodic poled medium with optical nonlinearity and group velocity dispersion. Shaped pulses, including linearly chirped pulses and pulse trains, are generated with high conversion efficiencies. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Habe T.,Osaka University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2017

We theoretically study a tunneling effect in a two-dimensional Dirac semimetal with two Dirac points protected by nonsymmorphic symmetries. The tunnel barrier can be arranged by a magnetic exchange potential which opens a gap at the Dirac points which can be induced by a magnetic proximity effect of a ferromagnetic insulator. We found that the tunnel decay length increases with a decrease in the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, and moreover the dependence is attributed to the correlation of sublattice and spin degrees of freedom which lead to symmetry-protected Dirac points. The tunnel probability is quite different in two Dirac points, and thus the tunnel effect can be applied to the highly selective valley filter. © 2017 American Physical Society.


Taguchi A.,Osaka University
Optical Review | Year: 2017

Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) microscopy is becoming an important tool for analyzing advanced nanomaterials and nanodevices because of its high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. However, despite the decade’s efforts since its invention, strong Raman enhancement is still not always reproducible. Here, Author discusses two aspects in plasmonic metal tips to achieve efficient Raman enhancement. The first is the tip structure whose plasmonic properties directly affect the scattering efficiency and thus the enhancement. The second is the plasmonic tip for deep ultraviolet (DUV), with which TERS signal can be further enhanced by incorporating the resonance Raman effect. The materials for DUV-TERS tips are shown. With the efficient tip structures and materials, nano Raman imaging with TERS microscopy becomes more reliable as it should inherently be, bringing TERS microscopy to higher levels as a nanoanalysis tool useful for everyone. © 2017 The Optical Society of Japan


Yamaguchi Y.,Osaka University
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs | Year: 2016

Mader's disjoint S-paths problem unifies two generalizations of bipartite matching: (a) non-bipartite matching and (b) disjoint s-t paths. Lovász (1980, 1981) first proposed an efficient algorithm for this problem via a reduction to matroid matching, which also unifies two generalizations of bipartite matching: (a) non-bipartite matching and (c) matroid intersection. While the weighted versions of the problems (a)-(c) in which we aim to minimize the total weight of a designated-size feasible solution are known to be solvable in polynomial time, the tractability of such a weighted version of Mader's problem has been open for a long while. In this paper, we present the first solution to this problem with the aid of a linear representation for Lovász' reduction (which leads to a reduction to linear matroid parity) due to Schrijver (2003) and polynomial-time algorithms for a weighted version of linear matroid parity announced by Iwata (2013) and by Pap (2013). Specifically, we give a reduction of the weighted version of Mader's problem to weighted linear matroid parity, which leads to an O(n5)-time algorithm for the former problem, where n denotes the number of vertices in the input graph. Our reduction technique is also applicable to a further generalized framework, packing non-zero A-paths in group-labeled graphs, introduced by Chudnovsky, Geelen, Gerards, Goddyn, Lohman, and Seymour (2006). The extension leads to the tractability of a broader class of weighted problems not restricted to Mader's setting. © Yutaro Yamaguchi.


Takano T.,Osaka University
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2017

Thyroid cancers have long been considered to arise in middle age and, after their repeated proliferation, resulting in further damage to the genome, they progress to more aggressive and lethal cancers. However, in 2014, some studies were reported that might lead to a marked change in our understanding of the natural history of thyroid cancer. A high prevalence of papillary carcinoma in the young suggested that the first initiation of thyroid cancer is likely to occur in the infantile period. Such a conclusion was also supported by a very slow growth rate of papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) in an observation trial. The proliferation rate of PMCs was negatively correlated with the age, and surgery to remove PMCs did not contribute to reduce mortality from thyroid cancer. These findings strongly suggested the existence of self-limiting cancers, which are truly malignant but do not progress to lethal cancers, for the first time in human history. The early detection of self-limiting cancers results in overdiagnosis. Ultrasonographic screening of the thyroid in the young should be avoided. Lethal thyroid cancers, whose origin is still unknown, appear suddenly after middle age. In the elderly, thyroid cancers are a mixture of self-limiting and lethal cancers; thus, when thyroid cancer is detected, careful follow-up with examination of its growth rate is required. © The Japan Endocrine Society.


Franciosi S.J.,Osaka University
Educational Technology and Society | Year: 2017

In theory, computer game-based learning can support several vocabulary learning affordances that have been identified in the foreign language learning research. In the observable evide nce, learning with computer games has been shown to improve performance on vocabulary recall tests. However, while simple recall can be a sign of learning, observation of skill application in communication is a better indicator of skill mastery. Further, observing this use in separate communicative contexts could constitute evidence of transferability of skills. Hence, this paper presents the results of two investigations of learning outcomes in EFL classes at a Japanese university using computer game-based lessons. The first study was a quasi-experiment comparing use of targeted words in a writing task between a group of students who participated in a computer game-based lesson, and a group of students who did not. The second study was a cross sectional analysis comparing use of targeted vocabulary in a writing task with amount of participation in computer game-based lessons. The results suggest that computer game-based approaches to foreign language education in real-world classrooms can improve transferability of learned vocabulary.


Shiraga H.,Osaka University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

Image sampling is a simple, convenient and working scheme to obtain two-dimensional (2D) images on high-speed streak cameras which have only one-dimensional (1D) slit cathode as an imaging sensor on a streak tube. 1D sampling of a 2D image in one direction was realized as Multi-Imaging X-ray Streak camera (MIXS) with a similar configuration to TV raster scan. 2D sampling of a 2D image was realized as 2-D Sampling Image X-ray Streak camera (2D-SIXS) with a similar configuration to CCD pixels. For optical-UV streak cameras, 2D fiber plate coupled to the output of a streak camera was untied and fibers were rearranged to form a line on the cathode slit. In these schemes, clever arrangement of the sampling lines or points relative to the streaking direction were essential for avoiding overlap of the streaked signals with each other. These streak cameras with image sampling technique were successfully applied to laser plasma experiment, particularly for laser-driven nuclear fusion research with simultaneous temporal- and spatial resolutions of 10 ps and 15 μm, respectively. This paper reviews the concept, history, and such applications of the scheme. © 2017 SPIE.


BACKGROUND:: Previous studies showed higher risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular (CCV) events in primary aldosteronism compared with essential hypertension, but the patients of these studies were limited to primary aldosteronism patients with high plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC). The introduction of the aldosterone–renin ratio as the screening test for primary aldosteronism led to the recognition of primary aldosteronism patients with normal PAC (nPA). However, there is no information on the risk of primary aldosteronism including nPA. METHOD:: In this retrospectively and cross-sectional study, the clinical features and CCV event risk of primary aldosteronism at diagnosis including nPA were investigated and compared with essential hypertension. The study included 292 consecutive primary aldosteronism patients and 498 essential hypertension outpatients. All primary aldosteronism patients were diagnosed by autonomous aldosterone secretion using confirmatory tests, and then divided into nPA (n?=?130) and primary aldosteronism patients with high PAC (hPA: n?=?162) using a PAC cutoff level of less than 443?pmol/l (16?ng/dl), representing the normal upper limit of PAC. RESULTS:: nPA patients were significantly older at diagnosis of primary aldosteronism and at onset of hypertension compared with hPA patients. They had milder hypokalemia and easier-to-control blood pressure. The results suggested that nPA could be considered a mild type of primary aldosteronism but not an early-stage hPA. Moreover, the risk of all CCV events in nPA was significantly lower than that in hPA (odds ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.18–0.90, P?


Inoue K.,Osaka University
Optics Communications | Year: 2017

Generally, loss phenomena are known to affect the quantum properties of a light wave. This paper describes a quantum mechanical treatment of parametric amplification in an absorptive nonlinear medium. An expression of the quantum mechanical field operator in such a physical system is presented based on the Heisenberg equation, using which the quantum properties of traveling light suffering from medium absorption are quantitatively evaluated. Calculations using the obtained operator indicate that some degradation of noise performance is caused by the absorption. The influence of the absorption on the squeezing performance in phase-sensitive parametric amplification is also evaluated. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Fujitsuka M.,Osaka University | Majima T.,Osaka University
Chemical Science | Year: 2017

In the past few decades, charge transfer in DNA has attracted considerable attention from researchers in a wide variety of fields, including bioscience, physical chemistry, and nanotechnology. Charge transfer in DNA has been investigated using various techniques. Among them, time-resolved spectroscopic methods have yielded valuable information on charge transfer dynamics in DNA, providing an important basis for numerical practical applications such as development of new therapy applications and nanomaterials. In DNA, holes and excess electrons act as positive and negative charge carriers, respectively. Although hole transfer dynamics have been investigated in detail, the dynamics of excess electron transfer have only become clearer relatively recently. In the present paper, we summarize studies on the dynamics of hole and excess electron transfer conducted by several groups including our own. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


X-ray microscopes are commonly used in combination with full-field imaging techniques in spectromicroscopy applications, where they allow the chemical structures of materials to be analyzed and visualized simultaneously. However, the performance of these microscopes is often affected by problems with chromatic aberrations-- optical effects that limit the resolution or degree of fineness to which images of the material structures can be acquired--and previous solutions to the problem have often proved difficult to manufacture and implement. A collaborative team led by researchers from Osaka University has therefore developed an optical system for use in full-field X-ray microscopes that offers a more practical way to overcome the chromatic aberration problem. "We developed an imaging optical system based on use of two monolithic imaging mirrors," says Assistant Professor Satoshi Matsuyama from Osaka University's Graduate School of Engineering. "These mirrors have elliptical and hyperbolic shapes on a single substrate, and fixing of the relative positioning between the ellipse and the hyperbola can provide high image quality with lasting stability." Fabrication of this complex mirror system meant that existing manufacturing processes had to be modified, but the proposed mirror structures were produced with the required shapes to an accuracy of approximately 1 nm. After the mirror structure was assembled using a specially developed alignment system, it was implemented in a full-field X-ray microscope system for performance testing at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. "The microscope was tested for its spatial resolution, the presence of chromatic aberrations, and long-term stability using a fine test pattern called a Siemens star and a photon energy of approximately 10 keV," explains Professor Kazuto Yamauchi of Osaka University's Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology. "We were able to clearly resolve 50-nm-sized features with high stability over a period of 20 hours without any chromatic aberrations." The developed system was then applied in X-ray absorption fine structure spectromicroscopy experiments, and successfully identified both elements and chemical states in micron-sized specimens of zinc and tungsten. While the system will be subjected to further research to improve its performance towards the theoretical limit, it already shows considerable promise for use in a wide range of applications, including ultra-fast imaging with high-intensity X-rays and high-resolution full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging. This mirror structure may also find use in other systems, with potential applications that include focusing and imaging optics for synchrotron radiation X-rays and X-ray-free electron lasers.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Antidepressants treat symptoms of depression by increasing levels of brain signaling molecules (neurotransmitters) such as serotonin, as with the most widely used type of antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, many of the 350 million people worldwide thought to be affected with depression do not respond to SSRI treatment. Now, researchers in the Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology at Osaka University have found that an activator of the serotonin type 3 receptor (5HT3R) produces antidepressant effects in mice and increases nerve cell growth in the part of the brain responsible for memory and spatial navigation (the hippocampus). They also showed that it functions using a different mechanism than the commonly used SSRI fluoxetine, and therefore may be suitable for patients with depression who do not respond favorably to current medication. The team of researchers used mice lacking part of 5HT3R to explore the function of the 5HT3R activator. The activator had antidepressant effects and initiated nerve cell growth in the hippocampus in control mice but not in those lacking part of the receptor. In contrast, fluoxetine showed similar antidepressant actions and nerve cell growth in both control and knockout mice because it requires the type 1A rather than 5HT3R for its actions. To explore the 5HT3R activator mode of action, hippocampal nerve cells expressing the receptor were chemically stained to investigate protein expression. The same cells were shown to express both the receptor and the growth factor IGF1. "Treatment of control mice with the receptor activator led to increases in IGF1 secretion," study coauthor Shoichi Shimada says. "However, the activator had no effect in mice lacking part of the receptor." In addition, protein signaling involving IGF1 in the hippocampus was found to be necessary for nerve cell growth that was dependent on 5HT3R. Fluoxetine must be given to patients for long periods to have any antidepressant effect, but just 3 days of 5HT3R activator treatment produced notable responses in mice. "IGF1 combined with the activator produced characteristic changes in nerve cell growth that were not seen following fluoxetine administration," corresponding author Makoto Kondo says. "This may explain why the response times are so different." Another difference is that the type 1A and 5HT3R are expressed in different cell types of the hippocampus which adds support to their use of distinct mechanisms of antidepressant action.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

(Osaka University) Research at Osaka University identified a novel mode of action for a potential antidepressant that also leads to nerve cell growth in the mouse hippocampus. The activator of a serotonin receptor uses a different mechanism to the most commonly used antidepressants, SSRIs. This is a promising finding for the millions of patients who do not respond well to current treatments.


