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Pretell Mazzini J.,Orthopaedic Surgery | Rodriguez Martin J.,Trauma and Orthopaedics
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2010

Forearm fractures represent one of the most common fractures in children aside from clavicle fractures, and the distal radius is the most common fracture site accounting for 20-30% of these fractures. Maintaining acceptable reduction is not always possible, and re-displacement or re-angulation is the most commonly reported complication. Factors leading to this complication can be broadly divided into three groups: fracture-, surgeon- and patient-related. The quality of casting has been historically measured subjectively. The description of several casting indices by different authors has been a major undertaking, attempting to address objective assessment of this factor. The following have been described: cast index, padding index, gap index, three point index and second metacarpal-radius angle. For distal radius fractures we think that the three point index is the most valuable measurement for predicting re-displacement among surgeon related factors; this index has not been used in forearm fractures in which the rest of the indices seem to be useful in predicting re-displacement. The casting indices should not be interpreted as a separate issue but in conjunction with fracture characteristics and patient factors. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

Staubli A.E.,Orthopaedic Surgery | Jacob H.A.C.,Orthop. Biomechanics
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2010

Surgical correction of bowed legs should be performed as early as possible. Overload osteoarthritis, even without significant varus deformity of the knee, is a further indication for open-wedge high-tibial osteotomy. Progression of damage to the joint surfaces due to overloading can be significantly retarded by realigning the extremity with the aim to, at least, reduce overload on the medial compartment to a value close to physiological. Significant improvement to open-wedge high-tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) has been made on two fronts: (a) by the use of a more appropriate surgical technique and (b) by promoting osteogenesis through an angular-stable fixation device with just the correct amount of elasticity. A retrospective study of 53 consecutive cases in which no interposition material was used to fill the wedge, with gap openings between 5 mm and 20 mm, showed that ossification of the gap always progressed from the lateral hinge towards the medial side. Standard radiographs showed 75% of the gap filled in with new bone within 6-18 months. In conclusion, we believe that open-wedge high-tibial osteotomy using the TomoFix® plate has proved to be successful in treating unicompartmental gonarthrosis, even without bone grafts or bone-substitute material. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

In the 18th century, the fate of allografts and their role in bone formation became of interest to many orthopaedic surgeons. A controversy over the science of osteogenesis, the formation of bone, had emerged following the opposing views of Duhamel and von Haller. Duhamel noted that the periosteum had a deep osteogenic layer, which he termed the “cambium layer”. However, von Haller claimed the opposite: the periosteum was not osteogenic. In the 19th century, Ollier performed comprehensive studies on the periosteum. Ollier’s experiments were published in two volumes entitled “Traite Experimental et clinique de la regeneration des os” in 1867. His conclusion was that transplanted periosteum and bone survived and could become osteogenic under proper conditions. The controversy was furthered by MacEwen who believed, contrary to Duhamel and Ollier, that the periosteum had no osteogenetic power and was purely a limiting membrane giving direction to bone growth but taking no active part in it. This manuscript describes this period of controversies about the osteogenesis of the transplanted bone, marrow and periosteum that would eventually die or not and be replaced by surrounding tissue or be active for osteogenesis. Whether bone grafts are a form of passive scaffolding or active in osteogenesis was the main question about auto and allografts in the 18th and 19th centuries. In response to this challenge, many papers were written to defend each side of the argument. © 2014, SICOT aisbl. Source

During the 20th century, allograft implantation waned in popularity as a clinical activity. Reports appeared in the literature describing several small series of patients in whom bone was obtained from amputation specimens or recently deceased individuals. The concept of bone banking became a reality during and after World War II when the National Naval Tissue Bank was established in Bethesda and a number of small banks sprang up in hospitals throughout the world. Small fragments, either of cortical or medullary bone, from these banks were used heterotopically to augment spinal fusions, to implant into cyst cavities, or to serve as a scaffolding for repair of non- or delayed union of fractures of the long bones. © 2015, SICOT aisbl. Source

Patel K.,Trauma and Orthopaedics | Raut V.,Orthopaedic Surgery
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to assess medium term results of patellar resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty, specifically looking at anterior knee pain, patellofemoral function and need for reoperation. A prospective cohort study was conducted with patients undergoing staged bilateral knee arthroplasty with the patella being resurfaced only on one side. This was due to change in the clinical practice of the senior author. Sixty patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically on a regular basis. The surgery was either performed or supervised by the senior author in all cases. All patients received the cemented press-fit condylar© prosthesis. The Knee Society clinical rating system was used. Scores were recorded pre-operatively and post-operatively at three months, one year, two years and three yearly thereafter. The mean age of patients in the study group was 75 years (range: 62-89 years). There were 42 women and 18 men in the study. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.5 years (range: 2-12 years). There was no significant difference in the pre-operative scores in both groups. There were significantly better scores (p<0.05) on the resurfaced side as compared to the non-resurfaced side at final follow-up. No revision was carried out for patellofemoral complications on the resurfaced side. Four patients required revision in the form of patellar resurfacing on the non-resurfaced side for persistent anterior knee pain. Patellar resurfacing is recommended in total knee arthroplasty for better functional outcome with regards to anterior knee pain and patellofemoral function. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

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