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Ayturk U.M.,Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory | Puttlitz C.M.,Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2011

The primary objective of this study was to generate a finite element model of the human lumbar spine (L1-L5), verify mesh convergence for each tissue constituent and perform an extensive validation using both kinematic/kinetic and stress/strain data. Mesh refinement was accomplished via convergence of strain energy density (SED) predictions for each spinal tissue. The converged model was validated based on range of motion, intradiscal pressure, facet force transmission, anterolateral cortical bone strain and anterior longitudinal ligament deformation predictions. Changes in mesh resolution had the biggest impact on SED predictions under axial rotation loading. Nonlinearity of the moment-rotation curves was accurately simulated and the model predictions on the aforementioned parameters were in good agreement with experimental data. The validated and converged model will be utilised to study the effects of degeneration on the lumbar spine biomechanics, as well as to investigate the mechanical underpinning of the contemporary treatment strategies. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Woldtvedt D.J.,Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory | Womack W.,Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory | Gadomski B.C.,Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory | Schuldt D.,Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory | Puttlitz C.M.,Orthopaedic Bioengineering Research Laboratory
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering | Year: 2011

Current finite element modeling techniques utilize geometrically inaccurate cartilage distribution representations in the lumbar spine. We hypothesize that this shortcoming severely limits the predictive fidelity of these simulations. Specifically, it is unclear how these anatomically inaccurate cartilage representations alter range of motion and facet contact predictions. In the current study, cadaveric vertebrae were serially sectioned, and images were taken of each slice in order to identify the osteochondral interface and the articulating surface. A series of custom-written algorithms were utilized in order to quantify each facet joint's three-dimensional cartilage distribution using a previously developed methodology. These vertebrae-dependent thickness cartilage distributions were implemented on an L1 through L5 lumbar spine finite element model. Moments were applied in three principal planes of motion, and range of motion and facet contact predictions from the variable thickness and constant thickness distribution models were determined. Initial facet gap thickness dimensions were also parameterized. The data indicate that the mean and maximum cartilage thickness increased inferiorly from L1 to L5, with an overall mean thickness value of 0.57 mm. Cartilage distribution and initial facet joint gap thickness had little influence on the lumbar range of motion in any direction, whereas the mean contact pressure, total contact force, and total contact area predictions were altered considerably. The data indicate that range of motion predictions alone are insufficient to establish model validation intended to predict mechanical contact parameters. These data also emphasize the need for the careful consideration of the initial facet joint gap thickness with respect to the spinal condition being studied. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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