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"Orwellian" is an adjective describing the situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society. It connotes an attitude and a brutal policy of draconian control by propaganda, surveillance, misinformation, denial of truth, and manipulation of the past, including the "unperson" – a person whose past existence is expunged from the public record and memory, practised by modern repressive governments. Often, this includes the circumstances depicted in his novels, particularly Nineteen Eighty-Four.Nineteen Eighty-Four uses themes from life in the Soviet Union and wartime life in Great Britain as sources for many of its motifs.Orwell's ideas about personal freedom and state authority developed when he was a British colonial administrator in Burma. He was fascinated by the effect of colonialism on the individual, requiring acceptance of the idea that the colonialist exists only for the good of the colonised.There has also been a great deal of discourse on the possibility that Orwell galvanised his ideas of oppression during his experience, and his subsequent writings in the English press, in Spain. Orwell was a member of the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification militia and suffered suppression and escaped arrest by the Comintern faction working within the Republican Government. Following his escape he made a strong case for defending the Spanish revolution from the Communists there, and the misinformation in the press at home. During this period he formed strong ideas about the reportage of events, and their context in his own ideas of imperialism and democracy.This often brought him into conflict with literary peers such as W.H. Auden and Stephen Spender. Wikipedia.

Toly N.,Wheaton College at Illinois | Bouteligier S.,Environmental Policy Group | Smith G.,Orwell
Globalizations | Year: 2012

This article broadens the discussion of cities as strategic sites in which global activities are organized. It deploys methodology commonly used to study the distribution and disproportionate concentration of advanced producer and financial services firms in order to study the office distribution of global nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and global energy corporations. It then compares the distribution of those offices to that of advanced producer and financial services firms, using data from the global and World Cities Research Network, further discovering what cities are strategic sites in all three networks, in any combination of two networks, and in only one network. Attending to the convergence and divergence of such networks opens a door to the study of network logic-the underlying dynamics of network functioning-instead of limiting the study to network structure or composition while also permitting a multi-sectoral measurement of globality. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Leser S.,Orwell
Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2011

The latest International Olympic Committee Consensus Statement on Sports Nutrition 2010 concluded that when athletes must compete in several events in a short time-period, strategies to enhance recovery of fluid and fuel are important. In fact, all athletes and recreational exercisers might benefit from effective rehydration strategies, as rapid rehydration is not limited only to optimal subsequent performance. Rehydration also regulates cell function in favour of the adaptive processes and improvements in body composition, which take place during recovery. The composition of a fluid consumed soon after exercise has an important impact on body water restoration and should be considered if rapid rehydration is a goal. Typically, guidelines recommend using sports drinks or foods and fluids that contain carbohydrate for replacement of glycogen stores and electrolyte sodium, which promotes greater fluid absorption and retention. However, more effective restoration of body water and plasma volume have been observed in some studies when more nutrients and food compounds are consumed. It suggests a role for other nutrients, such as protein, in the strategy to enhance rehydration. Emerging research looking into milk proteins, whey and casein, points to a role for protein in assisting post-exercise fluid retention. The most obvious mechanisms are enhanced sodium and water absorption from the gut, and increased plasma protein synthesis resulting in higher osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins. This article reviews current strategies to enhance post-exercise recovery of fluid balance, with a focus on protein. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 British Nutrition Foundation. Source

Building standards and regulations have been around for a long time, and most historic structures were built in accordance with whatever codes existed at the time. However, as codes have changed (often in response to natural or human-caused disasters) these buildings have become progressively less compliant, making their continued occupation and use difficult without extensive and often damaging alterations to their significant spaces and fabric. In Australia, there have been considerable changes to standards over the past two hundred years to deal with apparent deficiencies in the codes exposed as a result of bushfires, earthquakes, cyclones and rising sea levels. Building regulations have also changed so as to deal in ever more detail with health and safety matters, as well as issues such as equitable access and energy efficiency. These changes have had an impact on historic buildings and structures, in the most extreme cases leading to loss of the building where owners anxious to redevelop can convince the authorities that preservation and upgrading to meet current standards will impose unreasonable economic hardship. In other cases, the insensitive and sometimes over-cautious application of codes (often to reduce the risk of future litigation or loss of insurance) leads to almost as much damage to the historic building as the upgrading work is intended to avoid if a disaster occurs. Conserving historic buildings while keeping them safely in active use requires a flexible and innovative approach to the regulations, as exemplified in the work of the Heritage Council of New South Wales Fire Access and Services Advisory Panel, of which the author was a foundation member. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Church H.A.,Orwell | O'Shea D.,Colmcilles Hospital | Lucey J.V.,St Patricks University Hospital
Irish Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Objective: To describe the relationship between parents with gender identity disorder (GID) and their child(ren) as described by the parent and to understand how being a parent affects transitioning from one gender to the other. Methods: Fourteen parents with GID underwent a semi-structured interview and completed the Index of Parental Attitudes (IPA). An IPA score of greater than 30 indicates parent-child relationship difficulties (range 0-100). The authors also conducted the SCID-I to establish other Axis I disorders. Results: We assessed 12 male to female and two female to male parents with GID residing in Ireland. In total, 14 GID parents had 28 children. Three children had no relationship with their GID parent. The other 25 children, as reported by the parent, had good relationships with their children. In addition, these 25 children average score IPA score was 6.4 (range 0-25). Twelve GID parents (86%) believed that being a parent had no effect on their desired level of transitioning, while two were influenced not to transition. Eleven GID parents (79%) reported that being a parent had increased the time taken to commence transitioning, two have stopped transitioning altogether, while one cited no effect on time. Conclusion: Parents with GID report positive relationships or no relationship with their children and the IPA revealed no clinical problems. Being a parent can prolong transitioning time in people with GID and can affect overall achieved level of transitioning. © Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2013. Source

Church H.,Orwell
Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: To examine the Laois/Offaly Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), focusing on new referrals and trends in the service. Methods: Data was collected over a one-year period from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009 using the computer system MAISY (Medical Audit Information System) and through chart reviews. A Client Satisfaction Survey was administered to both parents and children. Results: The Laois/Offaly CAMHS team provides service to a total population of around 140,000, of which around 32,000 are less than 16 years old. In this one-year period, 303 referrals were received with 167 offered an assessment, of which 150 availed of an appointment. Forty-six percent were offered appointments within one week of receiving the referral with 87% being assessed within one month. A further 41 were assessed from a previous waiting list, compiled prior to the actual study period, thus resulting in a total of 191 assessments. Thirty referrals required assessment only. Behavioural/Emotional difficulties and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were the most common reason for referral. During this time the ADHD waiting list was suspended due to staff constraints. Seventy-six percent were diagnosed with an Axis I disorder with 34% given medication treatment. Of the return appointments over the year, eight percent of patients did not attend (DNA). Both parents and children reported being satisfied with the service, according to the Client Satisfaction Survey. Conclusions: The Laois/Offaly team services a catchment area of approximately three times the number recommended by A Vision for Change, with a staff equivalent less than the number recommended for one whole team. The team was able to provide a rapid service for assessment of new referrals, with the ADHD waiting list suspended. Axis I pathology was often diagnosed among those assessed (around 75%), with about one-third being treated with medication. Follow-up appointments achieved a high attrition rate, with only around eight percent not attending. Patient satisfaction with the service rated high by both parents and children. Source

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