Ortho Biotech Oncology Research and Development

High Wycombe, United Kingdom

Ortho Biotech Oncology Research and Development

High Wycombe, United Kingdom
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PubMed | University of Michigan, Oncology, U.S. Biomarker Oncology, Medical Oncology and 10 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016

Abiraterone may suppress androgens that stimulate breast cancer growth. We conducted a biomarker analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPETs), and serum samples from postmenopausal estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancer patients to identify subgroups with differential abiraterone sensitivity.Patients (randomized 1:1:1) were treated with 1,000 mg/d abiraterone acetate + 5 mg/d prednisone (AA), AA + 25 mg/d exemestane (AAE), or exemestane. The biomarker population included treated patients (n = 293). The CTC population included patients with {greater than or equal to} 3 baseline CTCs (n = 104). Biomarker (e.g., androgen receptor [AR], ER, Ki-67, CYP17) expression was evaluated. Cox regression stratified by prior therapies in the metastatic setting (0/1 vs. 2) and setting of letrozole/anastrozole (adjuvant vs. metastatic) was used to assess biomarker associations with progression-free survival (PFS).Serum testosterone and estrogen levels were lowered and progesterone increased with AA. Baseline AR or ER expression was not associated with PFS in CTCs or FFPETs for AAE versus exemestane but dual positivity of AR and ER expression was associated with improved PFS (HR 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-1.07], P = 0.070). For AR expression in FFPETs obtained < 1 year prior to first dose (n = 67), a trend for improved PFS was noted for AAE versus exemestane (HR 0.56 [95% CI, 0.24-1.33], P = 0.19).An AA pharmacodynamic effect was shown by decreased serum androgen and estrogen levels and increased progesterone. AR and ER dual expression in CTCs and newly obtained FFPETs may predict AA sensitivity.

Ryan C.J.,University of California at San Francisco | Shah S.,University of California at San Francisco | Efstathiou E.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Smith M.R.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: Abiraterone is an oral inhibitor of CYP17, which is essential for androgen biosynthesis. This multicenter study assessed its efficacy in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), without prior chemotherapy or CYP17-targeted therapy, and frequency of bone scans discordant with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and clinical response. Experimental Design: Thirty-three patients received abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg daily with prednisone 5 mg twice daily in continuous 28-day cycles. Patients were evaluated monthly for efficacy and safety. Bone scan flare was defined as the combination, after 3 months of therapy, of an interpreting radiologist's report indicating "disease progression" in context of a 50% or more decline in PSA level, with scan improvement or stability 3 months later. Results: A 50% or more decline in PSA level at week 12 was confirmed in 22 of 33 (67%) patients. Declines in PSA level of 50% or more were seen in 26 of 33 (79%) patients. Undetectable PSA levels (≤0.1 ng/mL) occurred in 2 patients. Median time on therapy and time to PSA progression were 63 weeks and 16.3 months, respectively. Twenty-three patients were evaluable for bone scan flare. Progression was indicated in radiologist's report in 12 of 23 (52%), and 11 of 12 subsequently showed improvement or stability. As prospectively defined, bone scan flare was observed in 11 of 23 (48%) evaluable patients or 11 of 33 (33%) enrolled patients. Adverse events were typically grade 1/2 and consistent with prior published abiraterone reports. Conclusion: Clinical responses to abiraterone plus prednisone were frequent and durable in men with metastatic CRPC. Further investigation is needed to clarify the confounding effect of bone scan flare on patient management and interpretation of results. ©2011 AACR.

Poveda A.,Fundacion Instituto Valenciano Of Oncologia | Kaye S.B.,Royal Marsden Hospital | McCormack R.,Veridex L.L.C. | Wang S.,Ortho Clinical Diagnostics | And 6 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2011

Objective: Serial circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts have demonstrated predictive and prognostic value in patients with metastatic breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. In a phase III study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) with trabectedin vs. PLD for relapsed ovarian cancer, we evaluated the correlation, if any, between numbers of CTCs and progression free survival, (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods: CTCs were isolated from peripheral blood (10 mL) using the CellSearch system and reagents (Veridex). A CTC is defined as EpCAM+, cytokeratin+, CD45-, and is positive for the nuclear stain DAPI. The normal reference range for CellSearch is < 2 CTC/7.5 mL of blood. Hazard ratios adjusted for known prognostic factors were estimated by Cox regression. Results: Two-hundred sixteen patients had baseline CTC measurements of which 111 (51.4%) were randomized to the trabectedin + PLD arm; 143/216 patients (66.2%) were platinum-sensitive. Thirty-one of 216 patients (14.4%) had 2 or more CTCs detected prior to the start of therapy (range 2-566). Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that patients with ≥ 2 CTCs prior to therapy had 1.89- (p = 0.003) and 2.06-fold (p = 0.003) higher risk for progression and death respectively. Multivariate analyses that include baseline CA-125, platinum sensitivity status, largest diameter lesion, number of tumor lesions, ECOG PS, and tumor grade show that patients with elevated baseline CTC had 1.58- (p = 0.058) and 1.54-fold (p = 0.096) higher risk for progression and death respectively. Conclusions: Results from this study indicate that elevated numbers of CTCs impart an unfavorable prognosis for ovarian cancer patients. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Cepero V.,University of Turin | Cepero V.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Sierra J.R.,University of Turin | Sierra J.R.,Ontario Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

