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Ikeda S.,Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences | Uchida T.,Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences | Ichikawa T.,Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences | Watanabe T.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | And 4 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

To determine the bioavailability of tocotrienol complex with γ-cyclodextrin, the effects of tocotrienol/γ-cyclodextrin complex on tocotrienol concentration in rat plasma and tissues were studied. Rats were administered by oral gavage an emulsion containing tocotrienol, tocotrienol with γ-cyclodextrin, or tocotrienol/γ-cyclodextrin complex. At 3h after administration, the plasma γ-tocotrienol concentration of the rats administered tocotrienol/γ-cyclodextrin complex was higher than that of the rats administered tocotrienol and γ-cyclodextrin. In order to determine the effect of complexation on tocotrienol absorption, rats were injected with Triton WR1339, which prevents the catabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein by lipoprotein lipase, and then administered by oral gavage an emulsion containing tocotrienol, tocotrienol with γ-cyclodextrin, or tocotrienol/γ-cyclodextrin complex. The plasma γ-tocotrienol concentration of the Triton-treated rats administered tocotrienol/γ-cyclodextrin complex was higher than that of the other Triton-treated rats. These results suggest that complexation of tocotrienol with γ-cyclodextrin elevates plasma and tissue tocotrienol concentrations by enhancing intestinal absorption.


Shimoda H.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Terazawa S.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Hitoe S.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Tanaka J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2012

Ceramides (Cer) and glucosylceramides (GlcCer) play an important role in moisturizing the epidermis. Dietary GlcCer has been reported to improve transepidermal water loss (TEWL). However, the effect of GlcCer on epidermal Cer and GlcCer has not been well established. Therefore, we prepared a GlcCer-rich fraction (GCFr) from rice and evaluated its effect on TEWL and epidermal Cer and GlcCer in mice. In addition, we examined the effect of GlcCer (d18:2) contained in GCFr on the changes in Cer and GlcCer in a human epidermal equivalent. Oral dosing of GCFr (3 and 10 mg/[kg·day]) improved TEWL treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate. In the skin, epidermal Cer 1 was increased, and GlcCer (esterified ω-hydroxy fatty acid and sphingosine [EOS]) and a complex mixture of GlcCer (NS), (NP), and (C24,26-AS), known as GlcCer A/B were decreased by the GCFr. These changes were accompanied with the enhancement of glucosylceramide synthase (GCSase) and glucocerebrosidase expression. On the other hand, GlcCer (d18:2) increased Cer 1, Cer 2, GlcCer (EOS), and GlcCer A/B in a human epidermal equivalent accompanied with expression of GCSase and epidermal maturation markers. These results suggest that oral dosing of rice-derived GlcCer can compensate for epidermal loss of Cer by enhancing epidermal GlcCer metabolism. Rice-derived GlcCer may improve epidermal water loss and barrier function. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.


Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Nakanishi T.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Shimoda H.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Nakamura S.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | And 5 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aims: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated as a cause of various neurodegenerative diseases. We evaluated the protective effects of purple rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran extract (PRE) and its constituents, namely cyanidin, peonidin, and a newly isolated compound 2-hydroxy-5-[(3S)-3- hydroxybutyl]phenyl-β-d-glucoside (HHPG), against tunicamycin-induced retinal damage. Main methods: In an in vitro experiment, protective effects of PRE, cyanidin and HHPG on cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5), which were damaged by treatment with H2O2 or tunicamycin for 24 h, were evaluated. We also investigated the underlying mechanism by examining expressions of ER stress-related proteins, such as immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and activation of caspase-3 induced by tunicamycin. In an in vivo experiment, mice retinal damage was induced by intravitreous injection of tunicamycin as revealed by histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Key findings: The viability of H2O2 or tunicamycin-treated RGC-5, assessed using the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay, was improved by treatment with PRE, cyanidin, and HHPG, respectively. PRE did not affect tunicamycin-induced expressions of BiP or CHOP. However, PRE, cyanidin, and HHPG suppressed tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation. Histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that intravitreous injection of PRE significantly suppressed the tunicamycin-induced degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in mice. Significance: These findings indicate that PRE, cyanidin, and HHPG suppress tunicamycin-induced retinal ganglion cell death at least partly by inhibiting activation of caspase-3, suggesting that PRE and its main constituents prevent retinal disease caused by ER stress. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. and Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of natural medicines | Year: 2016