News Article | April 3, 2017
Site: www.medicalnewstoday.com

The first step in shaping the brain is that the neural plate, a sheet-like cell layer, curves to form the neural tube. Assistant Professor Makoto Suzuki of the National Institute for Basic Biology, Professor Naoto Ueno, and their colleagues have shown that during the process of neural tube formation a transient increase in the concentration of calcium ions in cells causes these morphological changes and is essential for neural tube formation. This result was published in the journal Development and an image from this research was selected for the cover. In this study, the researchers observed the cell population during neural tube formation in the embryos of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) using the fluorescent protein GECO, the brightness of which varies depending on the intracellular calcium ion concentration. As a result, they found that the pattern of the fluctuation in intracellular calcium ion concentration in the cell population is complex. Local and transient rises in intracellular calcium ion concentrations have been found to cause cell deformation and contribute to the formation of the neural tube. Suzuki said, "According to these results, in the elevated pattern of calcium ions, we found that there is a pattern randomly occurring in single cells, and a pattern that occurs synchronously in many neighboring cells. It was found that the morphological changes necessary for normal neural tube formation occurred by combining these different patterns." This research was conducted as a joint research project with the National Institute for Basic Biology, Kyoto University, Osaka University, and the University of Alberta.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Members at IFReC, Osaka University provide new insights on why the tumor suppression gene Foxo1 can actually be the cause of some cancers Germinal centers are transient structures in the lymph nodes where antibody-producing B cells proliferate and differentiate at extraordinary rates. Germinal centers can be visually divided into a dark zone and light zone. For the proliferation and differentiation to occur, B cells must cycle between the two zones. Investigators at the Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), Osaka University have discovered how specific genes regulate this cycling. The findings, which can be read in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, provide new insights on how certain types of lymphomas form. To understand how B cells cycle in the germinal center, Prof. Tomohiro Kurosaki, who led the project, set his eyes on Foxo1. "Foxo1 is a tumor suppressor gene, but it promotes B cell proliferation in the germinal center," he said. Normally, the suppression of Foxo1 expression enables cells to proliferate. Even B cells outside the germinal center will proliferate when Foxo1 is suppressed. However, some lymphomas are associated with activated Foxo1, and Kurosaki and his team observed that inside germinal centers, B cells with Foxo1 suppressed will actually lower in numbers. Transferring the mutant B cells into mice, the researchers further showed that Foxo1 has a vital role in the cycling of B cells between light and dark zones. "We found B cells remained in the light zone," said Kurosaki of the Foxo1-deficient B cells. The dark zone is where B cells undergo proliferation. When in the light zone, B cells are selected by follicular helper T (T ) cells for migration to the dark zone. Kurosaki found that without Foxo1, B cells are not selected at all. "Knocking out Foxo1 reduced the expression of BCR," he said. BCR, or B cell receptors, describe the unit on the B cell that binds to the invasion and from which B cells are selected to proceed with the cycling. Moreover, even if the Foxo1-deficient B cells could be manipulated to be selected by the T cells, they still did not proliferate, suggesting another factor besides Foxo1 is also imperative to cycling. Kurosaki's team noticed that the knockout of Foxo1 also led to a reduction in BATF expression in B cells. Reviving the BATF levels recovered the proliferation of Foxo1-deficient B cells in the germinal center. Thus, the proliferation deficiency could be the result of poor crosstalk between the two genes. The findings provide important new knowledge on antibody production by the body and also the development of certain cancers. "Even though Foxo1 is a tumor suppressor gene, paradoxically its activity is associated with lymphomas," said Kurosaki. This study provides new candidate molecular targets for the treatment of such lymphomas.


Figure1: Principle of the proposed method for super spectral resolution beyond pixel Nyquist limits. Credit: Osaka University Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between light and matter, offering numerous important applications in fields ranging from materials science to astronomy. A common goal of spectroscopy is improved spectroscopic resolution to provide more detailed information about dynamic processes. Multichannel spectrometers are widely used in spectroscopy because they are compact, strong, and capture high-speed images. However, the resolution of multichannel spectrometers is limited. Improvement of this resolution is currently restricted by the inability to make the entrance slit width smaller than the pixel size; known as the "pixel Nyquist limit." Researchers at Osaka University recently developed a way to increase the resolution of multichannel spectrometers beyond the pixel Nyquist limit using Moiré patterns. A Moiré pattern is an interference pattern created between two similar overlapping patterns with slightly different pitch, displacement, or rotation. "We used the Moiré effect to enhance the spectral resolution in a multichannel spectrometer," says Tsuyoshi Konishi, lead author of the recently published report on the study. "This allowed us to achieve resolution beyond the pixel Nyquist limit in a multichannel spectrometer for the first time." The team created the Moiré effect in a commercial multichannel spectrometer using a pair of slit arrays with periods of 100 and 180 μm positioned at the entrance and exit of the spectrometer. The overlap of the patterns from the pair of slit arrays created a Moiré fringe. The image sensor of the spectrometer had a pixel Nyquist limit of 50 nm, so the resolution needed to be smaller than this value. The Moiré fringe generated by the modified spectrometer was able to resolve a wavelength change of just 0.31 nm, overcoming the pixel Nyquist limit. This means that the spectral resolution of the spectrometer was improved by a factor of more than ten from its original resolution of 4.63 nm. The approach was tested using both a single-wavelength light source and a polychromatic light source consisting of two laser beams of different wavelength. In both cases, the generated Moiré fringe provided resolution beyond the pixel Nyquist limit. Importantly, the developed approach is simple and can be adapted to suit various situations. "Overcoming the pixel Nyquist limit of a multichannel spectrometer using the Moiré fringe generated by a pair of appropriately positioned slit arrays should facilitate super-resolution imaging of dynamic processes," Konishi explains. "We envisage that multichannel spectrometers with variable spectral resolution will be developed based on this concept." This research represents an important step toward the goal of real-time high-resolution monitoring of dynamic events in fields ranging from biology to astronomy. More information: Tsuyoshi Konishi et al. Super spectral resolution beyond pixel Nyquist limits on multi-channel spectrometer, Optics Express (2016). DOI: 10.1364/OE.24.026583


News Article | April 18, 2017
Site: phys.org

Gravitational microlensing is an invaluable method of detecting new extrasolar planets circling their parent stars relatively closely. This technique is sensitive to low-mass planets orbiting beyond the so-called "snow line" around relatively faint host stars like M dwarfs or brown dwarfs. Such planets are of special interest for astronomers, as just beyond this line, the most active planet formation occurs. Hence, understanding the distribution of exoplanets in this region could offer important clues to how planets form. The microlensing event MOA-2016-BLG-227 was detected on May 5, 2016 by the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) group using the 1.8 m MOA-II telescope at the University of Canterbury Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand. Afterward, this event was the target of follow-up observations employing three telescopes located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii: the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) 3.8m telescope, the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and the Keck II telescope. VLT Survey Telescope (VST) at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile and the Jay Baum Rich 0.71m Telescope (C28) at the Wise Observatory in Israel were also used for these observations. This subsequent observational campaign allowed the research team led by Naoki Koshimoto of the Osaka University in Japan to detect the new planet and to determine its basic parameters. "The event and planetary signal were discovered by the MOA collaboration, but much of the planetary signal is covered by the Wise, UKIRT, CFHT and VST telescopes, which were observing the event as part of the K2 C9 program (Campaign 9 of the Kepler telescope's prolonged mission)," the paper reads. The team found that MOA-2016-BLG-227Lb is a super-Jupiter planet with the mass of about 2.8 Jupiter masses. The parent star is most probably an M or K dwarf located in the galactic bulge. The mass of the star is estimated to be around 0.29 solar masses. MOA-2016-BLG-227Lb orbits its host at a distance of approximately 1.67 AU. Other main parameters like the radius of both objects and orbital period of the planet are yet to be determined. "Our analysis excludes the possibility that the host star is a G-dwarf, leading us to a robust conclusion that the planet MOA-2016-BLG-227Lb is a super-Jupiter mass planet orbiting an M or K-dwarf star likely located in the Galactic bulge," the researchers concluded. The authors call for further investigation of the MOA-2016-BLG-227 event, which could deliver essential more detailed information about the newly found planetary system. They noted that this event should be revisited with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Keck adaptive optics (AO) system. Promising results could also come from future space and ground based telescopes like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), the Thirty Meter Telescope and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). Explore further: Astronomers discover new substellar companion using microlensing More information: MOA-2016-BLG-227Lb: A Massive Planet Characterized by Combining Lightcurve Analysis and Keck AO Imaging, arXiv:1704.01724 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1704.01724 Abstract We report the discovery of a microlensing planet —- MOA-2016-BLG-227Lb —- with a massive planet/host mass ratio of q≃9×10−3. This event was fortunately observed by several telescopes as the event location was very close to the area of the sky surveyed by Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission. Consequently, the planetary deviation is well covered and allows a full characterization of the lensing system. High angular resolution images by the Keck telescope show excess flux other than the source flux at the target position, and this excess flux could originate from the lens star. We combined the excess flux and the observed angular Einstein radius in a Bayesian analysis which considers various possible origins of the measured excess flux as priors, in addition to a standard Galactic model. Our analysis indicates that it is unlikely that a large fraction of the excess flux comes from the lens. We compare the results of the Bayesian analysis using different priors for the probability of hosting planets with respect to host mass and find the planet is likely a gas-giant around an M/K dwarf likely located in the Galactic bulge. This is the first application of a Bayesian analysis considering several different contamination scenarios for a newly discovered event. Our approach for considering different contamination scenarios is crucial for all microlensing events which have evidence for excess flux irrespective of the quality of observation conditions, such as seeing, for example.


Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), or Telfon as it is better known, is used in a variety of daily products, from cookware to carpets, because of its non-sticky property. However, this very same non-stickiness has limited its application to other fields including medicine. Scientists at the Osaka University Graduate School of Engineering in collaboration with Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology have reported how heat-assisted plasma treatment can modify PTFE to solve this problem. The report can be seen in RSC Advances Kazuya Yamamura, associate professor and Yuji Ohkubo, assistant professor at Osaka University, who first authored the study, note a need for better lubricants in medical procedures. Many people do not give it much thought, but "the rubber in syringes has to be stable and non-sticky to give accurate amounts of a medical agent," Ohkubo said. In current procedures, the rubber is normally lubricated with a coating such as silicon oil, but this coating can contaminate the agent. PTFE would be an ideal lubricant because it would not mix with the agent, but to be effective it must also adhere to the rubber. To increase the adhesiveness, scientists will treat PTFE with either corrosive sodium-based compounds or plasma. Plasma treatment is safe, but the adhesion is inferior. "Conventional plasma treatment leaves a weak boundary layer (WBL) on the plasma-treated PTFE. This WBL weakens the adhesion between PTFE and the rubbe," Yamamura explains. Determined to make a safe PTFE-based adhesive, Ohkubo considered the pressure and temperature under which the plasma treatment was done. Suitable conditions for increasing adhesion were the result of new chemical bonds and etching of a WBL on the PTFE surface. "Carbon-fluoride bonds were exchanged with carbon-carbon crosslinks" as the plasma power was increased, said Katsuyoshi Endo, professor, who managed the study. These crosslinks and etching recovered the WBL, strengthening the adhesion between PTFE and rubber. Further investigation showed that the increase in crosslinks was a result of the higher PTFE surface temperature that came with plasma treatment at higher power. To maximize these crosslinks, the scientists decided to heat the PTFE to several hundred degrees Celsius before plasma treatment. "The surface of PTFE sheet generally has a WBL containing many scratches and pits ", which could affect the adhesion, explained Ohkubo. The heat-assisted plasma treatment improved the adhesion property by recovering the WBL. The impact of the heat and power on the adhesion was very clear. At lower plasma power, peel tests showed that the PTFE could be easily split from the rubber. However, at higher power, the adhesion was so strong that the rubber tore apart instead of separating from PTFE. Moreover, this effect was seen one year after the treatment, demonstrating the stability of the adhesion. That this strong adhesion could be achieved without any toxic chemicals suggests the already large use of PTFE could be further expanded. "Our method is straightforward and could increase the number of medical applications," said Ohkubo. The heat-assisted plasma treatment should also be useful for enhancing the adhesion of other materials. More information: Y. Ohkubo et al, Adhesive-free adhesion between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and isobutylene–isoprene rubber (IIR) via heat-assisted plasma treatment, RSC Adv. (2017). DOI: 10.1039/c6ra27642c


