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Ōsaka, Japan

Aim: Recent research suggests that the fear of falling may be a more serious problem than actual falling among frail elderly people. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not it is possible to influence the fear of falling among frail elderly people who previously had fallen, by balance exercises under attention tasks. Methods: The subjects were 22 frail elderly people in nursing homes (3 men and 19 women, mean age 83.1±5.2 SD)who had fallen. Written informed consent was given for participation in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups at random: the balance exercise group (the control group) and the balance exercise during an attention task (the attention group). Balance exercise continued for 10 weeks, consisting of one 5 minute session, 3 times weekly. The control and intervention subjects were evaluated using the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), Functional Reach Test (FRT),Timed Up & Go Test (TUGT) and walking speed, before the program, at the end of the trial, and 10 weeks after the program. Results: There was no change in walking speed in either group, and difference in TUGT of the control group was observed. We found improvement in FRT and TUGT of the attention group. The FES decreased in the attention group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that balance exercise during an attention task can improve standing posture balance in frail elderly people who have fallen. These results also suggest that it is important to intervene in both motor function and attention function to decrease the fear of falling. Source

Nishiura M.,Osaka University | Nishiura M.,Osaka Butsuryo College | Yasuhiro T.,Osaka University | Murase K.,Osaka University
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the ability of dynamic, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and mastopathy by analyzing their signal intensities (SIs). Methods: After the pre-contrast MRI was performed using a 1.5-T MRI system, DCE-MRI was performed four times following intravenous administration of contrast medium. We set the volumes of interest (VOIs) on the tumor and normal mammary gland and obtained the SIs in these VOIs. We calculated the entropy (EPY) in the pre-contrast (EPY0) and four post-contrast scans (EPY1, EPY2, EPY3, and EPY4 for the first, second, third and fourth scans, respectively) using the volume histogram method, and the wash-in (WRin) and washout rates (WRout) according to the Breast-Imaging Reporting and Data System developed by the American College of Radiology. We also calculated the early slope (Slopeearly) from the pre- and post-contrast SIs in the tumor and normal gland. We evaluated the usefulness of the above parameters for differentiating between DCIS and mastopathy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Results: There were significant differences in EPY2 (P=009), EPY3 (P=017), EPY4 (P=034), WRin (P=036), WRout (P=019), and Slopeearly (P=002) between DCIS and mastopathy. The average Az values were 0.67, 0.52, 0.64, 0.63, 0.67 and 0.70 for EPY2, EPY3, EPY4, WRin, WRout and Slopeearly, respectively. Conclusion: We evaluated the usefulness of various parameters calculated from SIs obtained by DCE-MRI for differentiating between DCIS and mastopathy. Our results suggested that Slopeearly is more useful than EPYs, WRin and WRout. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Fujiwara Y.,University of Fukui | Fujiwara Y.,Kanazawa University | Kimura H.,University of Fukui | Miyati T.,Kanazawa University | And 5 more authors.
Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine

Object To propose a new arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion-imaging method (alternate slab width inversion recovery ASL: AIRASL) that takes advantage of the qualities of 3.0 T. Materials and methods AIRASL utilizes alternate slab width IR pulses for labeling blood to obtain a higher signalto-noise ratio (SNR). Numerical simulations were used to evaluate perfusion signals. In vivo studies were performed to show the feasibility of AIRASL on five healthy subjects. We performed a statistical analysis of the differences in perfusion SNR measurements between flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) and AIRASL. Results In signal simulation, the signal obtained by AIRASL at 3.0 and 1.5 T was 1.14 and 0.85%, respectively, whereas the signal obtained by FAIR at 3.0 and 1.5 T was 0.57 and 0.47%, respectively. In an in vivo study, the SNR of FAIR (3.0 T) and FAIR (1.5 T) were 1.73 ± 0.49 and 1.02 ± 0.20, respectively, whereas the SNRs of AIRASL (3.0 T) and AIRASL (1.5 T) were 3.93 ± 1.65 and 1.34 ± 0.31, respectively. SNR in AIRASL at 3.0 T was significantly greater than that in FAIR at 3.0 T. Conclusion The most significant potential advantage of AIRASL is its high SNR, which takes advantage of the qualities of 3.0 T. This sequence can be easily applied in the clinical setting and will enable ASL to become more relevant for clinical application. © ESMRMB 2012. Source

Nitta A.,Kagoshima National College of Technology | Aozasa M.,Osaka Butsuryo College
Journal of the Vacuum Society of Japan

The effects of N 2 [mass number: 28] and O 2 [mass number: 32] gas impurities on ZnS host material and the emission center in the active layers of a thin-film electroluminescent device were examined for the impurity gas concentration. Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments were performed to examine theMn 2+ cohesive state. As the partial pressure of N 2 increased, the L 30 and the maximum luminance eciency decreased, the threshold electric field strength increased due to the reduction in the concentration of the isolated single Mn 2+. When the partial pressure of N 2 was increased, the isolated single Mn 2+ and the clustered Mn 2+ concentration decreased and the interaction between the isolated singleMn 2+ and the clusteredMn 2+ increased.When O 2 gas impurity is introduced to the sputtering environment, some Zn atoms combine with O causing a deficiency of S. Copyright © 2002 - 2012 Hogrefe Publishing. Source

Kato S.,Osaka City University | Kato S.,Japanese Center for Anti Aging MedSciences | Kimura M.,Osaka City University | Kageyama K.,Osaka Butsuryo College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

The nitroimidazole-related hypoxic radiosensitizer, pimonidazole (Pmz) was encapsulated in liposome composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (molar ratio = 1:1:0.2; diameter = 1129 nm), and the radiosensitization was evaluated in human melanoma cells HMV-II. Cell proliferation was examined by WST-8 assay after X-ray irradiation in the presence of liposomal Pmz or free-Pmz under hypoxic conditions. On 7th day after X-ray irradiation of 5 Gy, cell proliferation decreased more markedly in the administration of liposomal Pmz than free-Pmz at equivalent Pmz doses. Chromatin fragmentation or nuclear condensation was observed in liposomal Pmz-treated HMV-II cells. Radiosensitization was enhanced dose-dependently along with Pmz amounts of 250-2000 μM contained in liposomal Pmz. Intracellular uptake was more abundant for liposomal Pmz for 60-240 min than for free-Pmz. Thus liposomal Pmz has a potential to overcome radiation resistance in hypoxia, owing to enhanced intracellular uptake by melanoma cells. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. Source

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