Enhancement of muscular energy production is thought to improve locomotive functions and prevent metabolic syndromes including diabetes and lipidemia. Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) has been cultivated for traditional medicine in Thailand. Recent studies have shown that black ginger extract (KPE) activated brown adipocytes and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, which may cure obesity-related dysfunction of lipid metabolism. However, the effect of KPE on glucose and lipid utilization in muscle cells has not been examined yet. Hence, we evaluated the effect of KPE and its constituents on energy metabolism in pre-differentiated (p) and differentiated (d) C2C12 myoblasts. KPE (0.1-10 g/ml) was added to pC2C12 cells in the differentiation process for a week or used to treat dC2C12 cells for 24 h. After culturing, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In terms of the results, KPE enhanced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and lactic acid as well as the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 in both types of cells. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1 was enhanced in pC2C12 cells. In addition, KPE enhanced the production of ATP and mitochondrial biogenesis. Polymethoxy flavonoids in KPE including 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4-trimethoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and PGC-1. Moreover, KPE and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the phosphorylation of 5AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction.


Fujiwara K.,Tottori University | Kitatani K.,Tottori University | Fukushima K.,Tottori University | Yazama H.,Tottori University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Sphingolipids, components of cellular membranes in eukaryotic cells, have roles in the regulation of tumor growth, inflammation, angiogenesis, and immunity. We investigated the effects of dietary glucosylceramides, sphingolipids isolated from rice bran, on tumor growth of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: The tumor cell line SCCKN cells isolated from well-differentiated human head and neck cancer were subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank of NOD/SCID mice, to establish an SCCKN xenograft model. Rice bran glucosylceramides (300 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to the mice for 14 consecutive days. Results: Dietary glucosylceramides significantly inhibited the growth of the xenograft tumor in comparison with the control group. The TUNEL stain revealed that treatment of mice with glucosylceramides increased the number of apoptotic cells in the implanted tumor tissues and that apoptosis induction was accompanied by the formation of active/cleaved caspase-3. Conclusion: These results suggest that dietary glucosylceramides possibly exert anti-tumor activity by inducing apoptosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, their potential usefulness in treatment and prevention of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma warrants further investigation. © Japan Society of Clinical Oncology 2010.


Shimoda H.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Shan S.-J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Tanaka J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Seki A.,Hamuri Co Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2010

Red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) has been prescribed as an analgesic for arthritis pain in Indonesian traditional medicine. The surface color of the rhizome is purple because of the anthocyanidins in its peel. We prepared 40% ethanolic extract from dried red ginger (red ginger extract [RGE]) and evaluated its anti-inflammatory activity using acute and chronic inflammation models. In an acetic acid-induced mouse writhing model, RGE (10-100mg/kg) suppressed both the frequency of writhing and the increase in permeability of abdominal capillaries. On the other hand, continuous treatment with RGE (10mg/kg) significantly (P<.05) suppressed footpad edema in a rat adjuvant arthritis model. To clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RGE, we examined the effect on prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) production from mouse leukemic monocytes (RAW264 cells) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. RGE (3 and 10μg/mL) significantly (P<.05) suppressed PGE2 production, while it also suppressed NO production at 100μg/mL. After bioassay-guided separation of RGE, we found that [6]-shogaol and gingerdiols suppressed NO production. Red dye fractions presumed to be proanthocyanidins also suppressed NO production at 100μg/mL. Consequently, we found a potent suppressive effect of RGE on acute and chronic inflammation, and inhibition of macrophage activation seems to be involved in this anti-inflammatory effect. [6]-Shogaol, gingerdiols, and proanthocyanidins were identified as constituents that inhibited NO production. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2010.


