Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co.

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Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co.

Japan
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Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Nakamura S.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Tsuruma K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Shimazawa M.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | And 2 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2012

The study evaluated the protective effects of purple rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran extract (PRE) and its constituents, cyanidin and peonidin, against angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The effects of VEGF and PRE were examined by in vitro tube formation assays and following 14-day co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts. The antiangiogenic mechanism of PRE was evaluated by VEGF-induced proliferation and migration of HUVECs and/or human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. The PRE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced tube formation, proliferation and migration in HUVECs and HRMECs as well as phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Cyanidin and peonidin also suppressed the proliferation and migration induced by VEGF. These findings indicate that PRE and anthocyanidins suppress VEGF-induced angiogenesis by inhibiting proliferation and migration and suggest that the inhibition of phosphorylated-ERK and -p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Shimoda H.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Shan S.-J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Tanaka J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Objective β-cryptoxanthin (β-CPX) is a carotenoid that is widely contained in the fruits of citrus plants. We evaluated the effect of β-CPX on UVB-induced pigmentation and mRNA expression related to melanogenesis in mouse skin. In addition, changes in melanogenic molecules were evaluated in cultured melanocytes stimulated with prostaglandin (PG) E2, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and endothelin (ET)-1. Methods Mice were irradiated with UVB and were given β-CPX (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days. Pigmentation was evaluated by skin colour change and microscopic observation. Total RNA was obtained from the skin and the expression of melanogenic mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR. In cell culture studies, human melanocytes were cultured with β-CPX and melanogenic stimulants (PGE 2, MSH and ET-1) for 6-10 days. Melanin contents, dendricity, melanogenic mRNA and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were evaluated. Key findings β-CPX (10 mg/kg) significantly suppressed skin pigmentation and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, ET-1 receptors, low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, PGE2 receptor (EP1), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), tyrosinase (Tyr), tyrosinase-related protein (Tyrp) 1 and microphthalmia transcription factor. β-CPX (10 μg/ml) suppressed melanogenesis induced by PGE2, MSH and ET-1. In the PGE2-stimulated melanocytes, mRNA expressions of EP-1, Tyr and Tyrp1 and phosphorylation of CREB protein were suppressed. In the ET-1-stimulated cells, only expression of CREB protein was suppressed. In the MSH-induced cells, mRNA expression of MC1R and Tyrp1 and protein expression of CREB were suppressed. Conclusion Oral administration of β-CPX was found to suppress UVB-induced melanogenesis. Suppression of melanogenic enzymes, receptors of melanogenic stimulators, expression and phosphorylation of CREB are thought to be involved in the mechanism. © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Nakashima K.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Virgona N.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Virgona N.,University of Sydney | Miyazawa M.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2010

Resistance to chemotherapy (chemoresistance) is a serious problem in malignant mesothelioma, a highly aggressive neoplasm. Gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3) can sensitize various cancerous cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance. In this study, we investigated the modulating effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from rice bran, which is abundant in γ-T3, on chemoresistance in human MM H28 cells. TRF treatment caused a marked reduction in the viability of H28 cells in a dose-dependent manner, while cisplatin treatment had no effect on the cells, indicating that H28 cells are resistant to cisplatin. A significant increase in cytotoxicity was observed in H28 cells treated with TRF, and this effect was enhanced by the combination treatment with cisplatin. The cytotoxic effect was closely related to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling. Inactivation of Akt signaling by TRF or the combination with cisplatin mitigated cisplatin-induced activation of Akt, resulting in reducing the chemoresistance H28 cells to cisplatin. Reduced cell viability and attenuated chemoresistance of the H28 cells against cisplatin were also observed following the use of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. These results suggest that the combination therapy of cisplatin with TRF is a plausible strategy for achieving tolerance for the chemotherapeutic agent in MM therapy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Shimoda H.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Tanaka J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Shan S.-J.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Maoka T.,Research Institute for Production Development
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Objectives Carotenoids and retinoic acid derivatives are topically applied for sun-protective and whitening purposes. Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid derived from edible sea algae, but its effect on melanogenesis has not been established. Therefore, we examined the effect of fucoxanthin on melanogenesis. Methods Inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity, melanin formation in B16 melanoma and skin pigmentation in UVB-irradiated guinea-pigs were evaluated. To elucidate the action of fucoxanthin on melanogenesis, its effect on skin melanogenic mRNA expression was evaluated in UVB-irradiated mice. Fucoxanthin was given topically or orally to mice once a day and UVB irradiation was applied for 14 days. The effect of fucoxanthin on skin melanogenic mRNA expression was evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Key findings Fucoxanthin inhibited tyrosinase activity, melanogenesis in melanoma and UVB-induced skin pigmentation. Topical application of fucoxanthin (1%) significantly suppressed mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, endothelin receptor A, p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR), prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP1), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and tyrosinase-related protein 1. The suppression of p75NTR, EP1 and MC1R expressions was observed at 0.01% application. Also, oral application of fucoxanthin (10 mg/kg) significantly suppressed expression of COX-2, p75NTR, EP1 and MC1R. Conclusions These results suggest that fucoxanthin exhibits anti-pigmentary activity by topical or oral application in UVB-induced melanogenesis. This effect of fucoxanthin may be due to suppression of prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis and melanogenic stimulant receptors (neurotrophin, PGE2 and melanocyte stimulating hormone expression). © 2010 The Authors.


Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Nakanishi T.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Shimoda H.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Nakamura S.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | And 5 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Aims: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated as a cause of various neurodegenerative diseases. We evaluated the protective effects of purple rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran extract (PRE) and its constituents, namely cyanidin, peonidin, and a newly isolated compound 2-hydroxy-5-[(3S)-3- hydroxybutyl]phenyl-β-d-glucoside (HHPG), against tunicamycin-induced retinal damage. Main methods: In an in vitro experiment, protective effects of PRE, cyanidin and HHPG on cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5), which were damaged by treatment with H2O2 or tunicamycin for 24 h, were evaluated. We also investigated the underlying mechanism by examining expressions of ER stress-related proteins, such as immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and activation of caspase-3 induced by tunicamycin. In an in vivo experiment, mice retinal damage was induced by intravitreous injection of tunicamycin as revealed by histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Key findings: The viability of H2O2 or tunicamycin-treated RGC-5, assessed using the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay, was improved by treatment with PRE, cyanidin, and HHPG, respectively. PRE did not affect tunicamycin-induced expressions of BiP or CHOP. However, PRE, cyanidin, and HHPG suppressed tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation. Histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that intravitreous injection of PRE significantly suppressed the tunicamycin-induced degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in mice. Significance: These findings indicate that PRE, cyanidin, and HHPG suppress tunicamycin-induced retinal ganglion cell death at least partly by inhibiting activation of caspase-3, suggesting that PRE and its main constituents prevent retinal disease caused by ER stress. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. and Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of natural medicines | Year: 2016

Enhancement of muscular energy production is thought to improve locomotive functions and prevent metabolic syndromes including diabetes and lipidemia. Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) has been cultivated for traditional medicine in Thailand. Recent studies have shown that black ginger extract (KPE) activated brown adipocytes and lipolysis in white adipose tissue, which may cure obesity-related dysfunction of lipid metabolism. However, the effect of KPE on glucose and lipid utilization in muscle cells has not been examined yet. Hence, we evaluated the effect of KPE and its constituents on energy metabolism in pre-differentiated (p) and differentiated (d) C2C12 myoblasts. KPE (0.1-10 g/ml) was added to pC2C12 cells in the differentiation process for a week or used to treat dC2C12 cells for 24 h. After culturing, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In terms of the results, KPE enhanced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and lactic acid as well as the mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 in both types of cells. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1 was enhanced in pC2C12 cells. In addition, KPE enhanced the production of ATP and mitochondrial biogenesis. Polymethoxy flavonoids in KPE including 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4-trimethoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and PGC-1. Moreover, KPE and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone enhanced the phosphorylation of 5AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In conclusion, KPE and its polymethoxy flavonoids were found to enhance energy metabolism in myocytes. KPE may improve the dysfunction of muscle metabolism that leads to metabolic syndrome and locomotive dysfunction.