X-ray microscopes are commonly used in combination with full-field imaging techniques in spectromicroscopy applications, where they allow the chemical structures of materials to be analyzed and visualized simultaneously. However, the performance of these microscopes is often affected by problems with chromatic aberrations— optical effects that limit the resolution or degree of fineness to which images of the material structures can be acquired—and previous solutions to the problem have often proved difficult to manufacture and implement. A collaborative team led by researchers from Osaka University has therefore developed an optical system for use in full-field X-ray microscopes that offers a more practical way to overcome the chromatic aberration problem. "We developed an imaging optical system based on use of two monolithic imaging mirrors," says Assistant Professor Satoshi Matsuyama from Osaka University's Graduate School of Engineering. "These mirrors have elliptical and hyperbolic shapes on a single substrate, and fixing of the relative positioning between the ellipse and the hyperbola can provide high image quality with lasting stability." Fabrication of this complex mirror system meant that existing manufacturing processes had to be modified, but the proposed mirror structures were produced with the required shapes to an accuracy of approximately 1 nm. After the mirror structure was assembled using a specially developed alignment system, it was implemented in a full-field X-ray microscope system for performance testing at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. "The microscope was tested for its spatial resolution, the presence of chromatic aberrations, and long-term stability using a fine test pattern called a Siemens star and a photon energy of approximately 10 keV," explains Professor Kazuto Yamauchi of Osaka University's Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology. "We were able to clearly resolve 50-nm-sized features with high stability over a period of 20 hours without any chromatic aberrations." The developed system was then applied in X-ray absorption fine structure spectromicroscopy experiments, and successfully identified both elements and chemical states in micron-sized specimens of zinc and tungsten. While the system will be subjected to further research to improve its performance towards the theoretical limit, it already shows considerable promise for use in a wide range of applications, including ultra-fast imaging with high-intensity X-rays and high-resolution full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging. This mirror structure may also find use in other systems, with potential applications that include focusing and imaging optics for synchrotron radiation X-rays and X-ray-free electron lasers. Explore further: Achieving a breakthrough in the formation of beam size controllable X-ray nanobeams More information: Satoshi Matsuyama et al. 50-nm-resolution full-field X-ray microscope without chromatic aberration using total-reflection imaging mirrors, Scientific Reports (2017). DOI: 10.1038/srep46358


News Article | March 31, 2017
Site: www.medicalnewstoday.com

Jaundice, marked by yellowing of the skin, is common in infants, but also a symptom of various adult diseases. This discoloration is caused by excess bilirubin (BR), the substance that gives bile its yellow tinge. However, BR is also a vital antioxidant, which at healthy levels protects cells against peroxide damage. Its production in the body, though, has long been a source of uncertainty. Now, a Japanese research collaboration involving Osaka University believes it has the answer. BR is already known to be produced from a related chemical, biliverdin (BV), by the enzyme biliverdin reductase (BVR). The enzyme wraps around BV and transfers two hydrogen atoms - one positive and one negative - to produce the yellow antioxidant. However, biologists could not establish which part of the enzyme was chemically involved in the process (the active site), or where the positive hydrogen came from. The findings were recently reported in Nature Communications. "Previous studies used BVR from rats, and could never crystallize the enzyme well enough to determine how it binds to BV," study co-author Keiichi Fukuyama says. "We realized that the same enzyme in Synechocystis bacteria had an almost identical fold-shape, but was easier to examine by X-ray crystallography." To their surprise, the researchers found two molecules of BV - one stacked upon the other - at the active site, even though only one is converted to BR. From the X-ray data, they deduced why two were needed. The first BV, because of the direction it faces to receive the negative hydrogen, cannot accept the positive hydrogen directly from the enzyme. Instead, the second BV acts as a hydrogen conduit to enable the process, but is not itself converted to BR. From the structure, the researchers proposed which of the enzyme's 328 amino acids actually provides the positive hydrogen atom. Then, they performed experiments in which the enzymes were mutated to specifically remove that amino acid, while leaving the others intact. The resulting enzymes, whether from bacteria, rats, or humans, were virtually unable to produce BR. Further experiments confirmed that the rat and human enzymes also used two BV molecules, just like the bacteria. "Such neat stacking of two substrate molecules during enzymatic processes is very rare," Fukuyama says. "A better understanding of BR production is not just exciting for biochemistry, but should help us develop drugs for diseases marked by severe jaundice from excess BR, such as hepatitis." Article: A substrate-bound structure of cyanobacterial biliverdin reductase identifies stacked substrates as critical for activity, Keiichi Fukuyama et al., Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/ncomms14397, published online 7 February 2017.


However, it is rare for non-polymeric mixtures to have a lower critical solution temperature because small molecules usually become more soluble as they are heated. Osaka University researchers have now created a mixture of small organic and inorganic molecules that has a lower critical solution temperature. Their luminescent mixture is easily switched from a solution to a suspension and back again, simply by changing the temperature. The system, which has a different emission color depending on whether it is in the solution or suspension state, will be useful for the development of new thermo-responsive materials that change color when heated. The study was recently published in the journal Advanced Materials. "This behavior is usually only observed in polymer systems," says Associate Professor Akinori Saeki, corresponding author of the study, "because they undergo structural changes at high temperatures that reduce their solubility. This is the first example of a luminescent molecule/ion-based lower critical solution temperature system." The researchers based their system on methyl ammonium lead bromide nanoparticles, which have been used to develop new-generation LEDs and lasers. Noting that these nanoparticles are reversibly broken apart into their molecular components in the presence of certain amines, the researchers prepared a mixture of the nanoparticles with methylamine and other organic molecules. At room temperature, the mixture was a clear solution that emitted blue light when it was irradiated under UV light. When the researchers heated this clear solution, however, it became white and cloudy, and then formed a yellow suspension above a critical temperature. The yellow suspension emitted green light when irradiated with UV light. "Using X-ray diffraction, we found that the clear solution contained soluble 1D wires made up of lead bromide, methylamine and oleic acid," Dr Saeki says. "As the solution was heated, these wires rearranged into a co-crystal containing lead bromide and methylamine, which was insoluble in the solvent." The intermediate co-crystal was an essential step before formation of the yellow nanoparticles at higher temperatures, and its assembly and fragmentation were mediated by the organic molecules oleic acid and methylamine. Tuning the system by varying the concentrations of the organic molecules or adjusting the ratio of halide ions (chloride, bromide and iodide) in the nanoparticles, the researchers have developed a series of multicolored systems with the same luminescent behavior, and hope to use them in new-generation photomaterials. Explore further: Physicists image individual molecules by watching them absorb light More information: Ryosuke Nishikubo et al. Thermoresponsive Emission Switching via Lower Critical Solution Temperature Behavior of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Nanoparticles, Advanced Materials (2017). DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700047


Kawahara G.,Osaka University | Uhlmann M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Van Veen L.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2011

Recent remarkable progress in computing power and numerical analysis is enabling us to fill a gap in the dynamical systems approach to turbulence. A significant advance in this respect has been the numerical discovery of simple invariant sets, such as nonlinear equilibria and periodic solutions, in well-resolved Navier-Stokes flows. This review describes some fundamental and practical aspects of dynamical systems theory for the investigation of turbulence, focusing on recently found invariant solutions and their significance for the dynamical and statistical characterization of low-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. It is shown that the near-wall regeneration cycle of coherent structures can be reproduced by such solutions. The typical similarity laws of turbulence, i.e., the Prandtl wall law and the Kolmogorov law for the viscous range, as well as the pattern and intensity of turbulence-driven secondary flow in a square duct can also be represented by these simple invariant solutions.


Van Veen L.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Kawahara G.,Osaka University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

Experiments and simulations lend mounting evidence for the edge state hypothesis on subcritical transition to turbulence, which asserts that simple states of fluid motion mediate between laminar and turbulent shear flow as their stable manifolds separate the two in state space. In this Letter we describe flows homoclinic to a time-periodic edge state that display the essential properties of turbulent bursting. During a burst, vortical structures and the associated energy dissipation are highly localized near the wall, in contrast with the familiar regeneration cycle. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute and Osaka University | Date: 2011-12-14

There is provided a tool for friction stir welding having excellent wear resistance and chipping resistance. The tool for friction stir welding according to the present invention includes a base material, the base material includes a first hard phase, a second hard phase and a binder phase, the first hard phase is formed by WC particles, the second hard phase is formed by a compound of one or more metals selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W and one or more elements selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, carbon, boron, and oxygen, or a solid solution of the compound (except for WC), the binder phase is formed by an iron group metal, and the second hard phase is higher than or identical to the first hard phase in terms of volume ratio.


Patent
Osaka University and Medical & Biological Laboratories Co. | Date: 2014-11-06

From PBMCs of patients infected with H1N1pdm, three human monoclonal antibodies have been obtained which are capable of binding to an epitope present at residues 40 to 58 in an HA2 region of a hemagglutinin protein derived from H1N1pdm. Further, these antibodies have been found to also have a neutralization activity against subtype H1 and subtype H5 of group 1 influenza A viruses. On the other hand, the three antibodies have also been found to exhibit neither a binding ability nor a neutralization activity against subtype H2 which belongs to the group 1, but in the HA2 region derived from H1N1pdm of which the amino acid at residue 45 is substituted with phenylalanine and the amino acid at residue 47 is substituted with glycine.


Patent
Osaka University and Sumitomo Electric Industries | Date: 2011-10-25

A PPAT polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1 derived from Jatropha, a PPAT polynucleotide of SEQ ID NO: 2 and so on were found. By transforming Jatropha with these PPAT polynucleotides, it is possible to overexpress the PPAT polypeptide in comparison with a wild type, and biosynthesis of coenzyme A is promoted by these polypeptides, the metabolic function and viability of the transformed Jatropha are enhanced, and for example, stress resistance can be significantly improved.


Patent
Pias Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2013-05-31

Provided are an attractant for bone marrow stem cells containing at least one of cinnamtannin B1 and pentagalloylglucose, and a method for attracting bone marrow stem cells in which bone marrow stem cells are attracted by the attractant.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Osaka University and Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Date: 2013-10-30

There is provided a tool for friction stir welding having excellent wear resistance and chipping resistance. The tool for friction stir welding according to the present invention is a tool for friction stir welding used in friction stir welding processing, wherein the tool for friction stir welding includes a base material, the base material includes a first hard phase, a second hard phase and a binder phase, the first hard phase is formed by WC particles, the second hard phase is formed by a compound of one or more metals selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W and one or more elements selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, carbon, boron, and oxygen, or a solid solution of the compound (except for WC), the binder phase is formed by an iron group metal, and a constituting ratio between the first hard phase and the second hard phase is such that the second hard phase is higher than or identical to the first hard phase in terms of volume ratio.


Patent
Osaka University and Medical & Biological Laboratories Co. | Date: 2016-09-21

From PBMCs of patients infected with H1N1pdm, three human monoclonal antibodies have been obtained which are capable of binding to an epitope present at residues 40 to 58 in an HA2 region of a hemagglutinin protein derived from H1N1pdm. Further, these antibodies have been found to also have a neutralization activity against subtype H1 and subtype H5 of group 1 influenza A viruses. On the other hand, the three antibodies have also been found to exhibit neither a binding ability nor a neutralization activity against subtype H2 which belongs to the group 1, but in the HA2 region derived from H1N1pdm of which the amino acid at residue 45 is substituted with phenylalanine and the amino acid at residue 47 is substituted with glycine.


Patent
Osaka University and Medical And Biological Laboratories Co. | Date: 2013-01-31

Materials and methods are provided for treating influenza B infections in humans. Anti-human influenza virus monoclonal antibodies and antigen-binding fragments thereof having a neutralization activity against a human influenza B virus are provided. Methods for producing anti-human influenza B virus monoclonal antibodies are also provided. The antibodies and antigen-binding fragments thereof can be effective against a wide range of influenza B viral strains. Methods of inhibiting or treating a human influenza B infection are provided. The anti-influenza B therapeutics can also be used to manufacture medicaments effective against influenza B infections, to detect human influenza B in a human subject, for use in pharmaceutical compositions, and for use in kits for at least one of the prevention, the treatment, and the detection of human influenza B in a human subject.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute and Osaka University | Date: 2011-12-14

There is provided a tool for friction stir welding, in which a coating layer is less likely to peel off from a base material and excellent wear resistance is achieved. The tool for friction stir welding according to the present invention includes a base material (BM) and a coating layer. The BM includes a first hard phase (FP) formed by WC particles, a second hard phase (SP) and a binder phase (BP). The SP is formed by a compound of one or more metals selected from Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W and one or more elements selected from nitrogen, carbon, boron, and oxygen, and is included in the BM at a volume ratio of 3% to 30%. The BP is included in the BM at a volume ratio of 8% to 28%. The FP is higher than the SP in terms of volume ratio.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Osaka University and Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Date: 2013-10-30

There is provided a tool for friction stir welding having excellent wear resistance and chipping resistance. The tool for friction stir welding according to the present invention is a tool for friction stir welding used in friction stir welding processing, wherein the tool for friction stir welding includes a base material, the base material includes a first hard phase and a binder phase, and has a thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK or less, the first hard phase is formed by WC particles, and the binder phase is formed by an iron group metal and is included in the base material at a volume ratio of 8% by volume or more and 28% by volume or less.