The establishment of the role of MET in human cancer has led to the development of small-molecule inhibitors, many of which are currently in clinical trials. Thus far, nothing is known about their therapeutic efficacy and the possible emergence of resistance to treatment, a problem that has been often observed with other receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors. To predict mechanisms of acquired resistance, we generated resistant cells by treating MET-addicted cells with increasing concentrations of the MET small-molecule inhibitors PHA-665752 or JNJ38877605. Resistant cells displayed MET gene amplification, leading to increased expression and constitutive phosphorylation of MET, followed by subsequent amplification and overexpression of wild-type (wt) KRAS. Cells harboring KRAS amplification progressively lost their MET dependence and acquired KRAS dependence. Our results suggest that MET and KRAS amplification is a general mechanism of resistance to specific MET inhibitors given that similar results were observed with two small inhibitors and in different cell lines of different histotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that overexpression of wt KRAS can overcome the inhibitory effect of a RTK inhibitor. In view of the fact that cellular models of resistance to inhibitors targeting other tyrosine kinases have predicted and corroborated clinical findings, our results provide insights into strategies for preventing and/or overcoming drug resistance. ©2010 AACR.

Sillibourne J.E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Tack F.,Maastricht University | Vloemans N.,Ortho Biotech Oncology Research and Development | Boeckx A.,Ortho Biotech Oncology Research and Development | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2010

Centrosome duplication occurs once every cell cycle in a strictly controlled manner. Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a key regulator of this process whose kinase activity is essential for centriole duplication. Here, we show that PLK4 autophosphorylation of serine S305 is a consequence of kinase activation and enables the active fraction to be identified in the cell. Active PLK4 is detectable on the replicating mother centriole in G1/S, with the proportion of active kinase increasing through interphase to reach a maximum in mitosis. Activation of PLK4 at the replicating daughter centriole is delayed until G2, but a level equivalent to the replicating mother centriole is achieved in M phase. Active PLK4 is regulated by the proteasome, because either proteasome inhibition or mutation of the degron motif of PLK4 results in the accumulation of S305-phosphorylated PLK4. Autophosphorylation probably plays a role in the process of centriole duplication, because mimicking S305 phosphorylation enhances the ability of overexpressed PLK4 to induce centriole amplification. Importantly, we show that S305-phosphorylated PLK4 is specifically sequestered at the centrosome contrary to the nonphosphorylated form. These data suggest that PLK4 activity is restricted to the centrosome to prevent aberrant centriole assembly and sustained kinase activity is required for centriole duplication. © 2010 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

Larkin J.M.G.,Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Ferguson T.R.,Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Pickering L.M.,Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | Edmonds K.,Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: There is clinical evidence to suggest that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may be a therapeutic target in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Multi-targeted kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib and sunitinib, have become standard of care in advanced RCC. The anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody infliximab and sorafenib have differing cellular mechanisms of action. We conducted a phase I/II trial to determine the safety and efficacy of infliximab in combination with sorafenib in patients with advanced RCC.METHODS: Eligible patients were systemic treatment-naive or had received previous cytokine therapy only. Sorafenib and infliximab were administered according to standard schedules. The study had two phases: in phase I, the safety and toxicity of the combination of full-dose sorafenib and two dose levels of infliximab were evaluated in three and three patients, respectively, and in phase II, further safety, toxicity and efficacy data were collected in an expanded patient population.RESULTS: Acceptable safety was reported for the first three patients (infliximab 5 mg kg -1) in phase 1. Sorafenib 400 mg twice daily and infliximab 10 mg kg -1 were administered to a total of 13 patients (three in phase 1 and 10 in phase 2). Adverse events included grade 3 hand-foot syndrome (31%), rash (25%), fatigue (19%) and infection (19%). Although manageable, toxicity resulted in 75% of the patients requiring at least one dose reduction and 81% requiring at least one dose delay of sorafenib. Four patients were progression-free at 6 months (PFS 6 31%); median PFS and overall survival were 6 and 14 months, respectively.CONCLUSION: Sorafenib and infliximab can be administered in combination, but a significant increase in the numbers of adverse events requiring dose adjustments of sorafenib was observed. There was no evidence of increased efficacy compared with sorafenib alone in advanced RCC. The combination of sorafenib and infliximab does not warrant further evaluation in patients with advanced RCC. © 2010 Cancer Research UK.

