Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center

Ōsaka, Japan

Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center

Ōsaka, Japan

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Nunobiki O.,Kobe Tokiwa University | Ueda M.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | Yamamoto M.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | Toji E.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | And 5 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate the biological significance of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at murine double-minute 2 homolog (MDM2) promoter 309 in cervical carcinogenesis. Methods: SNP at MDM2 promoter 309 (T/G) together with human papillomavirus (HPV) types was examined in a total of 195 cervical smear samples and 8 human cervical squamous carcinoma cell lines using two independent PCR assays and PCR-RFLP techniques. Results: Forty-one patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) had higher frequency of high-risk HPV than 102 with low-grade SIL (LSIL) and 52 controls. There was an increased OR (8.88; CI = 2.34-33.63; P = 0.003) for TG + GG genotype in HSIL cases compared to controls among 68 patients with high-risk HPV. Twenty-one cases with HPV types 16 and/or 18 had significantly higher frequency of the TG + GG genotype and G allele than 47 with other types of high-risk HPV. Seven of 8 cervical carcinoma cell lines also showed TG or GG genotype. Conclusion: MDM2-SNP309 (T/G) and high-risk HPV infection may be closely associated with cervical carcinogenesis in a Japanese population. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Yamamoto K.,Okayama University | Yamamoto K.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | Yamazaki H.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | Kuroda C.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Background: The use of high-density barium sulfate was recommended by the Japan Society of Gastroenterological Cancer Screening (JSGCS) in 2004. We evaluated the diagnostic validity of gastric cancer screening that used high-density barium sulfate. Methods: The study subjects were 171 833 residents of Osaka, Japan who underwent gastric cancer screening tests at the Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center during the period from 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2001. Screening was conducted using either high-density barium sulfate (n = 48 336) or moderate-density barium sulfate (n = 123 497). The subjects were followed up and their medical records were linked to those of the Osaka Cancer Registry through 31 December 2002. The results of follow-up during 1 year were defined as the gold standard, and test performance values were calculated. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the screening test using moderate-density barium sulfate were 92.3% and 91.0%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the high-density barium test were 91.8% and 91.4%, respectively. The results of area under receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed no significant difference between the 2 screening tests. Conclusions: Screening tests using high- and moderate-density barium sulfate had similar validity, as determined by sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curve analysis. © 2010 by the Japan Epidemiological Association.


Mori M.,Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts | Miyamoto T.,Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts | Miyamoto T.,Kake Institute of Cytopathology | Yakushiji H.,Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts | And 12 more authors.
Human Cell | Year: 2012

Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Japan, where the disease shows an increasing morbidity. However, surgical therapy remains the treatment of choice for endometrial cancers that tend to be insensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are required. The Notch signaling pathway regulates embryogenesis and cellular development, but deregulated Notch signaling may contribute to tumorigenesis in several cancers. Moreover, γ-secretase inhibitors have been shown to be potent inhibitors of the Notch signaling pathway; they suppress cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT, γ-secretase inhibitor) on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells. Real-time PCR detected mRNA derived from NOTCH1 and HES1, which are target genes of the Notch signaling pathway, in Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells. After blocking Notch signaling, cellular proliferation decreased, accompanied by increased expression of p21 mRNA and decreased expression of the cyclin A protein. Furthermore, blockade of Notch signaling induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the Notch signaling pathway may be involved in cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells. Inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway by γ-secretase inhibitors is expected to be a potential target of novel therapeutic strategies for endometrial cancer. © 2011 Japan Human Cell Society and Springer.


Gotanda T.,Himeji Dokkyo University | Katsuda T.,Seikeikai College | Gotanda R.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences | Gotanda R.,Okayama University | And 8 more authors.
Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine | Year: 2011