Patent
Osaka University, Tokyu Car Corporation and Furuya Metal Co. | Date: 2012-03-23

A metal material processing method includes arranging two metal materials to face each other in a processing portion and inserting a distal end of a rod-shaped rotary tool into the processing portion while rotating the rotary tool, the two metal materials are processed. The distal end of the rotary tool has a probe protruding in a central portion and a shoulder in a peripheral portion, and the probe and the shoulder are constituted by different materials in at least surface portions that are in contact with the metal materials.


Patent
Nippon Telegraph, Telephone and Osaka University | Date: 2012-12-05

A virtual network control method, for adaptively controlling a topology of a virtual network formed on a physical network in response to environmental changes in the virtual network, is provided with: a step of storing the Langevin equation, as a fluctuation equation, which models the dynamics of the topology of the virtual network as a variable for controlling the number of wavelength paths on the physical network; a step of designing control parameters included in the fluctuation equation; and a step of controlling the topology of the virtual network by applying the control parameters to the fluctuation equation to change an order parameter included in the fluctuation equation when environmental changes occur in the virtual network, and by transitioning the solution of the fluctuation equation between attractors determined by the deterministic term of the fluctuation equation due to the fluctuation term of the fluctuation equation.


Patent
Pias Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2016-08-23

The present invention aims to provide a mesenchymal stem cell attractant capable of attracting a mesenchymal stem cell; and others. The present invention provides a mesenchymal stem cell attractant containing at least one selected from the group consisting of an extract of a Bodhi tree, an extract of the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews, an extract of Mallotus philippinensis, an extract of Uncaria gambir, an extract of Pashanbheda, and an extract of a plant belonging to the genus Prunus.


An object of the present invention is to efficiently improve uniformity of energy lines to be irradiated. A method of determining nuclear fusion irradiation coordinates according to the present invention is a method of calculating irradiation coordinates when energy lines are irradiated onto a nuclear fusion target, and comprises an initial arrangement step S202 of virtually arranging electric charges Q_(i) at initial coordinates of the number of irradiation coordinates N_(B) on a spherical surface S_(0) set by using random numbers, a coordinate analysis step S203 of analyzing coordinates r_(i) of the electric charges Q_(i) in time series based on coulomb forces acting among the electric charges Q_(i) by constraining the coordinates r_(i) onto the spherical surface S_(0), potential evaluation steps S205 and S206 of determining a timing at which potential energies of the electric charges Q_(i) were stabilized based on the coordinates r_(i), and an irradiation coordinate deriving step S207 of deriving coordinates r_(i) at the timing at which potential energies were stabilized as irradiation coordinates of energy lines in a case where a nuclear fusion target is arranged at the center of the spherical surface S_(0).


Patent
Osaka University, Tokai University, Hamamatsu Photonics K K, Furukawa Electric Group, Nagasaki Prefectural Government and Tokuyama Corporation | Date: 2010-04-27

A neutron measurement apparatus 1A includes a neutron detection unit 10, a photodetection unit 20 that detects scintillation light emitted from the neutron detection unit 10, a light guide optical system 15 that guides the scintillation light from the neutron detection unit 10 to the photodetection unit 20, and a shielding member 30 which is located between the neutron detection unit 10 and the photodetection unit 20 for shielding radiation passing in a direction toward the photodetection unit 20. Further, a scintillator formed of a lithium glass material in which PrF_(3 )is doped to a glass material 20Al(PO_(3))_(3)-80LiF is used as a neutron detection scintillator composing the neutron detection unit 10. Thereby, the neutron detection scintillator and the neutron measurement apparatus which are capable of suitably performing neutron measurement such as measurement of scattered neutrons from an implosion plasma can be realized.


Patent
Osaka University and Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Date: 2015-11-18

A laser device (1) including a plurality of oscillating means (10) for oscillating a plurality of laser lights (L1) being continuous lights and having frequencies different from each other, respectively, multiplexing means (13) for multiplexing, after amplifying or without amplifying, the respective laser lights oscillated from the respective oscillating means at a predetermined position to generate a multiplexed light (L2), and phase control means (20) for controlling the phase of each of the laser lights so that a peak in output of the multiplexed light repeatedly appears at predetermined time intervals at the predetermined position so that the same pulse temporal waveform repeatedly appears at predetermined time intervals. The laser device may comprise DFB laser diodes (10) and a grating (13) for wavelength multiplexing and temperature controlled fiber segments as phase control means (20), the control comprising detection of beat signals and a feedback loop for phase stabilisation.


Patent
Hamamatsu Photonics K K and Osaka University | Date: 2011-09-06

A laser device including a plurality of oscillating means for oscillating a plurality of laser lights being continuous lights and having frequencies different from each other, respectively, multiplexing means for multiplexing, after amplifying or without amplifying, the respective laser lights oscillated from the respective oscillating means at a predetermined position to generate a multiplexed light, and phase control means for controlling the phase of each of the laser lights so that a peak in output of the multiplexed light repeatedly appears at predetermined time intervals at the predetermined position (so that the same pulse temporal waveform repeatedly appears at predetermined time intervals).


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute and Osaka University | Date: 2011-12-14

There is provided a tool for friction stir welding having excellent wear resistance and chipping resistance. The tool for friction stir welding according to the present invention is a tool for friction stir welding used in friction stir welding processing, wherein the tool for friction stir welding includes a base material, the base material includes a first hard phase and a binder phase, and has a thermal conductivity of 45 W/mK or less, the first hard phase is formed by WC particles, and the binder phase is formed by an iron group metal and is included in the base material at a volume ratio of 8% by volume or more and 28% by volume or less.


Patent
Osaka University and Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Date: 2012-12-28

A laser device 1 demultiplexes seed light L_(0 )into a plurality of beams of laser light L_(1 )and then continuously optically amplifies the plurality of beams of the laser light L_(1 )with an amplifier 14. Therefore, its amplification factor can be set higher than that in the case of amplifying pulsed laser light. When producing multiplexed light L_(3 )by multiplexing the beams of the amplified laser light L_(1 )with a diffraction grating 16, respective phases of the beams of the laser light L_(1 )are controlled such that an output peak of the multiplexed light L_(3 )repeatedly appears at a converging position P_(1 )at a predetermined time interval. This produces pulsed laser light at the converging position P_(1 )from a plurality of beams of laser light L_(2 )amplified at a high amplification factor. Hence, this laser device 1 can produce pulsed laser light with a high output.


Patent
Osaka University, Tokai University, Tokuyama Corporation, Furukawa Electric Group, Nagasaki Prefectural Government and Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Date: 2012-03-07

A neutron measurement apparatus 1A includes a neutron detection unit 10, a photodetection unit 20 that detects scintillation light emitted from the neutron detection unit 10, a light guide optical system 15 that guides the scintillation light from the neutron detection unit 10 to the photodetection unit 20, and a shielding member 30 which is located between the neutron detection unit 10 and the photodetection unit 20 for shielding radiation passing in a direction toward the photodetection unit 20. Further, a scintillator formed of a lithium glass material in which PrF_(3) is doped to a glass material 20Al(PO_(3))_(3)-8OLiF is used as a neutron detection scintillator composing the neutron detection unit 10. Thereby, the neutron detection scintillator and the neutron measurement apparatus which are capable of suitably performing neutron measurement such as measurement of scattered neutrons from an implosion plasma can be realized.


Patent
Osaka University and Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Date: 2013-07-17

A laser device including a plurality of oscillating means for oscillating a plurality of laser lights being continuous lights and having frequencies different from each other, respectively, multiplexing means for multiplexing, after amplifying or without amplifying, the respective laser lights oscillated from the respective oscillating means at a predetermined position to generate a multiplexed light, and phase control means for controlling the phase of each of the laser lights so that a peak in output of the multiplexed light repeatedly appears at predetermined time intervals at the predetermined position (so that the same pulse temporal waveform repeatedly appears at predetermined time intervals).


Patent
NEC Corp, Osaka University and NIPPON Avionics Co. | Date: 2014-02-19

Provided is an imaging system, including: a light source; an imaging device; a first optical system for irradiating an imaging object with light from the light source; a second optical system for causing one of light reflected from the imaging object and light transmitted through the imaging object to enter the imaging device; a control device for controlling the light source to irradiate the light with a predetermined period; and a processing device for acquiring time-series image data over a plurality of frames by controlling the light source to irradiate the light with the predetermined period, and allocating a maximum pixel intensity among the time-series pixel data of each pixel as pixel data of the each pixel to thereby obtain first image data when the light source irradiates the light.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Osaka University and Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute | Date: 2013-10-30

There is provided a tool for friction stir welding, in which a coating layer is less likely to peel off from a base material and excellent wear resistance and joining quality are achieved. The tool for friction stir welding according to the present invention includes a base material and a coating layer formed on the base material, the base material includes a first hard phase, a second hard phase and a binder phase, the first hard phase is formed by WC particles, the second hard phase is formed by a compound of one or more metals selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb. Ta, Cr, Mo, and W and one or more elements selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, carbon, boron, and oxygen, or a solid solution of the compound (except for WC), and is included in the base material at a volume ratio of 3% by volume or more and 30% by volume or less, the binder phase is formed by an iron group metal and is included in the base material at a volume ratio of 8% by volume or more and 28% by volume or less, and a constituting ratio between the first hard phase and the second hard phase is such that the first hard phase is higher than the second hard phase in terms of volume ratio.


Patent
Hamamatsu Photonics K K and Osaka University | Date: 2012-05-17

A dental therapy apparatus which enables a dental therapy more surely and less invasively is provided. A dental therapy apparatus (10A) comprises a laser light source (11) emitting laser light (L) having a wavelength within a wavelength region of 5.7 to 6.6 m; a controller (12) pulse-driving the laser light source and controlling at least one of pulse width and repetition frequency of pulsed laser light emitted from the laser light source; and an irradiation optical system for irradiating a tooth (20) including a carious part (21) with the light emitted from the laser light source. In this dental therapy apparatus, the controller controls at least one of the pulse width and repetition frequency of the pulsed light, so as to selectively cut the carious part (21).


Patent
Osaka University and Hamamatsu Photonics K K | Date: 2015-01-07

A laser device 1 demultiplexes seed light L_(0) into a plurality of beams of laser light L_(1) and then continuously optically amplifies the plurality of beams of the laser light L_(1) with an amplifier 14. Therefore, its amplification factor can be set higher than that in the case of amplifying pulsed laser light. When producing multiplexed light L_(3) by multiplexing the beams of the amplified laser light L_(1) with a diffraction grating 16, respective phases of the beams of the laser light L_(1) are controlled such that an output peak of the multiplexed light L_(3) repeatedly appears at a converging position P_(1) at a predetermined time interval. This produces pulsed laser light at the converging position P_(1) from a plurality of beams of laser light L_(2) amplified at a high amplification factor. Hence, this laser device 1 can produce pulsed laser light with a high output.


Patent
Asubio Pharma Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2010-03-31

The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for cancer treatment, which comprises an antibody against a peptide region encoded by Exon-17 of periostin. More specifically, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for cancer treatment, which comprises an anti-periostin antibody recognizing a splice variant of periostin having anti-cell adhesive properties specifically expressed in interstitial tissue during tissue restructuring such as cancer tissues, or a method and reagent for cancer diagnosis using the above anti-periostin antibody.


Patent
Osaka University and IHI Corporation | Date: 2013-05-21

A magnetic wave gear device (1A, 1B, 1F) includes: a first member (10), a second member (20), and a third member (30) which are rotatable relative to one another around a rotation axis (R). The second member (20) is disposed between the first member (10) and the third member (30), and includes magnetic material pieces (21). The first member (10) includes first permanent magnets (12A, 12B). The third member (30) includes: a plurality of pole teeth (32), a pole tooth (32) being wound with a coil (33); and second permanent magnets (34B), each second permanent magnet (34B) being disposed between pole teeth (32) next to each other, and the magnetic poles of sides of the second permnanent magnets (34B) facing the second member (20) being the same pole.