Rysman E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Brusselmans K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Scheys K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Timmermans L.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Activation of de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells is increasingly recognized as a hallmark of aggressive cancers and has been implicated in the production of membranes for rapid cell proliferation. In the current report, we provide evidence that this activation has a more profound role. Using a mass spectrometry - based phospholipid analysis approach, we show that clinical tumor tissues that display the lipogenic phenotype show an increase in the degree of lipid saturation compared with nonlipogenic tumors. Reversal of the lipogenic switch in cancer cells by treatment with the lipogenesis inhibitor soraphen A or by targeting lipogenic enzymes with small interfering RNA leads to a marked decrease in saturated and mono-unsaturated phospholipid species and increases the relative degree of polyunsaturation. Because polyunsaturated acyl chains are more susceptible to peroxidation, inhibition of lipogenesis increases the levels of peroxidation end products and renders cells more susceptible to oxidative stress - induced cell death. As saturated lipids pack more densely, modulation of lipogenesis also alters lateral and transversal membrane dynamics as revealed by diffusion of membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein and by the uptake and response to doxorubicin. These data show that shifting lipid acquisition from lipid uptake toward de novo lipogenesis dramatically changes membrane properties and protects cells from both endogenous and exogenous insults. These findings provide important new insights into the role of de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells, and they provide a rationale for the use of lipogenesis inhibitors as antineoplastic agents and as chemotherapeutic sensitizers. ©2010 AACR.

Tong W.-G.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Wei Y.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Stevenson W.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Kuang S.-Q.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
Leukemia Research | Year: 2010

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis in a broad spectrum of human tumors and animal xenograft models. JNJ-26481585 is a hydroxamic acid derivative, second-generation pan-HDAC inhibitor that has demonstrated high potency in preclinical studies. In the current study, we demonstrated that JNJ-26481585 has antileukemia and molecular activity in leukemia cell lines and primary human leukemia cells. We also observed a synergistic effect between treatment with decitabine and JNJ-26481585. In conclusion, JNJ-26481585 is a potent second-generation pan-HDAC inhibitor with activity in human leukemia, and it is currently in clinical development. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Konings I.R.H.M.,Erasmus Medical Center | De Jonge M.J.A.,Erasmus Medical Center | Burger H.,Erasmus Medical Center | Van Der Gaast A.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Background:JNJ-26483327 is an oral, potent, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibiting kinases of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-1,-2 and-4, rearranged during transfection (RET) receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-3 and Src family (Lyn, Fyn, Yes) at low nanomolar concentrations. This phase I, accelerated titration study assessed maximum tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of JNJ-26483327.Methods:Nineteen patients with advanced cancers received JNJ-26483327 continuous twice daily (BID) in escalating dose cohorts ranging from 100 to 2100 mg. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed in paired skin biopsies and blood.Results:JNJ-26483327 was well tolerated in doses up to 1500 mg BID, with target-inhibition-related toxicity such as diarrhoea and skin rash, and other common reported toxicities being nausea, vomiting, anorexia and fatigue. At 2100 mg, two episodes of dose-limiting toxicity were observed, consisting of grade 3 anorexia and a combination of grade 3 anorexia and fatigue, respectively. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional up to 1500 mg in which plasma levels were obtained showing anti-tumour activity in xenograft mouse models. Pharmacodynamic analysis did not show a substantial effect on expression of Ki-67, p27 kip1, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphorylated Akt and EGFR, and serum levels of sVEGFR-2, VEGF-C and VEGF-D remained unchanged. Stable disease was noted in six patients (32%).Conclusion:JNJ-26483327 is well tolerated and shows a predictable pharmacokinetic profile; the recommended dose for further studies is 1500 mg BID. © 2010 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Stuhmer T.,University of Würzburg | Arts J.,Ortho Biotech Oncology Research and Development | Chatterjee M.,University of Würzburg | Borawski J.,University of Würzburg | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2010

Pharmacological inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are currently being developed and tested as anti-cancer agents and may be useful to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of established anti-myeloma treatments. This study preclinically evaluated the effects of the 'second generation' pan-HDAC inhibitor JNJ-26481585 on human multiple myeloma (MM) cells from established cell lines and primary MM samples (n = 42). Molecular responses in both groups of MM cells included histone acetylation, a shift in Bcl2-family members towards proapoptotic bias, attenuation of growth and survival pathway activity and Hsp72 induction. Mcl-1 depletion and Hsp72 induction were the most reliable features observed in JNJ-26481585-treated primary MM samples. The drug alone effectively induced myeloma cell death at low nanomolar concentrations. In vitro combination of JNJ-26481585 with anti-myeloma therapeutic agents generally resulted In effects close to additivity. In view of the favourable activity of this novel HDAC-inhibitor towards primary myeloma cells further evaluation in a clinical setting is warranted. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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