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Aschau im Chiemgau, Germany

Dreher T.,University of Heidelberg | Vegvari D.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Wolf S.L.,University of Heidelberg | Klotz M.,University of Heidelberg | And 5 more authors.
Gait and Posture

Adverse effects such as increased anterior pelvic tilt (APT) are reported after muscle-tendon lengthening (MTL) for the correction of flexed knee gait in cerebral palsy. The conversion of biarticular muscles (CBM) to monoarticular muscles represents an alternative treatment, but only few short-term results have been published, without comparison with MTL. The long-term outcome of 21 diplegic patients treated with CBM in a prospective study was compared with the results in MTL patients in a matched-pair analysis. Standardized clinical examination and three-dimensional gait analysis were done before surgery, 1 year thereafter, and at long-term follow-up a mean of 9.2 years postoperatively. Mean APT increased one year after surgery in both groups. This increase was higher in MTL patients and statistically significant only for this group. Knee flexion at initial contact and minimum knee flexion in stance were significantly decreased in both groups, while in swing the CBM group tended to show more of a decrease in knee flexion but at the cost of reduced peak flexion. Both groups showed deterioration of kinematic knee parameters through to long-term follow-up; the favourable effects of CBM disappeared, and the two groups displayed comparable average pelvic and knee kinematics. Considering individual patterns the prevalence of increased APT was lower in the CBM group 1 year after surgery, indicating that sparing the semitendinosus may have a positive effect on pelvic stability. However, after 9 years 30% of the patients in both groups showed increased APT indicative of persistent hamstring insufficiency. These results demonstrate that CBM, a significantly more extensive procedure, has no long-term advantage over MTL. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Stief F.,Orthopedic University Hospital Friedrichsheim gGmbH | Bohm H.,Orthopedic Hospital for Children | Dussa C.U.,Orthopedic Hospital for Children | Multerer C.,Orthopedic Hospital for Children | And 3 more authors.

Background: Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study tested the hypothesis that not only frontal plane kinematics and kinetics but also transverse plane lower extremity mechanics during gait are affected by varus malalignment of the knee. Methods: Eighteen, otherwise healthy children and adolescents with varus malalignment of the knee were studied to examine the association between static varus malalignment and functional gait parameters. Kinematic data were collected using a Vicon motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). Two AMTI force plates (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA) were used to collect kinetic data. Results: The results indicated that changes in transverse plane mechanics occur concomitantly with changes in knee malalignment in the frontal plane. A mechanical consequence of varus knee malalignment is obviously an increased endorotation of the foot (internal foot placement) and an increased internal knee rotation (tibia rotation) during stance phase. The linear correlation between the maximum external knee adduction moment in terminal stance and the internal knee rotation in terminal stance ( r= 0.823, p<. 0.001) shows that this transverse plane gait mechanics is directly in conjunction with intrinsic compressive load on the medial compartment during gait. Conclusions: Understanding factors that influence dynamic knee joint loading in healthy, varus malaligned knees may help us to identify risk factors that lead to OA. Thus, three-dimensional gait analysis could be used for clinical prognoses regarding the onset or progression of medial knee OA. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Stief F.,Orthopedic University Hospital Friedrichsheim gGmbH | Bohm H.,Orthopedic Hospital for Children | Ebert C.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Doderlein L.,Orthopedic Hospital for Children | Meurer A.,Orthopedic University Hospital Friedrichsheim gGmbH
Gait and Posture

Ipsilateral trunk lean toward the affected stance limb has been identified as a compensatory mechanism to unload the hip joint. However, this altered gait pattern increases the lever arm around the knee joint by shifting the ground reaction vector more lateral to the knee joint center, which could be sufficient to deform the lateral compartment of the knee. The purpose of the present study was to show the effect of ipsilateral trunk lean on hip and knee joint moments in the frontal plane in 132 young patients with different orthopedic diagnosis. Linear correlations between ipsilateral trunk lean and the external knee and/or hip adduction moment were detected for patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, myelomeningocele, and unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). In contrast, children with bilateral CP did not show such a relationship due to an increased internal foot placement. In comparison to the hip joint, the effect of ipsilateral trunk lean in patients with LCPD is obviously more pronounced in the knee joint. The valgus thrust of the knee could initiate degenerative changes by placing altered loads on regions of the articular cartilage that were previously conditioned for different load levels. The results suggest that the ipsilateral trunk lean should not be considered and recommended as unloading mechanism for the hip joint on its own but also as a potential increased joint loading of the lateral knee compartment. Therefore, an acceptable therapy concept for limping patients should aim for an inconspicuous gait pattern with a reduced trunk movement. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Stief F.,Gait Laboratory | Stief F.,Orthopedic University Hospital Friedrichsheim gGmbH | Bohm H.,Gait Laboratory | Schwirtz A.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Gait and Posture

Three-dimensional gait analysis is a diagnostic tool that can be used to gain a better understanding of the relationship between joint loading and the onset or progression of articular cartilage degeneration in subjects with varus malalignment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate knee and hip joint angles and moments in children and adolescents with pathological varus alignment of the knee without signs of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Moreover, we wanted to know if compensatory mechanisms are present in this young patient group. Fourteen, otherwise healthy patients with varus malalignment of the knee and 15 healthy control subjects were analysed. Patients showed a reduced knee extension and a significantly lower maximum knee extension moment in terminal stance compared to controls. The maximum knee adduction moment in mid and terminal stance and the maximum hip abduction moment in loading response were significantly higher in the patient group. In the transverse plane, abnormally increased knee internal rotation and hip external rotation moments were present in patients with varus malalignment. These findings imply that varus malalignment is not an isolated problem in the frontal plane. In contrast to adult patients with established medial knee OA, the young patients assessed in the present study did not show typical compensatory mechanisms such as increased foot progression angle or reduced walking speed. This suggests that children and adolescents with varus malalignment of the knee probably do not need to alter their spatio-temporal gait parameters in order to decrease knee joint loading. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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