Patent
Osaka University and Pias Corporation | Date: 2011-03-11

The present invention aims to provide a mesenchymal stem cell attractant capable of attracting a mesenchymal stem cell; and others. The present invention provides a mesenchymal stem cell attractant containing at least one selected from the group consisting of an extract of a Bodhi tree, an extract of the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews, an extract of Mallotus philippinensis, an extract of Uncaria gambir an extract of Pashanbheda, and an extract of a plant belonging to the genus Prunus.


Patent
Osaka University, Benesis Corporation, Medical and Biological Laboratories Co. | Date: 2011-10-26

Provided is a human antibody having a neutralization activity against a human influenza virus. More specifically, provided is a human antibody which recognizes a highly conserved region in a human influenza A virus subtype H3N2 or a human influenza B virus and has a neutralization activity against the virus. The human antibody is a human anti-human influenza virus antibody, which has a neutralization activity against a human influenza A virus subtype H3N2 and binds to a hemagglutinin HA1 region of the human influenza A virus subtype H3N2, or which has a neutralization activity against a human influenza B virus, and includes, as a base sequence of a DNA encoding a variable region of the antibody, a sequence set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 5 to 12.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

If you've ever wondered how a vaccine given decades ago can still protect against infection, you have your plasma cells to thank. Plasma cells are long-lived B cells that reside in the bone marrow and churn out antibodies against previously encountered vaccines or pathogens. While plasma cells are vital components of the immune system, they can also be a contributor to disease, as is the case in autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, and in certain cancers, such as multiple myeloma. Now, a group led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, has come to a better understanding of how these cells are maintained. Using a specialized type of microscope that captures the movement and interaction of cells in living organisms, the scientists observed that, in the bone marrow, immune cells called regulatory T cells closely interact with plasma cells and support them. When the T cells aren't there, plasma cells vanish. "This interaction was completely unanticipated," said senior author Christopher A. Hunter, Mindy Halikman Heyer Distinguished Professor of Pathobiology and chair of the Department of Pathobiology at Penn Vet. "If we can understand what controls these long-lived plasma cells, then maybe we can augment that interaction, making more plasma cells to, for example, enhance vaccine efficiency. Or, if you want to limit autoimmunity or cancer, maybe there is an opportunity to disrupt this niche to mitigate some of those conditions." The research, published in the journal Cell Reports, was led by two trainees in Hunter's laboratory, Arielle Glatman Zaretsky and Christoph Konradt, along with a team of researchers from Penn Vet, Penn's Perelman School of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Osaka University, Medimmune, the University of California, San Diego, and The Wistar Institute. Hunter's laboratory has long investigated how the immune system responds to infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. They have used high-tech microscopy to visualize the dynamics of immune cells and other structures in living organisms. This specialized imaging was able to turn up a surprising finding. A video of the bone marrow in a mouse exposed to T. gondii revealed that the animal's plasma cells disappeared, later returning as the infection was controlled. A few other groups had seen plasma cells behave similarly in response to systemic inflammation or infection, but the reason for the drop in plasma cells remained unclear. "We don't know whether these cells leave the bone marrow or die there during infection, but, either way, they are gone," said Glatman Zaretzky. "And that set up a great system to understand what kinds of cellular interactions normally create the hospitable environment and allow the plasma cells to remain there." The research team had noticed that regulatory T cells, which Hunter calls "the health and safety inspectors" of the immune system because they keep immune responses at the appropriate level, were located in a similar region of the bone marrow as the plasma cells, next to the blood vessels. And, when mice were exposed to an infection, these "T regs" declined precipitously, just as the plasma cells had. Together, these observations called to mind an earlier finding by another group of scientists that showed that T regs play a key role in protecting the bone marrow from inflammation. In other words, it suggested that T regs make the bone marrow an immune-privileged site, shielding its vital components from the potentially damaging effects of infection or immune response. Curious whether these T regs interacted with plasma cells, the researchers examined both cell types in mice that have T regs labeled with a green fluorescent marker and plasma cells labeled with a yellow one. They found that T regs appeared to be closely interacting with plasma cells for extended periods of time. "No one had put these two cell types together before," Hunter said. "Yet, when we looked, we saw that these interactions were not rare but were frequent and sustained." Further studies found that both of these cell types also interact with dendritic cells, which are thought to promote plasma-cell survival. The researchers also demonstrated that T regs were necessary to maintain plasma cells, showing that enhancing T reg survival in mice during infection increased plasma-cell numbers and that experimentally depleting T regs led to reductions in plasma cells. The work gives insight into how the body is able to sustain plasma cells for so long, ensuring that they will jump into action even years after a vaccine was administered or an earlier infection was conquered. They also lay the foundation for targeting this cell population -- a feat that has thus far escaped scientists -- to ameliorate autoimmune diseases that arise due to inappropriate antibody production or to treat cancers that form from plasma cells. In addition to Hunter, Glatman Zaretsky and Kondradt, the paper's authors were Penn Vet's Julie B. Engiles, Dorothy C. Borwn and Daniel Beiting; Penn Medicine's Radhika Goenka, Daniela Gómez Atria, William J. Quinn, David Allman and Michael P. Cancro; Harvard's Fabien Dépis and Christophe O. Benoist; Osaka University's James B. Wing and Shimon Sakaguchi; Medimmune's Jonathan S. Silver; UCSD's Suglim Cho and Lifan Lu; and Wistar's Amaya I. Wolf and Jan Erikson. The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health, Lupus Foundation of America and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.


Minamino T.,Osaka University | Kitakaze M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2010

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle involved in protein folding, calcium homeostasis, and lipid biosynthesis. Various factors that interfere with ER function lead to accumulation of unfolded proteins, including oxidative stress, ischemia, disturbance of calcium homeostasis, and overexpression of normal and/or incorrectly folded proteins. The resulting ER stress triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) that induces signal transduction events to reduce the accumulation of unfolded proteins by increasing ER resident chaperones, inhibiting protein translation, and accelerating the degradation of unfolded proteins. However, if stress is severe and/or prolonged, the ER also initiates apoptotic signaling that includes induction of the pro-apoptotic transcriptional factor C/EBP homologous protein, activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase, and cleavage of caspase-12. These ER-initiated events lead to cell death via mitochondria-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. Furthermore, the B cell lymphoma 2 family of proteins expressed on the ER and mitochondria are also involved in regulating cell death due to ER stress. Thus, the ER is now recognized as a vitally important organelle that can decide cell survival or death. Recent animal and human studies have revealed that the UPR and ER-initiated apoptosis are implicated in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, ischemic heart disease, the development of atherosclerosis, and plaque rupture. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying UPR activation and ER-initiated apoptosis in cardiovascular disease will provide us with new targets for drug discovery and therapeutic intervention. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Yoshino H.,Osaka University | Mezard M.,University Paris - Sud
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We compute the shear modulus of structural glasses from a first-principles approach based on the cloned liquid theory. We find that the intrastate shear modulus, which corresponds to the plateau modulus measured in linear viscoelastic measurements, strongly depends on temperature and vanishes continuously when the temperature is increased beyond the glass temperature. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Patent
Osaka University and Anges Mg Inc. | Date: 2013-08-28

The present invention provides a therapeutic or prophylactic agent for cancer, containing an expression vector encoding a chimeric Hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide inserted with an amino acid sequence containing a specific epitope of VEGF and/or a specific epitope of angiopoietin-2, wherein the amino acid sequence containing the specific epitope is inserted between the amino acid residues 80 and 81 of the hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group, Institute For Laser Technology and Osaka University | Date: 2014-11-26

A multi-beam combining apparatus includes a phase shifting section, a superposing section, an observing section and a phase control section. The phase shifting section generates a plurality of phase-shifted laser beams by shifting the phase of each of the plurality of laser beams. The superposing section generates a plurality of superposed laser beam by superposing the reference laser beam and each of the plurality of phase-shifted laser beams. The observing section generates interference pattern data of a spatial interference pattern which appears when observing each of the superposed laser beams. The phase control section carries out a feedback control of the phase shifts in the phase shifting section based on the interference pattern data obtained for every superposed laser beam, and thereby sets the plurality of phase-shifted laser beams to desired states.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group and Osaka University | Date: 2011-07-20

A linear actuator includes a coil portion and a shaft portion. The coil portion includes a plurality of coils respectively applied with AC currents having different phases from one another. The shaft portion passes through an inside of the plurality of coils. The shaft portion includes: a plurality of permanent magnets and a plurality of intermediate members. The plurality of permanent magnets is arranged along a central axis C such that opposite magnetization directions face to each other in a direction of the central axis C. Each of the plurality of intermediate members is arranged between adjacent two of the plurality of permanent magnets. A saturation magnetic flux density of each of the plurality of intermediate members is higher than a saturation magnetic flux density of each of the plurality of permanent magnets.


Patent
Osaka University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2011-09-23

A laser gain medium includes an optical medium configured to transmit a laser beam and having an incident face, a first face, a second face opposing to the first face; and gain media configured to amplify the laser beam while reflecting the laser beam. At least one of the gain media is joined on a first face of the optical medium as a first face gain medium, and at least one of the remaining gain media is joined on a second face of the optical medium as a second face gain medium. The laser beam is incident into the optical medium, and is amplified by the first face gain medium and the second face gain medium while being alternately reflected by the first face gain medium and the second face gain medium.


Patent
SCREEN Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-02-11

An inspection apparatus includes an irradiation part that emits plural pieces of pulse light having different wavelengths to irradiate a multi-junction type solar cell; a wavelength setting part that sets the wavelengths of the plural pieces of pulse light with which the multi-junction type solar cell is irradiated by the irradiation part; and a detection part that detects an electric field intensity of an electromagnetic wave emitted from the multi-junction type solar cell in response to the plural pieces of pulse light with which the multi-junction type solar cell is irradiated by the irradiation part. The irradiation part includes a delay element that delays a time the multi-junction type solar cell is irradiated with the pulse light by a time t11 relative to the pulse light.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2013-04-26

The present invention provides a method for producing an epoxy compound by expoxidation of an olefin compound with good productivity wherein a compound having a carbon-carbon double bond is reacted with hydrogen peroxide in the coexistence of (a) a compound having a carbon-carbon double bond, (b) a hydrogen peroxide solution, (c) a powdered solid catalyst support and (d) a powdered catalyst and optionally (e) an organic solvent, the total mass of (c) and (d) being 100 percent by mass or less on the basis of the total mass of (a), (b) and (e).


Patent
SCREEN Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-03-11

A first electro-optic crystal substrate and a second electro-optic crystal substrate are provided as an electro-optic crystal substrate. The first electro-optic crystal substrate comprises a first periodic polarization reversal structure in which first polarization pairs, in each of which the directions of polarization in response to electric fields are opposite to each other, are arranged in a first period along a first arrangement direction which is orthogonal or inclined with respect to the direction of propagation, and light passes through the first periodic polarization reversal structure. The second electro-optic crystal substrate comprises a second periodic polarization reversal structure in which second polarization pairs, in each of which the directions of polarization in response to electric fields are opposite to each other, are arranged in a second period along a second arrangement direction which is orthogonal or inclined with respect to the direction of propagation, and light outstanding from the first electro-optic crystal substrate passes through the second periodic polarization reversal structure. At least one of a first condition and a second condition is satisfied. The first condition is that the first and the second periods are different from each other and a second condition is that the first arrangement direction and the second arrangement direction are different from each other.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group and Osaka University | Date: 2016-06-01

The neutron irradiation apparatus 100 includes an introduction tube 1 for introducing a proton beam, a target structure 2 provided in a lower end of the introduction tube 1, an aluminum fluoride layer 3 disposed below the target structure 2 in an irradiation path of neutrons generated in the target structure 2, and a heavy water layer 4 placed under the aluminum fluoride layer 3 in layers. The aluminum fluoride layer 3 is set at a thickness that increases epithermal neutrons. Since use of only the aluminum fluoride layer 3 increases its thickness too much, heavy water is placed. Heavy water moderates neutrons quickly, and allows increasing epithermal neutrons without increasing the thickness. The combination of the aluminum fluoride layer 3 and the heavy water layer 4 allows increasing epithermal neutrons by attenuating only fast neutrons without increasing thermal neutrons. Accordingly, neutron flux with many epithermal neutrons is obtained.