Nakamura S.,Keio University | Tanaka J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Imada T.,Keio University | Shimoda H.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Tsubota K.,Keio University
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2014

Dry eye disease is a disorder in tear film physiology, which leads to various abnormal states of ocular surface cells. In the present study, we evaluated the potential usefulness of orally applied maqui berry (. Aristotelia chilensis) extract and the constituent anthocyanin as a preventative intervention in dry eye. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of maqui berry extract to a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. This suppressive effect of maqui berry extract and its constituent anthocyanins on reactive oxygen species formation from lacrimal gland was elevated by 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Maqui berry extract and delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, an anthocyanin specifically contained in the maqui berry, suppressed reactive oxygen species formation from lacrimal gland tissue and preserved tear secretion. The result of the present study demonstrates that maqui berry extract can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the lacrimal gland. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Kadekaru T.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Ogawa K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Hitoe S.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The protective effects of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract (MBE) and its major anthocyanins [delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (D3G5G) and delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside (D3S5G)] against light-induced murine photoreceptor cells (661W) death were evaluated. Viability of 661W after light treatment for 24 h, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by addition of MBE, D3G5G, and D3S5G. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), was reduced by MBE and its anthocyanins. The anti-apoptosis mechanism of MBE was evaluated by light-induced phosphorylation of p38. MBE significantly suppressed the light-induced phosphorylation of p38. These findings indicate that MBE and its anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production, suggesting that the inhibition of phosphorylated-p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Nakanishi T.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Ogawa K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Tsuruma K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

This study evaluated the protective effects of purple rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran extract (PRE) and its major anthocyanidins (cyanidin and peonidin) against light-induced retinal damage. In an in vitro experiment, cultured murine photoreceptor cells (661W) were damaged by a 24 h exposure to light. Viability of 661W after light treatment, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by the addition of PRE, cyanidin, and peonidin. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive probe 5-(and 6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H 2DCFDA), was reduced by PRE and its anthocyanidins. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements showed that PRE, peonidin, and cyanidin all exhibited radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (1O2 -), and hydroxyl radical (̇OH). In an in vivo mouse experiment, intravitreous injection of PRE significantly suppressed photoreceptor degeneration induced by exposure to light as revealed by histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining. These findings suggest that PRE and its anthocyanidins possess protective effects with antioxidation mechanism in both in vitro and in vivo models of retinal diseases. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Cherry blossom flowers are familiar to the Japanese, and some species of the flowers soaked in salty vinegar are used as processed foods. The constituents of aqueous ethanol extract from cherry blossom (Prunus lannesiana) flowers (CBE) were examined and cinnamoyl and flavonol glucosides were isolated. To elucidate the pharmacological functions of CBE and its constituents, their effects on the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and on AGE-induced fibroblast damage were examined. CBE and 1-O-(E)-caffeoyl--D-glucopyranoside (CaG), a principal compound in CBE, significantly suppressed the production of AGEs derived from glucose and albumin at 100g/mL. Among the flavonol glucosides, quercetin 3-O--D-glucopyranoside (QG) exhibited potent suppressive activity (IC50 : 30g/mL). CBE and CaG suppressed glyoxal-induced AGE production in fibroblasts at 10g/mL, but QG did not. In addition, CBE and CaG recovered collagen lattice formation consisting of collagen and glycated fibroblasts at 10g/mL. Moreover, CBE and its constituents, except kaempferol 3-O-(6-malony)--D-glucopyranoside, significantly suppressed fibroblast apoptosis induced by carboxymethyl lysine-collagen at 10g/mL. These results show that cinnamoyl and flavonol glucosides of cherry blossom flowers suppress AGE production and AGE-induced fibroblast apoptosis. Cherry blossom flowers may be effective against skin AGE production and fibroblast damage by AGEs.

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