Betancor L.,ORT Uruguay University |
Johnson G.R.,Air Force Research Lab |
Luckarift H.R.,Air Force Research Lab |
Luckarift H.R.,Universal Technology Corporation
ChemCatChem | Year: 2013
Typically, the use of heterogeneous enzyme catalysis is aimed at sustainability, reusability, or enhanced functionality of the biocatalyst and is achieved by immobilizing enzymes onto a support matrix or at a defined interface. Controlled enzyme immobilization is particularly important in bioelectrocatalysis because the catalyst must be effectively connected to a transducer to exploit its activity. This Review discusses what must be addressed for coupling biocatalysts to an electrode and the toolbox of methods that are available for achieving this outcome. As an illustration, we focus on the immobilization and stabilization of laccases at electronic interfaces. Historically, laccases have been used for the decolorization of dyes and for the synthesis of bio-organic compounds; however, more recently, they have been applied to the fields of sensing and energy harvesting.1-3 There is an ever-increasing focus on the development of new energy technologies, in which laccases find application (e.g., as cathodic catalysts in enzymatic fuel cells). Herein, we discuss the heterogeneous laccase biocatalysts that have been reported over the past 10-15years and discuss why laccases continue to be biotechnologically relevant enzymes. Various methods for the immobilization of laccases are described, including the use of nanoscale supports and a range of encapsulation and cross-linking chemistries. We consider the application of immobilized laccases to the food industry, in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, and in environmental applications, specifically in cases in which stabilization through heterogenization of the enzyme is critical to the application. We also include a consideration of electrochemical biosensors and the specific incorporation of laccases on the surfaces of transducers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Garbarino-Alberti H.,ORT Uruguay University
International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals | Year: 2013
Information Technology (IT) plays an important role in organizations, particularly in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These firms have a simple structure with less specialized tasks and tight human, financial and material resources, so it is particularly important to use an appropriate IT governance framework (ITG) to such enterprises. This paper shows the results of applying an ITG framework designed for SMEs in a case study focused on IT Human Resources (IT HR) and the lessons learned. Conclusions highlight the importance of the quality of IT HR along with the key role played by related enterprise policies. Copyright © 2013, IGI Global.
Brum P.,ORT Uruguay University
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism | Year: 2014
This article studies a singular aspect of the urban insurgency of Uruguay's MLN-Tupamaros: the tactic of armed propaganda. The Tupamaros applied the method mainly at the peak of their existence, in the years 1969-70. Afterward they opted predominantly for others, such as terrorism. By comparing the two periods, I argue that armed propaganda helped the organization to thrive, while the latter was an important cause of its demise. The conclusion suggests that armed propaganda led the Tupamaros to significant accomplishments, but also that switching tactics was a major determinant in their defeat. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Calegari D.,University of the Republic of Uruguay |
Szasz N.,ORT Uruguay University
Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2013
Within the Model-Driven Engineering paradigm, software development is based on the definition of models providing different views of the system to be constructed and model transformations supporting a (semi)automatic development process. The verification of models and model transformations is crucial in order to improve the quality and the reliability of the products developed using this paradigm. In this context, the verification of a model transformation has three main components: the transformation itself, the properties of interest addressed, and the verification techniques used to establish the properties. In this paper we present an exhaustive review of the literature on the verification of model transformations analyzing these three components. We also take a problem-based approach exemplifying those aspects of interest that could be verified on a model transformation and show how this can be done. Finally, we conclude the need of an integrated environment for addressing the heterogeneous verification of model transformations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Vergara S.,ORT Uruguay University
Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal | Year: 2012
The generation of synthetic signals has been one of the first applications of computers. As a matter of fact the earliest electronic computers were analog and their output was, in effect, a signal. With the advent of digital electronic the initial method employed has been the application of the Fourier Theorem, generating signals as series of sinusoids, a technique deserving a name by its own: "additive synthesis". The advantage of the technique is the great control on the parameters of the generated wave. The main disadvantage is the complexity of the computation involved, namely for each component many samples of sinusoid need to be computed, and this usually requires a special hardware to be performed in real time. The reason is that the sine wave, although being natural for physical linear systems, is very complex in the digital domain. This article introduces an effective generalization of the polar flavor of the Fourier Theorem based on a new method of analysis. Under the premises of the new theory an ample class of functions become viable as bases, with the further advantage of using the same basis for analysis and reconstruction. In fact other tools, like the wavelets, admit specially built nonorthogonal bases but require different bases for analysis and reconstruction (biorthogonal and dual bases) and vectorial coordinates; this renders those systems unintuitive and computing intensive. As an example of the advantages of the new generalization of the Fourier Theorem, this paper introduces a novel method for the synthesis that is based on frequency-phase series of square waves (the equivalent of the polar Fourier Theorem but for nonorthogonal bases). The resulting synthesizer is very efficient needing only few components, frugal in terms of computing needs, and viable for many applications. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.