Patent
Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-11-04

Disclosed is a hemostatic agent applicator capable of effectively placing a fluid hemostatic agent on an incision surface. The present invention is a hemostatic agent applicator for use in disposing a fluid hemostatic agent, including a tool body in which a hollow part surrounded by a wall part is formed and which includes an open end part on a downstream side of the wall part, and an inlet provided to a portion of the wall part of the tool body to communicate with the hollow part. This hemostatic agent applicator is useful in medical settings relating to surgical procedures, particularly for surface bleeding of a liver and internal organ surgery such as a spleen and fibroid enucleation. An applicator further reduced in size can be applied not only in abdominal surgery, but in endoscopic surgery as well.


Patent
SCREEN Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-03-24

An inspection apparatus according to an aspect of the present invention inspects a solar cell that is of a photo device. The inspection apparatus includes: an irradiation part that irradiates the solar cell with pulse light emitted from a femtosecond laser that is of a light source; an electromagnetic wave detection part that detects an electromagnetic wave pulse emitted from the solar cell in response to the irradiation of the solar cell with the pulse light; and a PL light detection part that detects photoluminescence light generated in the solar cell in response to the irradiation of the solar cell with the pulse light.


Patent
Yamashina Seiki Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2013-01-23

The catheter (1, 11) for an endoscope of the present invention comprises an openings (2, 12) in the vicinity of the tip at a distal end thereof, wherein the opening has a diameter smaller than an inner diameter of the catheter, and a plurality of said openings are provided. The catheter for an endoscope of the present invention can have multiple functions such as irrigation, suction, incision, cauterization, hemostasis by coagulation, and smoke evacuation.


Patent
Osaka University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2013-02-27

There is provided a liquid metal target forming apparatus, including a nozzle that forms a liquid metal target in space, which is irradiated with a proton beam, by ejecting liquid metal thereto. A portion where a region that receives a proton beam of the liquid metal target is formed in a discharge port of the nozzle has a concavo-convex shape.


Patent
SCREEN Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-09-25

There is provided a technique for easily inspecting the modification state of a film in a semiconductor substrate. A modification processing device modifies a film by irradiating a semiconductor substrate with pulsed light emitted from a light irradiation part. The modification processing device includes an electromagnetic wave detection part for detecting an electromagnetic wave pulse including a millimeter wave or a terahertz wave radiated from the semiconductor substrate in response to the irradiation with the pulsed light. The modification processing device further includes a modification determination part for determining the modification state, based on the intensity of the electromagnetic wave pulse.


Patent
Osaka University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2013-03-25

A electromagnetic pump is configured that a housing includes therein an outer cylinder made of stainless steel, an inner cylinder made of stainless steel and arranged inside the outer cylinder, and an electromagnetic coil arranged around the outer cylinder. The outer cylinder is configured as a conical frustum having a large diameter in the inlet side and a small diameter in the outlet side. Similarly, the inner cylinder has a large diameter in the inlet side and a small diameter in the outlet side. A duct is formed between the outer cylinder and the inner cylinder. The radial cross sectional area of the duct is large in the inlet side and small in the outlet side.


Patent
Osaka University and AnGes MG Inc. | Date: 2014-02-19

The present invention provides a therapeutic or improving agent for a lifestyle-related disease, containing an expression vector encoding a chimeric Hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide inserted with an amino acid sequence containing a specific epitope of the lifestyle-related disease-related factor, wherein the amino acid sequence containing the specific epitope is inserted between the amino acid residues 80 and 81 of the hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide.


Patent
Anges Mg Inc. and Osaka University | Date: 2012-04-13

The present invention provides a therapeutic or improving agent for a lifestyle-related disease, containing an expression vector encoding a chimeric Hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide inserted with an amino acid sequence containing a specific epitope of the lifestyle-related disease-related factor, wherein the amino acid sequence containing the specific epitope is inserted between the amino acid residues 80 and 81 of the hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2013-04-26

The present invention provides a method for producing an alicyclic diepoxy compound at a higher yield by carrying out epoxidation of an alicyclic olefin compound at a higher reaction rate. The method is a method for producing an alicyclic diepoxy compound represented by formula (1) below by reacting an alicyclic olefin compound represented by formula (2) below with hydrogen peroxide in the coexistence of the alicyclic olefin compound represented by formula (2) below, a hydrogen peroxide solution, a powdered solid catalyst support and a powdered solid catalyst all together: wherein R^(1 )to R^(12 )are each hydrogen, halogen, an alkyl group optionally having halogen or an alkoxy group optionally having a substituent.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2013-04-26

In order to produce an epoxy compound with a less chlorine content at a higher reaction rate and yield, the present invention provides a method for producing an epoxy compound by reacting a compound having a carbon-carbon double bond with hydrogen peroxide in the coexistence of the compound having a carbon-carbon double bond, the hydrogen peroxide solution, a powdered solid catalyst support and a powdered solid catalyst all together, the solid catalyst comprising isopolyacids produced from (a) tungstic acid or a salt thereof and (b) a quaternary ammonium salt compound and/or a pyridinium salt, selected from halogen-free compounds.


Patent
Osaka University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2013-02-27

There is provided a quench tank which is disposed in a circulation path of a liquid metal loop and separates and cools liquid metal steam or a mixed gas in liquid metal introduced into a tank body. The tank body includes a separating area which forms a substantially horizontal flow of the liquid metal, and a separating plate is disposed inside the tank body so as to be inclined with respect to the vertical direction.


Patent
SCREEN Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-01-14

A photo device inspection apparatus (100) is an apparatus for inspecting a solar cell panel (90), which is a photo device. The photo device inspection apparatus (100) includes an irradiation part (12) configured to irradiate the solar cell panel (90) with pulsed light (LP11) radiated from a femtosecond laser (121), which is a light source, an electromagnetic wave detection part (132) configured to detect a pulse of an electromagnetic wave (LT1) radiated from the solar cell panel (90) in response to irradiation with the pulsed light (LP11), and an ammeter (14) configured to detect a current generated by the solar cell panel (90) in response to irradiation with the pulsed light (LP11).


Patent
Osaka University and Mitsubishi Group | Date: 2014-09-05

The neutron irradiation apparatus includes an introduction tube for introducing a proton beam, a target structure provided in a lower end of the introduction tube, an aluminum fluoride layer disposed below the target structure in an irradiation path of neutrons generated in the target structure, and a heavy water layer placed under the aluminum fluoride layer in layers. The aluminum fluoride layer is set at a thickness that increases epithermal neutrons. Since use of only the aluminum fluoride layer increases its thickness too much, heavy water is placed. Heavy water moderates neutrons quickly, and allows increasing epithermal neutrons without increasing the thickness. The combination of the aluminum fluoride layer and the heavy water layer allows increasing epithermal neutrons by attenuating only fast neutrons without increasing thermal neutrons. Accordingly, neutron flux with many epithermal neutrons is obtained.


Patent
Screen Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2014-12-10

An inspection apparatus inspects a solar cell. The inspection apparatus includes: a short-circuiting element that electrically connects an anode as a p-type semiconductor layer and a cathode as an n-type semiconductor layer of the solar cell to short-circuit the solar cell; an irradiation part that irradiates the solar cell short-circuited by the short-circuiting element with pulse light; and a detection part that detects an electromagnetic wave emitted from the solar cell in response to the irradiation of the solar cell with pulse light from the irradiation part.


Patent
Osaka University and Yamashina Seiki Co. | Date: 2011-03-03

The catheter (1, 11) for an endoscope of the present invention comprises an openings (2, 12) in the vicinity of the tip at a distal end thereof, wherein the opening has a diameter smaller than an inner diameter of the catheter, and a plurality of said openings are provided. The catheter for an endoscope of the present invention can have multiple functions such as irrigation, suction, incision, cauterization, hemostasis by coagulation, and smoke evacuation.


Patent
Osaka University and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2011-02-18

A process for producing an ,-unsaturated bond-containing ester compound, comprising: (in the formula (1), R^(1 )represents an alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms; R^(2 )and R^(3 )each independently represent an alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms or an aryl group; and when R^(1 )and R^(2 )are alkyl groups, R^(1 )and R^(2 )may be bonded to each other to form a ring structure).


Patent
Mitsubishi Group, Institute For Laser Technology and Osaka University | Date: 2013-01-17

A multi-beam combining apparatus includes a phase shifting section, a superposing section, an observing section and a phase control section. The phase shifting section generates a plurality of phase-shifted laser beams by shifting the phase of each of the plurality of laser beams. The superposing section generates a plurality of superposed laser beam by superposing the reference laser beam and each of the plurality of phase-shifted laser beams. The observing section generates interference pattern data of a spatial interference pattern which appears when observing each of the superposed laser beams. The phase control section carries out a feedback control of the phase shifts in the phase shifting section based on the interference pattern data obtained for every superposed laser beam, and thereby sets the plurality of phase-shifted laser beams to desired states.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2014-11-17

A method for producing an epoxy compound by reacting a compound having a carbon-carbon double bond with hydrogen peroxide in the coexistence of the compound having a carbon-carbon double bond, aqueous hydrogen peroxide, a powder of a solid catalyst support and a powder of a solid catalyst, wherein the solid catalyst comprises an isopolyacid, and the isopolyacid is produced from a catalyst raw material comprising (a) tungstic acid or a salt thereof and (b) at least one selected from the group consisting of a salt of an alkaline earth metal and a cationic polymer.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group and Osaka University | Date: 2014-03-26

A linear vernier motor includes a stator and a mover. The stator extends in a first direction. The mover extends in the first direction and a pole interval is different from that of the stator. At least one of the stator and the mover includes: a plurality of permanent magnets arranged in the first direction and a plurality of yokes arranged in the first direction. Each of the plurality of yokes is arranged between adjacent permanent magnets. The plurality of permanent magnets is magnetized to the first direction and magnetization orientations of adjacent permanent magnets are opposite to each other.


Patent
Osaka University and AnGes MG Inc. | Date: 2015-07-08

The present invention provides a therapeutic or prophylactic agent for cancer, containing an expression vector encoding a chimeric Hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide inserted with an amino acid sequence containing a specific epitope of VEGF and/or a specific epitope of angiopoietin-2, wherein the amino acid sequence containing the specific epitope is inserted between the amino acid residues 80 and 81 of the hepatitis B virus core antigen polypeptide.


Patent
Mitsubishi Group and Osaka University | Date: 2010-05-05

A laser gain medium includes an optical medium (1) configured to transmit a laser beam and having an incident face, a first face (4a), a second face (4b) opposing to the first face; and gain media (2a-2e) configured to amplify the laser beam while reflecting the laser beam. At least one of the gain media is joined on a first face of the optical medium as a first face gain medium, and at least one of the remaining gain media is joined on a second face of the optical medium as a second face gain medium. The laser beam is incident into the optical medium, and is amplified by the first face gain medium and the second face gain medium while being alternately reflected by the first face gain medium and the second face gain medium.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2012-08-15

A method for manufacturing a ketone, comprising: oxidizing an internal olefin or a cyclic olefin having a functional group containing a hetero atom and one carbon-carbon double bond or more at a position other than terminals of a molecule thereof in an amide-based solvent in the presence of water, a palladium catalyst, and molecular oxygen, without oxidizing the functional group, thereby bonding an oxo group to at least one of the carbon atoms constituting the carbon-carbon double bond, the amide-based solvent being represented by the following formula (1) :^(1) represents an alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms; R^(2) and R^(3) each independently represent an alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms or an aryl group; and when R^(1) and R^(2) are alkyl groups, R^(1) and R^(2) may be bonded to each other to form a ring structure).


Patent
SCREEN Holdings Co. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-02-25

An inspection apparatus 100 is an apparatus for inspecting a solar cell panel 90. The inspection apparatus 100 includes: an excitation light irradiation part 12 for irradiating the solar cell panel 90 with pulsed light LP11 for causing the solar cell panel 90 to radiate an electromagnetic wave pulse LT1; a detection part 13 for detecting the electromagnetic wave pulse LT1 radiated from the solar cell panel 90 in response to irradiation with the pulsed light LP11; and a temperature changing part 31 for changing a temperature of the solar cell panel 90 at a part irradiated with the pulsed light LP11.