Although the half-value layer (HVL) is one of the important parameters for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC), constant monitoring has not been performed because measurements using an ionization chamber (IC) are time-consuming and complicated. To solve these problems, a method using radiochromic film and step-shaped aluminum (Al) filters has been developed. To this end, GAFCHROMIC EBT2 dosimetry film (GAF-EBT2), which shows only slight energy dependency errors in comparison with GAFCHROMIC XR TYPE-R (GAF-R) and other radiochromic films, has been used. The measurement X-ray tube voltages were 120, 100, and 80 kV. GAF-EBT2 was scanned using a flat-bed scanner before and after exposure. To remove the non-uniformity error caused by image acquisition of the flat-bed scanner, the scanning image of the GAF-EBT2 before exposure was subtracted after exposure. HVL was evaluated using the density attenuation ratio. The effective energies obtained using HVLs of GAF-EBT2, GAF-R, and an IC dosimeter were compared. Effective energies with X-ray tube voltages of 120, 100, and 80 kV using GAF-EBT2 were 40.6, 36.0, and 32.9 keV, respectively. The difference ratios of the effective energies using GAF-EBT2 and the IC were 5.0%, 0.9%, and 2.7%, respectively. GAF-EBT2 and GAF-R proved to be capable of measuring effective energy with comparable precision. However, in HVL measurements of devices operating in the high-energy range (X-ray CT, radiotherapy machines, and so on), GAF-EBT2 was found to offer higher measurement precision than GAF-R, because it shows only a slight energy dependency. © 2011 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine.


Gotanda T.,Oishi Hospital | Gotanda T.,Himeji Dokkyo University | Katsuda T.,Seikeikai College | Akagawa T.,Red Cross | And 8 more authors.
Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine | Year: 2013

Recently developed radiochromic films can easily be used to measure absorbed doses because they do not need development processing and indicate a density change that depends on the absorbed dose. However, in GAFCHROMIC EBT2 dosimetry (GAF-EBT2) as a radiochromic film, the precision of the measurement was compromised, because of non-uniformity problems caused by image acquisition using a flat-bed scanner with a transmission mode. The purpose of this study was to improve the precision of the measurement using a flat-bed scanner with a reflection mode at the low absorbed dose dynamic range of GAF-EBT2. The calibration curves of the absorbed dose versus the film density for GAF-EBT2 were provided. X-rays were exposed in the range between ~0 and 120 mGy in increments of about 12 mGy. The results of the method using a flat-bed scanner with the transmission mode were compared with those of the method using the same scanner with the reflection mode. The results should that the determination coefficients (r 2 ) for the straight-line approximation of the calibration curve using the reflection mode were higher than 0.99, and the gradient using the reflection mode was about twice that of the one using the transmission mode. The non-uniformity error that is produced by a flat-bed scanner with the transmission mode setting could be almost eliminated by converting from the transmission mode to the reflection mode. In light of these findings, the method using a flat-bed scanner with the reflection mode (only using uniform white paper) improved the precision of the measurement for the low absorbed dose range. © 2013 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine.


Tanaka Y.,Osaka Medical College | Terai Y.,Osaka Medical College | Tanabe A.,Osaka Medical College | Sasaki H.,Osaka Medical College | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Biology and Therapy | Year: 2011

Objectives: We herein assessed the influence of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene mutations on EGFR expression levels, downstream mediators such as Akt or ERK and overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Results: Twenty-nine EGFR gene mutations were detected in 24 of 102 patinets (23.5%). EGFR mutations were observed in 27.9% (19/68) in serous adenocarcinomas, 15.0% (3/20) in clear cell adenocarcinomas and 66.7% (2/3) in mucinous adenocarcinomas, while no mutations were observed in endometrioid adenocarcinomas (0/11). Protein expression of EGFR, pAkt and pERK were detected in 47 (46.1%), 49 (48%) and 17 (16.7%) of patients, respectively. EGFR gene mutations, EGFR and pERK expression were not associated with a poor prognosis. In a multivariate analysis, a High pAkt expression was found to be a significant predictor for both the progression free survival (p = 0.017) and overall survival (p = 0.025). Study Design: EGFR mutation status was analyzed by direct sequencing in 102 Japanese ovarian cancer patients. The EGFR expression, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: EGFR gene mutations were frequently observed in not only non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but also in ovarian cancer in Japanese patients. The selective EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib might therefore offer some benefit in patients with EGFR mutations in ovarian cancer. Our results indicate that the Akt, but not necessarily EGFR, is one of the most important target in the response of the platinum-based chemotherapy and prognosis for ovarian cancer patients.