Fujiwara K.,Tottori University | Kitatani K.,Tottori University | Fukushima K.,Tottori University | Yazama H.,Tottori University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Sphingolipids, components of cellular membranes in eukaryotic cells, have roles in the regulation of tumor growth, inflammation, angiogenesis, and immunity. We investigated the effects of dietary glucosylceramides, sphingolipids isolated from rice bran, on tumor growth of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: The tumor cell line SCCKN cells isolated from well-differentiated human head and neck cancer were subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank of NOD/SCID mice, to establish an SCCKN xenograft model. Rice bran glucosylceramides (300 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to the mice for 14 consecutive days. Results: Dietary glucosylceramides significantly inhibited the growth of the xenograft tumor in comparison with the control group. The TUNEL stain revealed that treatment of mice with glucosylceramides increased the number of apoptotic cells in the implanted tumor tissues and that apoptosis induction was accompanied by the formation of active/cleaved caspase-3. Conclusion: These results suggest that dietary glucosylceramides possibly exert anti-tumor activity by inducing apoptosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, their potential usefulness in treatment and prevention of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma warrants further investigation. © Japan Society of Clinical Oncology 2010.


Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Kadekaru T.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | Ogawa K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Hitoe S.,Oryza Oil and Fat Chemical Co. | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The protective effects of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract (MBE) and its major anthocyanins [delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (D3G5G) and delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside (D3S5G)] against light-induced murine photoreceptor cells (661W) death were evaluated. Viability of 661W after light treatment for 24 h, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by addition of MBE, D3G5G, and D3S5G. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), was reduced by MBE and its anthocyanins. The anti-apoptosis mechanism of MBE was evaluated by light-induced phosphorylation of p38. MBE significantly suppressed the light-induced phosphorylation of p38. These findings indicate that MBE and its anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production, suggesting that the inhibition of phosphorylated-p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tanaka J.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Nakanishi T.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Ogawa K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | Tsuruma K.,Gifu Pharmaceutical University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

This study evaluated the protective effects of purple rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran extract (PRE) and its major anthocyanidins (cyanidin and peonidin) against light-induced retinal damage. In an in vitro experiment, cultured murine photoreceptor cells (661W) were damaged by a 24 h exposure to light. Viability of 661W after light treatment, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by the addition of PRE, cyanidin, and peonidin. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive probe 5-(and 6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H 2DCFDA), was reduced by PRE and its anthocyanidins. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements showed that PRE, peonidin, and cyanidin all exhibited radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (1O2 -), and hydroxyl radical (̇OH). In an in vivo mouse experiment, intravitreous injection of PRE significantly suppressed photoreceptor degeneration induced by exposure to light as revealed by histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining. These findings suggest that PRE and its anthocyanidins possess protective effects with antioxidation mechanism in both in vitro and in vivo models of retinal diseases. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Cherry blossom flowers are familiar to the Japanese, and some species of the flowers soaked in salty vinegar are used as processed foods. The constituents of aqueous ethanol extract from cherry blossom (Prunus lannesiana) flowers (CBE) were examined and cinnamoyl and flavonol glucosides were isolated. To elucidate the pharmacological functions of CBE and its constituents, their effects on the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and on AGE-induced fibroblast damage were examined. CBE and 1-O-(E)-caffeoyl--D-glucopyranoside (CaG), a principal compound in CBE, significantly suppressed the production of AGEs derived from glucose and albumin at 100g/mL. Among the flavonol glucosides, quercetin 3-O--D-glucopyranoside (QG) exhibited potent suppressive activity (IC50 : 30g/mL). CBE and CaG suppressed glyoxal-induced AGE production in fibroblasts at 10g/mL, but QG did not. In addition, CBE and CaG recovered collagen lattice formation consisting of collagen and glycated fibroblasts at 10g/mL. Moreover, CBE and its constituents, except kaempferol 3-O-(6-malony)--D-glucopyranoside, significantly suppressed fibroblast apoptosis induced by carboxymethyl lysine-collagen at 10g/mL. These results show that cinnamoyl and flavonol glucosides of cherry blossom flowers suppress AGE production and AGE-induced fibroblast apoptosis. Cherry blossom flowers may be effective against skin AGE production and fibroblast damage by AGEs.

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