Patent
Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Osaka University | Date: 2013-11-21

Disclosed is a hemostatic agent applicator capable of effectively placing a fluid hemostatic agent on an incision surface. The present invention is a hemostatic agent applicator for use in disposing a fluid hemostatic agent, including a tool body in which a hollow part surrounded by a wall part is formed and which includes an open end part on a downstream side of the wall part, and an inlet provided to a portion of the wall part of the tool body to communicate with the hollow part. This hemostatic agent applicator is useful in medical settings relating to surgical procedures, particularly for surface bleeding of a liver and internal organ surgery such as a spleen and fibroid enucleation. An applicator further reduced in size can be applied not only in abdominal surgery, but in endoscopic surgery as well.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Osaka University and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Otsuka) signed a comprehensive collaboration agreement for advanced research in immunology between the Osaka University Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC) and Otsuka. This agreement allows researchers at IFReC to focus on original basic research areas and, with Otsuka, to develop innovative new treatments therefore contributing back to society with the results of their advanced immunology research. IFReC was selected for the World Premier International Research Center (WPI) Initiative Program initiated by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in 2007 and launched at Osaka University in October of the same year as a research center in immunology. Led by Director Shizuo Akira, an eminent immunologist, IFReC brings together around 170 of the world's leading investigators in the fields of immunology, live imaging and bioinformatics from Japan and across the world to conduct innovative immunological research. The center provides an international environment coupled with excellent research facilities, making it possible to pursue leading-edge research. IFReC researchers publish in internationally renowned academic journals to high acclaim including the award of several prestigious international prizes. Guided by our corporate philosophy, Otsuka-people creating new products for better health worldwide, Otsuka is committed to improving the health and well-being of patients and consumers through "treating diseases" and "promoting daily health". As a total healthcare company, Otsuka continues to focus on creating creative and innovative products. In order to address unmet needs in medicine, we focus our research on central nervous system disorders and oncology, and also develop treatments in cardiovascular, infectious, ophthalmological, and dermatological disease fields. According to the agreement, Otsuka will have access to information regarding results of independent basic research projects at IFReC. Although Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., which signed a prior agreement has the right of first refusal on joint research projects and intellectual property. Otsuka can discuss future joint research with IFReC, and receive disclosure about future patent rights in immunology from Osaka University. As part of this agreement, Otsuka will contribute to the research activity expenses of IFReC for a period of 10 years.


News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

Mechanochromic luminescent (MCL) materials change their color in response to a change in their environment, like pressure and temperature. To date, most MCL materials only change between two colors, limiting their applications. The international research team comprising of chemists at Osaka University and physicists at Durham University has developed tricolor-changing MLC materials. Not only that, the developed materials exhibited efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and allowed high performance organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) devices. The findings can be read about in Chemical Science. "Most MCL materials generate two colors by switching between a stable state and one metastable state. To realize multi-color MCL, more metastable states are necessary," explain Professors Youhei Takeda and Satoshi Minakata at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering of Osaka University. To create these states, the chemist team led by Takeda and Minakata designed a new molecule by applying a conformationally-switchable phenothiazine (PTZ) as the donor. "By making the use of a promising and unique acceptor, dibenzophenazine (DBPHZ), which we previously developed, we made a PTZ-DBPHZ-PTZ triad," said Takeda. "In this structure, the PTZ moiety could take two distinct conformers, which therefore in principle creates in total four metastable states as a whole molecule." In response to heating, fuming, and grinding, the molecule switched its color between yellow, red and orange. The team found that the three colors derive from different conformers in which each PTZ takes either an equatorial or axial conformation relative to the DBPHZ core. "For red, both of PTZ units take an equatorial-equatorial conformer, for orange, PTZ had an equatorial-axial conformer, and for yellow, PTZ had an axial-axial conformer." Most OLEDs devices with high energy conversion efficiencies depend on expensive precious metals. TADF light emitting devices, on the other hand, can achieve equal or better efficiency at much lower cost, which is why they have gained popularity for the design of displays in daily electronics like smart phones. In collaboration with the physicists team at Durham University, the United Kingdom, led by Dr Data and Professor Monkman, they successfully made highly efficient OLED devices by applying the newly developed MCL-TADF molecule as an emissive material. Incorporating the PTZ-DBPHZ-PTZ triad into a light emitting device resulted in an efficiency three times higher than the theoretical maximum of conventional fluorescent materials. Takeda says that, "Our molecule could become a basis for efficient light-emitting devices and pressure- and temperature-responsive sensors in the future."


News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Mechanochromic luminescent (MCL) materials change their color in response to a change in their environment, like pressure and temperature. To date, most MCL materials only change between two colors, limiting their applications. The international research team comprising of chemists at Osaka University and physicists at Durham University has developed tricolor-changing MLC materials. Not only that, the developed materials exhibited efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and allowed high performance organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) devices. The findings can be read about in Chemical Science. "Most MCL materials generate two colors by switching between a stable state and one metastable state. To realize multi-color MCL, more metastable states are necessary," explain Professors Youhei Takeda and Satoshi Minakata at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering of Osaka University. To create these states, the chemist team led by Takeda and Minakata designed a new molecule by applying a conformationally-switchable phenothiazine (PTZ) as the donor. "By making the use of a promising and unique acceptor, dibenzophenazine (DBPHZ), which we previously developed, we made a PTZ-DBPHZ-PTZ triad," said Takeda. "In this structure, the PTZ moiety could take two distinct conformers, which therefore in principle creates in total four metastable states as a whole molecule." In response to heating, fuming, and grinding, the molecule switched its color between yellow, red and orange. The team found that the three colors derive from different conformers in which each PTZ takes either an equatorial or axial conformation relative to the DBPHZ core. "For red, both of PTZ units take an equatorial-equatorial conformer, for orange, PTZ had an equatorial-axial conformer, and for yellow, PTZ had an axial-axial conformer." Most OLEDs devices with high energy conversion efficiencies depend on expensive precious metals. TADF light emitting devices, on the other hand, can achieve equal or better efficiency at much lower cost, which is why they have gained popularity for the design of displays in daily electronics like smart phones. In collaboration with the physicists team at Durham University, the United Kingdom, led by Dr Data and Professor Monkman, they successfully made highly efficient OLED devices by applying the newly developed MCL-TADF molecule as an emissive material. Incorporating the PTZ-DBPHZ-PTZ triad into a light emitting device resulted in an efficiency three times higher than the theoretical maximum of conventional fluorescent materials. Takeda says that, "Our molecule could become a basis for efficient light-emitting devices and pressure- and temperature-responsive sensors in the future."


News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: phys.org

An illustrative summary of the developed organic luminescent material. Credit: Youhei Takeda Mechanochromic luminescent (MCL) materials change their color in response to a change in their environment, like pressure and temperature. To date, most MCL materials only change between two colors, limiting their applications. The international research team comprising of chemists at Osaka University and physicists at Durham University has developed tricolor-changing MLC materials. Not only that, the developed materials exhibited efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) and allowed high performance organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) devices. The findings can be read about in Chemical Science. "Most MCL materials generate two colors by switching between a stable state and one metastable state. To realize multi-color MCL, more metastable states are necessary," explain Professors Youhei Takeda and Satoshi Minakata at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering of Osaka University. To create these states, the chemist team led by Takeda and Minakata designed a new molecule by applying a conformationally-switchable phenothiazine (PTZ) as the donor. "By making the use of a promising and unique acceptor, dibenzophenazine (DBPHZ), which we previously developed, we made a PTZ-DBPHZ-PTZ triad," said Takeda. "In this structure, the PTZ moiety could take two distinct conformers, which therefore in principle creates in total four metastable states as a whole molecule." In response to heating, fuming, and grinding, the molecule switched its color between yellow, red and orange. The team found that the three colors derive from different conformers in which each PTZ takes either an equatorial or axial conformation relative to the DBPHZ core. "For red, both of PTZ units take an equatorial-equatorial conformer, for orange, PTZ had an equatorial-axial conformer, and for yellow, PTZ had an axial-axial conformer." Most OLEDs devices with high energy conversion efficiencies depend on expensive precious metals. TADF light emitting devices, on the other hand, can achieve equal or better efficiency at much lower cost, which is why they have gained popularity for the design of displays in daily electronics like smart phones. In collaboration with the physicists team at Durham University, the United Kingdom, led by Dr Data and Professor Monkman, they successfully made highly efficient OLED devices by applying the newly developed MCL-TADF molecule as an emissive material. Incorporating the PTZ-DBPHZ-PTZ triad into a light emitting device resulted in an efficiency three times higher than the theoretical maximum of conventional fluorescent materials. Takeda says that, "Our molecule could become a basis for efficient light-emitting devices and pressure- and temperature-responsive sensors in the future."


Minamino T.,Osaka University | Komuro I.,Osaka University | Kitakaze M.,National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Hospital
Circulation Research | Year: 2010

Cardiovascular disease constitutes a major and increasing health burden in developed countries. Although treatments have progressed, the development of novel treatments for patients with cardiovascular diseases remains a major research goal. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular organelle in which protein folding, calcium homeostasis, and lipid biosynthesis occur. Stimuli such as oxidative stress, ischemic insult, disturbances in calcium homeostasis, and enhanced expression of normal and/or folding-defective proteins lead to the accumulation of unfolded proteins, a condition referred to as ER stress. ER stress triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) to maintain ER homeostasis. The UPR involves a group of signal transduction pathways that ameliorate the accumulation of unfolded protein by increasing ER-resident chaperones, inhibiting protein translation and accelerating the degradation of unfolded proteins. The UPR is initially an adaptive response but, if unresolved, can lead to apoptotic cell death. Thus, the ER is now recognized as an important organelle in deciding cell life and death. There is compelling evidence that the adaptive and proapoptotic pathways of UPR play fundamental roles in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, ischemic heart diseases, and atherosclerosis. Thus, therapeutic interventions that target molecules of the UPR component and reduce ER stress will be promising strategies to treat cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in understanding UPR signaling in cardiovascular disease and its related therapeutic potential. Future studies may clarify the most promising molecules to be investigated as targets for cardiovascular diseases. © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.


Yang C.,Sichuan University | Inoue Y.,Osaka University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Supramolecular photochirogenesis is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary area of science at the boundary of photochemistry, asymmetric synthesis and supramolecular chemistry. The major advantage of supramolecular photochirogenesis over the conventional molecular one is entropic in origin, being achieved by preorganizing substrate(s) in the ground state and manipulating subsequent photochemical transformation by weak but non-transient interactions in chiral supramolecular media. The chirality transfer often becomes more efficient through the cooperative non-covalent interactions and the confinement by host in both ground and excited states. Thus, all of the ground- and excited-state events, including complexation stoichiometry and affinity, chiroptical properties, photophysical behaviour and photochemical reactivity, jointly play pivotal roles in supramolecular photochirogenesis. This may appear to cause complication but in reality expands the range of manipulable factors and available experimental/theoretical tools for elucidating the mechanism and controlling photochirogenic processes both thermodynamically and kinetically, from which some new concepts/methodologies unique to supramolecular photochemistry, such as non-sensitizing catalytic photochirogenesis and wavelength-controlled photochirogenesis, have already been developed. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress and future perspective of supramolecular photochirogenesis. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Slevin K.,Osaka University | Ohtsuki T.,Sophia University
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

We report a careful finite size scaling study of the metal-insulator transition in Anderson's model of localization. We focus on the estimation of the critical exponent ν that describes the divergence of the localization length. We verify the universality of this critical exponent for three different distributions of the random potential: box, normal and Cauchy. Our results for the critical exponent are consistent with the measured values obtained in experiments on the dynamical localization transition in the quantum kicked rotor realized in a cold atomic gas. © 2014 IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2010-04-28

The present invention provides a tumor marker and a method capable of identifying the morbidity of colon cancer. A tumor marker including a protein identified from a colon cancer tissue. A method for identify the morbidity of colon cancer using the tumor marker. The method includes: measuring the level of the protein in a sample derived from a person of interest who should be examined to identify the morbidity of colon cancer; and comparing the measured level to the normal level of the protein, wherein a higher or tower measured level than the normal level is used as one indicator indicating that there is a high possibility that the person of interest has colon cancer.


Patent
Osaka University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2011-06-23

A technique for reducing an electromagnetic noise entering an electrode or a drift of a signal due to a fluctuation in the ambient temperature is provided to improve the S/N ratio of a signal originating from a component of interest. A dummy electrode 11 having the same structure as an ion-collecting electrode 10 is provided within a lower gas passage 14 at a position where dilution gas with no sample gas mixed therein flows. A differential amplifier 14 is provided to perform differential detection between output A of a current amplifier 21 connected to the ion-collecting electrode 10 and output B of a current amplifier 22 connected to the dummy electrode 11. The differential signal is free from a common mode noise or drift and hence accurately reflects the amount of the component of interest.


Patent
Osaka University, Kyushu University and Chugai Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha | Date: 2016-07-28

The present invention relates to therapeutic and/or prophylactic agents for ocular inflammatory disease, which comprise an interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor inhibitor as an active ingredient.


