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Takatsuki, Japan

Osaka Medical College is a private university in Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan. The precursor of the school was founded in 1927, and it was chartered as a university in 1946. Wikipedia.

Imagawa A.,Osaka University | Hanafusa T.,Osaka Medical College
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2011

Fulminant type 1 diabetes is defined as a subtype of type 1 diabetes with a remarkably acute onset. A nationwide survey identified that this variant accounts for approximately 20% of acute-onset type 1 diabetic patients in Japan. Recent studies indicate that this is not a minor subtype in other East Asian countries. As genetic factors, we revealed association of HLA-DR-DQ, HLA-B and CTLA-4 to fulminant type 1 diabetes. As an environmental factor, viral infection would contribute to the development of this subtype. Cellular infiltration to islets was detected soon after the onset but not observed 1 month after the onset. Macrophages and T cells were the main components of the infiltrates. Enterovirus RNA and Toll-like receptor-3 expression, a signature of viral infection, was also observed. These findings suggest that viral infection in the susceptible individual might trigger anti-viral immune response and that pancreatic beta cells are rapidly destroyed through the accelerated immune reaction. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Takiuchi H.,Osaka Medical College
Gastric Cancer | Year: 2011

Chemotherapy for gastric cancer has been advancing fairly well. It has been indicated that not only advances in first-line chemotherapy but also those in second-line chemotherapy have contributed to the prolongation of overall survival. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO) study supports the idea that second-line chemotherapy is appropriate in patients with a good general condition. Also, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) integral analysis suggests that advances have been made in second-line chemotherapy. However, most recently reported studies of second-line chemotherapy have been conducted as small-scale phase II or retrospective trials. No randomized control trial to establish standard treatment has been reported. Which regimen is the most appropriate as second-line therapy must be investigated in the future. Currently, molecularly targeted agents for gastric cancer are being developed and tested in global trials. As a new issue in global trials, second-line chemotherapy has been emphasized. In recent global trials, subset analysis showed regional differences in overall survival. This was possibly associated with the regional differences in second-line chemotherapy. When developing new molecularly targeted agents for first-line chemotherapy, we cannot ignore the result that the proportion of patients in whom treatment was switched to second-line chemotherapy was high in Asia. In planning a global trial, this new issue should be sufficiently discussed. © The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2011. Source

Okuda J.,Osaka Medical College
Asian journal of endoscopic surgery | Year: 2011

In laparoscopic rectal surgery, there are some limitations on a surgeon's ability to maneuver, especially in transection of the lower rectum. To achieve minimally invasive surgery, safe anastomosis, including proper rectal transaction, is necessary. To overcome the difficulty in lower rectal resection, we followed a series of steps. First, we completely mobilized the rectum to the pelvic bottom, just above the anal canal, making the lower rectum mobile and allowing for an easy rectal transection. To secure the transaction, the mesorectum around the transection must be properly divided. We recommend placing the lower right quadrant port as caudal as possible to properly staple the rectum. We found a 60 mm compression-type stapler most suitable for rectal transection. To wash and flatten the rectum, a detachable intestinal clip is quite useful because of its flexibility. Finally, in addition to conventional abdominal drains around the anastomotic site, we employed transanal tube to actively decompress rectal pressure inside the anastomotic site. Between August 2009 and July 2010, 101 patients underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection using this technique. Most patients, 98.0% (99/101), underwent lower rectum transection using a single-fire cartridge. The anastomotic leakage rate was only 1.0% (1/101) in total and 1.3% (1/78), when not including patients with diverting stoma. We have to follow up with more patients to conclude whether our technique is effective in the long term. However, this step-by-step technique could lead to safe anastomosis in laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. © 2011 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Toda N.,Toyama Institute for Cardiovascular Pharmacology Research | Nakanishi-Toda M.,Osaka Medical College
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2011

Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Yoshida R.,Osaka Medical College
Advances in Immunology | Year: 2014

The most important transplantation antigens in the discrimination between "self" and "nonself" are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus (H-2 in mice). It has been assumed that T lymphocytes are the effector cells for allograft rejection, as athymic nude rodents fail to reject allografts. In 1988, we i.p. transplanted Meth A (H-2DdKd) tumor cells into C57BL/6 (H-2DbKb) mice and found macrophages to be cytotoxic against the allografts. In 1996, several groups using CD4 or CD8 knockout mice reported that non-T cells were the effector cells for the rejection of skin or organ allografts. In 1998, we ascertained that macrophages were the effector cells of skin allograft rejection. Recently, we isolated cDNA clones encoding monocyte/macrophage MHC receptors (MMRs) for H-2Dd and H-2Kd; established H-2Dd- and/or H-2Kd-transgenic mice and lymphoma cells; and found, using MMR-deficient mice, that MMR and T-cell receptor were essential for the rejection of transgenic skin and lymphoma, respectively. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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