Yanoh K.,JA Suzuka General Hospital | Hirai Y.,Hospital Ariake | Sakamoto A.,Kyorin University | Aoki D.,Keio University | And 10 more authors.
Acta Cytologica | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of endometrial cytology obtained by intrauterine sample using a descriptive reporting format for endometrial cytological diagnosis. Study Design: 10,152 consecutive endometrial scrapings obtained in 13 different Japanese hospitals were analyzed. Cytological results were classified as 'negative for malignancy', 'atypical endometrial cells' (ATEC), 'endometrial hyperplasia', 'atypical endometrial hyperplasia' or 'malignant tumor'. ATEC was subclassified as 'ATEC, of undetermined significance' (ATEC-US) and 'ATEC, cannot exclude atypical endometrial hyperplasia or more' (ATEC-A). Cytological results were compared with the histological diagnosis as a gold standard. When the cytological result was 'negative for malignancy' and there was no subsequent histological examination, the case was considered a true negative when the endometrium was assessed as normal on transvaginal ultrasonography and there was no abnormal uterine bleeding. Results: 1,083 cases in which histology was not performed, 557 cases of 'unsatisfactory specimen' and 76 cases of ATEC-US were excluded. In the remaining 8,436 cases, the sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detecting atypical endometrial hyperplasia or malignant tumors were 79.0 and 99.7, 92.9 and 98.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The current diagnostic standards for endometrial cytology in Japan were established. Specificity is satisfactory for excluding cancer or precancerous diseases. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Hayashidaa K.,Meiwa Hospital | Hayashidaa K.,Okayama University | Takeda Y.,Okayama University | Katsuda T.,Seikeikai 2 Gakuin | And 4 more authors.
Acta Medica Okayama | Year: 2012

Proximal femoral bone mineral density (BMD) can be measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry method in the neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, total and Ward's triangle area. Ward's triangle area of the proximal femur is a smaller area to measure than the others, and the position varies, depending on the status of inner rotation of the target leg. In this study, the measurements of the proximal femoral BMD in women were carried out on the neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, total and Ward s triangle area with the, subjects' legs turned 15 degrees toward the inside. The Ward's BMD were measured using Ward's cognitive method, in which the measured BMD were compared among age groups of 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80-89 to determine whether this process could reveal decreased femoral BMD in elderly women. The correlation between BMD and age was tested using the Pearson correlation coefficient. In all measured parts, the BMD of women age 50-59 were significantly higher than those of women age 80-89. The correlations between BMD and age were negative in all measured parts, and the most negative correlation was between age and Ward's BMD. The study using Ward's cognitive method showed an inverse correlation between Ward's BMD and age in women. © 2012 by Okayama University Medical School.


Ueda M.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | Toji E.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | Nunobiki O.,Kobe Tokiwa University | Sato N.,Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center | And 4 more authors.
Human Cell | Year: 2010

The clinical significance of glutathione-S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1 and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms in cervical carcinogenesis was investigated. Germline polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and p53 codon 72 together with human papillomavirus (HPV) types were examined in a total of 457 blood and cervical smear samples from normal healthy women and the patients with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. The 167 patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 49 with high-grade SIL (HSIL) and 83 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) had significantly higher frequency of high-risk HPV than 158 controls. The 49 patients with HSIL and 83 with SCC had statistically higher frequency of null GSTT1 genotype than 158 controls. There was an increased odds ratio for null GSTT1 genotype in HSIL and SCC cases compared with controls among 191 patients with high-risk HPV. The 67 cases with HPV types 16 and/or 18 had higher frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype than 186 with other types of HPV. There was no statistical difference in the polymorphic frequency of GSTM1 and p53 codon 72 genotypes between SILs and controls with or without high-risk HPV. These results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype may increase the risk of cervical cancer particularly in the cases with high-risk HPV types in a Japanese population. © 2010 The Authors. Human Cell © 2010 Japan Human Cell Society.


PubMed | Osaka Cancer Prevention and Detection Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human cell | Year: 2010

The clinical significance of glutathione-S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1 and p53 codon 72 polymorphisms in cervical carcinogenesis was investigated. Germline polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and p53 codon 72 together with human papillomavirus (HPV) types were examined in a total of 457 blood and cervical smear samples from normal healthy women and the patients with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. The 167 patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 49 with high-grade SIL (HSIL) and 83 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) had significantly higher frequency of high-risk HPV than 158 controls. The 49 patients with HSIL and 83 with SCC had statistically higher frequency of null GSTT1 genotype than 158 controls. There was an increased odds ratio for null GSTT1 genotype in HSIL and SCC cases compared with controls among 191 patients with high-risk HPV. The 67 cases with HPV types 16 and/or 18 had higher frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype than 186 with other types of HPV. There was no statistical difference in the polymorphic frequency of GSTM1 and p53 codon 72 genotypes between SILs and controls with or without high-risk HPV. These results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype may increase the risk of cervical cancer particularly in the cases with high-risk HPV types in a Japanese population.

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