Patent
Osaka University and ROHM Semiconductor | Date: 2014-03-04

The terahertz-wave connector includes: a 2D-PC slab; lattice points periodically arranged in the 2D-PC slab, the lattice points for diffracting the THz waves in PBG frequencies of photonic band structure of the 2D-PC slab in order to prohibit existence in a plane of the 2D-PC slab; a 2D-PC waveguide disposed in the 2D-PC slab and formed with a line defect of the lattice points; and an adiabatic mode converter disposed at the edge face of the 2D-PC slab to which the 2D-PC waveguide extended, the 2D-PC waveguide extended to the adiabatic mode converter. There is provided also the THz-wave IC to which such a terahertz-wave connector is applied.


Patent
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. and Osaka University | Date: 2013-12-16

The present invention relates to a method for activating helper T cells, which includes the step of activating helper T cells by adding a WT1 peptide to antigen presenting cells, wherein the WT1 peptide has the ability to bind to an MHC class II molecule selected from HLA-DRB1*08:02 molecule, an HLA-DRB1*13:02 molecule, an HLA-DRB1*14:03 molecule, an HLA-DRB1*14:05 molecule, an HLA-DQB1*03:02 molecule, and an HLA-DQB1*04:01 molecule.


Patent
ROHM Semiconductor and Osaka University | Date: 2015-02-26

The directional coupler includes: lattice points periodically arranged in the 2D-PC slab and configured to diffract optical waves, THz waves, or millimeter waves in PBG frequencies in PBG structure of the 2D-PC slab in order to prohibit existence in a plane of the 2D-PC slab; a first 2D-PC waveguide formed of a line defect; a second 2D-PC waveguide which can be mode-coupled to the first waveguide; a directional coupling unit disposed between the first waveguide and the second waveguide in two rows, and having lattice points between waveguides of which the radius is smaller than that of the lattice points, wherein in order to match the first waveguide with an operational band at a side of an input port from the directional coupling unit, the width of the second waveguide is narrowed so that the whole dispersion curve of the directional coupling unit is moved to a higher-frequency side.


Patent
Osaka University, Kyushu University and Chugai Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha | Date: 2010-04-14

The present invention relates to therapeutic and/or prophylactic agents for ocular inflammatory disease, which comprise an interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor inhibitor as an active ingredient.


Patent
Osaka University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2011-04-21

A discharge ionization current detector using a low-frequency dielectric barrier discharge with an improved S/N ratio is provided. A current detector 20 is disposed between an excitation high-voltage power source 8 and a discharge electrode 5 to detect a discharge current flowing in pulses due to plasma generation. The detection signal of the current detector 20 and an output signal from a current amplifier 18 for amplifying an ion current are inputted into an output extraction unit 21. The output extraction unit 21 detects a precipitous-rise portion of the discharge current detection signal and generates a trigger signal, and then extracts an ion current signal for a predetermined time period from the trigger signal. This can remove an influence of a noise appearing in a signal during a time period where no plasma emission is generated, thereby improving the S/N ratio of the detection signal.


Patent
Tokyo Women's Medical University and Osaka University | Date: 2014-01-08

The types and relative proportions of cells constituting a cell sheet stack, and the number of cells to be seeded are altered to change the state of the cells in the cell sheet stack, whereby production of an angiogenesis-promoting cytokine as well as construction of a vascular endothelial network can be optimized.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2015-09-11

The present invention provides a specific combination of colon cancer markers based on statistical knowledge, which is capable of detecting a larger number of colon cancer patients in an earlier stage while maintaining high specificity. A multiplex colon cancer marker panel comprising a combination of five colon cancer markers of Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5, Carbohydrate antigen 19-9, Galectin-4, APEX nuclease and Actin-related protein 2. A method for analyzing colon cancer markers using multiplex colon cancer marker panel.


Patent
Osaka University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2012-12-20

The present invention provides a specific combination of colon cancer markers based on statistical knowledge, which is capable of detecting a larger number of colon cancer patients in an earlier stage while maintaining high specificity. A multiplex colon cancer marker panel comprising a combination of five colon cancer markers of Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5, Carbohydrate antigen 19-9, Galectin-4, APEX nuclease and Actin-related protein 2. A method for analyzing colon cancer markers using multiplex colon cancer marker panel.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Osaka University | Date: 2010-10-26

To reduce the cost of a high-voltage power supply unit by reducing the discharge starting voltage for a low-frequency dielectric barrier discharge. Means for Solution: Light from light source unit 20 located externally to cylindrical tube 2 through which a plasma gas (He) flows is irradiated through the wall surface of the cylindrical tube 2 onto a plasma generation region (the region between plasma generation electrodes 6 and 7) located in gas flow path 4. The light energy excites the He molecules or the minute quantities of impurity gas molecules present in the He gas, causing photo-ionization. This causes a discharge to start, and a plasma to be formed, when a low-frequency voltage of a voltage that is less than the usual discharge starting voltage is applied across electrode 5 and electrodes 6, 7. Once the discharge starts, the discharge is sustained when the usual discharge sustaining voltage is applied across electrode 5 and electrodes 6, 7. This means that the light source unit 20 has to be on only for a short duration when discharging is started.


Patent
Osaka University and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. | Date: 2015-02-18

An object of the present invention is to provide a biomarker that can be used as a precise diagnostic marker for MetS or arteriosclerosis risk. The present invention provides a C1q-adiponectin complex comprising naturally occurring adiponectin and Clq.


Patent
Osaka University and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. | Date: 2013-03-29

An object of the present invention is to provide a biomarker that can be used as a precise diagnostic marker for MetS or arteriosclerosis risk. The present invention provides a C1q-adiponectin complex comprising naturally occurring adiponectin and C1q.


Patent
Osaka University and Tokyo Women's Medical University | Date: 2012-02-28

The types and relative proportions of cells constituting a cell sheet stack, and the number of cells to be seeded are altered to change the state of the cells in the cell sheet stack, whereby production of an angiogenesis-promoting cytokine as well as construction of a vascular endothelial network can be optimized.


The photonic-crystal (PC) slab absorber includes: a two-dimensional (2D)-PC slab composed of semiconducting materials; and a lattice point periodically arranged in the 2D-PC slab, the lattice point for forming resonant-state which can capture an electromagnetic waves incident from an outside by resonating an electromagnetic wave in a band edge of a photonic band structure of the 2D-PC slab in the plane of the 2D-PC slab. The 2D-PC slab is doped with impurities and can absorb the captured electromagnetic wave in the band edge resonant frequency of the 2D-PC slab.


Patent
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. and Osaka University | Date: 2015-10-21

The present invention relates to a method for activating helper T cells, which includes the step of activating helper T cells by adding a WT1 peptide to antigen presenting cells, wherein the WT1 peptide has the ability to bind to an MHC class II molecule selected from HLA-DRB1*08:02 molecule, an HLA-DRB1*13:02 molecule, an HLA-DRB1*14:03 molecule, an HLA-DRB1*14:05 molecule, an HLA-DQB1*03:02 molecule, and an HLA-DQB1*04:01 molecule.


Patent
ROHM Semiconductor and Osaka University | Date: 2015-03-10

The THz-wave device comprises: a 2D-PC slab; lattice points periodically arranged in the 2D-PC slab, the lattice points for diffracting the THz waves in PBG frequencies of photonic band structure of the 2D-PC slab in order to prohibit existence in a plane of the 2D-PC; a 2D-PC waveguide disposed in the 2D-PC slab and formed with a line defect of the lattice points; and an RTD device disposed on the 2D-PC waveguide.


News Article | March 2, 2017
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

If you’ve ever wondered how a vaccine given decades ago can still protect against infection, you have your plasma cells to thank. Plasma cells are long-lived B cells that reside in the bone marrow and churn out antibodies against previously encountered vaccines or pathogens. While plasma cells are vital components of the immune system, they can also be a contributor to disease, as is the case in autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, and in certain cancers, such as multiple myeloma. Now, a group led by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, has come to a better understanding of how these cells are maintained. Using a specialized type of microscope that captures the movement and interaction of cells in living organisms, the scientists observed that, in the bone marrow, immune cells called regulatory T cells closely interact with plasma cells and support them. When the T cells aren’t there, plasma cells vanish. “This interaction was completely unanticipated,” said senior author Christopher A. Hunter, Mindy Halikman Heyer Distinguished Professor of Pathobiology and chair of the Department of Pathobiology at Penn Vet. “If we can understand what controls these long-lived plasma cells, then maybe we can augment that interaction, making more plasma cells to, for example, enhance vaccine efficiency. Or, if you want to limit autoimmunity or cancer, maybe there is an opportunity to disrupt this niche to mitigate some of those conditions.” The research, published in the journal Cell Reports, was led by two trainees in Hunter’s laboratory, Arielle Glatman Zaretsky and Christoph Konradt, along with a team of researchers from Penn Vet, Penn’s Perelman School of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Osaka University, Medimmune, the University of California, San Diego, and The Wistar Institute. Hunter’s laboratory has long investigated how the immune system responds to infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. They have used high-tech microscopy to visualize the dynamics of immune cells and other structures in living organisms. This specialized imaging was able to turn up a surprising finding. A video of the bone marrow in a mouse exposed to T. gondii revealed that the animal’s plasma cells disappeared, later returning as the infection was controlled. A few other groups had seen plasma cells behave similarly in response to systemic inflammation or infection, but the reason for the drop in plasma cells remained unclear. “We don’t know whether these cells leave the bone marrow or die there during infection, but, either way, they are gone,” said Glatman Zaretzky. “And that set up a great system to understand what kinds of cellular interactions normally create the hospitable environment and allow the plasma cells to remain there.” The research team had noticed that regulatory T cells, which Hunter calls “the health and safety inspectors” of the immune system because they keep immune responses at the appropriate level, were located in a similar region of the bone marrow as the plasma cells, next to the blood vessels. And, when mice were exposed to an infection, these “T regs” declined precipitously, just as the plasma cells had. Together, these observations called to mind an earlier finding by another group of scientists that showed that T regs play a key role in protecting the bone marrow from inflammation. In other words, it suggested that T regs make the bone marrow an immune-privileged site, shielding its vital components from the potentially damaging effects of infection or immune response. Curious whether these T regs interacted with plasma cells, the researchers examined both cell types in mice that have T regs labeled with a green fluorescent marker and plasma cells labeled with a yellow one. They found that T regs appeared to be closely interacting with plasma cells for extended periods of time. “No one had put these two cell types together before,” Hunter said. “Yet, when we looked, we saw that these interactions were not rare but were frequent and sustained.” Further studies found that both of these cell types also interact with dendritic cells, which are thought to promote plasma-cell survival. The researchers also demonstrated that T regs were necessary to maintain plasma cells, showing that enhancing T reg survival in mice during infection increased plasma-cell numbers and that experimentally depleting T regs led to reductions in plasma cells. ​​​​​​​The work gives insight into how the body is able to sustain plasma cells for so long, ensuring that they will jump into action even years after a vaccine was administered or an earlier infection was conquered. They also lay the foundation for targeting this cell population — a feat that has thus far escaped scientists — to ameliorate autoimmune diseases that arise due to inappropriate antibody production or to treat cancers that form from plasma cells.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: astrobiology.com

Photosynthesis, creating oxygen and carbohydrates such as glucose from solar energy, water, and CO2, is indispensable for many species on this planet. However, it is unclear exactly how or when organisms evolved the ability to photosynthesize. These questions have fascinated scientists for a long time. A Japanese research group led by Associate Professor ASHIDA Hiroki (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University), Academic Researcher KONO Takunari (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University), and Professor MATSUMURA Hiroyoshi (Ritsumeikan University) has discovered an evolutionary model for the biological function that creates CO2 from glucose in photosynthesis. They found the mechanism in a primitive, non-photosynthesizing microbe. The research group discovered that Methanospirillum hungatei, a microbe (methanogenic archaeon) which is thought to have existed since before the development of photosynthesis, possess genes similar to those that play a role in photosynthesis. Through analysis of the enzymes synthesized by these genes and by investigating the metabolic substances within the organism, carrying out metabolome analysis to locate the trapped CO2, the team proved that Methanospirillum hungatei uses a primitive pathway that closely resembles the metabolic pathway used in photosynthesis to synthesize carbohydrates such as glucose. By clarifying part of the primitive metabolic pathway for photosynthesis, these findings could help to reveal how the photosynthesis system formed during evolution, a mystery that scientists have so far been unable to solve. If further light can be shed on the evolution of photosynthesis, scientists could potentially utilize this information to use and improve upon photosynthetic functions in order to increase production of crops and biofuel. This research was carried out as part of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Strategic Basic Research Programs. It was a joint project by Kobe University, Ritsumeikan University, the Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (India), Osaka University and Shizuoka University. The findings were published on January 13 in the online journal Nature Communications. Please click here for further details: http://www.kobe-u.ac.jp/documents/en/NEWS/research/2017_01_31_01-01.pdf

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