Oromia Agricultural Research Institute

Bako, Ethiopia

Oromia Agricultural Research Institute

Bako, Ethiopia

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Wamatu J.,International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas | Alkhtib A.,International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas | Abate D.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Kemal S.A.,International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas | Rischkowsky B.,International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2017

To evaluate the potential of straw from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) as feed for ruminants in tropical highlands, the effect of variety (n = 6), season (main and short), botanical fraction (leaf and stem) and treatment with 4% urea on chemical composition (CP, NDF, ADF, ADL) and in vitro gas production during 24 h was studied. The latter was used to estimate in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Variety had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on CP and ADL of the straw. The differences between the leaf and stem were significant (P < 0.001) for all parameters. Season affected the nutritive value of the leaf but not of the stem. The nutritive value of the whole straw was strongly correlated to the nutritive value of the leaf (r = 0.87) and stem (r = 0.86). The urea treatment increased CP from 99 to 121 g/kg DM and ME from 6.02 to 6.39 MJ/kg DM. The effect of treatment was thus much lower than the variance among varieties, so that selection for better quality straw without compromising pea yield could be interesting option for smallholder farmers in mixed crop – livestock systems. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Abinasa M.,Sinana Agricultural Research Center | Ayana A.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Bultosa G.,Haramaya University
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Information on the extent of genetic variability and heritability as well as correlation among agronomically important traits is a requirement to design a suitable plant breeding method. The present research was conducted at Sinana, Southeastern Ethiopia during the 2009 main crop growing season. The experimental material consisted of 16 durum wheat genotypes tested in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Twelve agronomic traits were included in the investigation. Highly significant differences were revealed among durum wheat genotypes for all traits studied, suggesting the possibility of improving durum wheat for these traits. Plant height and number of kernels per spike showed the highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations and genetic advance, whereas, days to maturity and test weight had the lowest values. Plant height exhibited highest heritability value of 98.3% while number of spikelets per spike showed minimum value of 36.4%. The genotypic correlations estimated showed positive association of grain yield with days for heading (r=0.50), harvest index (r=0.69) and kernels number per spike (r=0.81). Harvest index (1.13) and biomass (0.81) exhibited the highest positive and significant direct effect on grain yield. Hence, these traits could be considered as suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding durum wheat varieties. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Wondimu T.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Alamerew S.,Jimma University | Garedew W.,Jimma University
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2014

Forty nine anchote landrace populations collected from South and Western parts of Ethiopia were evaluated for 17 pheno-morphic and agronomic traits of yield and yield related traits in simple lattice design at Bako Agricultural Research Center during 2011 cropping season. The objectives of the study were to classify the population into relatively homogenous group and to identify the major traits contributing to the overall diversity of the population. The data were subjected to D2 analysis and the populations were clustered in to 5 different major groups according to their similarity levels and this makes the accessions to become moderately divergent. This dataset was reduced to three significant Principal Components (PCs) that cumulatively explained 93.50% of the variance. About 56.30% of the variance accounted for by the first PC alone resulted largely from the variations in contrasting effects of discriminatory traits like fruit yield per plant, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit diameter, hundred seed weight, petiole length, number of fruit per plant, leaf length, average root length, internodes length, vine length and root yield per plant. Overall, the study confirmed the presence of character diversity in anchote landraces. This assessment of traits diversity can assist geneticist and breeders to identify populations with desirable characteristics for inclusion in variety breeding program. Further evaluation at multi-location is suggested in the future. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.

Wakjira K.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Wakjira K.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Negash L.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex Del. (Euphorbiaceae) is a multipurpose, deciduous, and medium sized tree of pantropic occurrence. Because the species has numerous useful qualities (e.g., establishment and growth in disturbed sites, drought tolerance, fast growth rate, copious litter/necromass production, suitability for agroforestry, and ability to attract avian frugivores), its speedy restoration has become increasingly critical. Germination studies were therefore conducted on seeds pooled from five widely located provenances with a view to supporting efforts geared toward the speedy propagation and restoration of this valuable tree species. Seed pretreatments were achieved using various dilution levels of plant-derived smoke-water (1:1, 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000), as well as gibberellic acid (GA3) or potassium nitrate (KNO3) ranging in concentration from 0.1 to 100μmol. The control was to use distilled water for seed pretreatment. Seeds were germinated under either illuminated (ca 60μmolm-2s-1; cool-white fluorescent lamp) or non-illuminated conditions. Experiments on the impact of seed storage durations, as well as storage temperatures were also conducted. The study found that germination percentage (GP: ca 90%), and mean germination time (MGT: 14days) were significantly (P<0.001) better when seeds were pretreated with smoke-water and germinated under non-illuminated conditions, than when these were pretreated with various concentrations of GA3 or KNO3 (GP and MGT of ca 65% and 20days, respectively). Germination percentage (GP) and germination vigor (GV) declined with increasing storage-time for all storage temperatures, but GV's decline was faster for seeds stored at 22°C than for those stored at 5 and 15°C. On the other hand, mean germination time (MGT) increased significantly (P<0.01) with seed storage-time of up to 8months at 5, 15, and 22°C, but the increase was more marked for seeds stored at 22°C than for those stored at 5 and 15°C. From these investigations, it is concluded that germination of C. macrostachyus seeds through use of smoke-water is faster, cheaper, and technically less demanding, compared to that of either GA3 or KNO3. The study also concludes that C. macrostachyus is intermediate between orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, and that it is non-photoblastic. © 2013 South African Association of Botanists.

Duguma G.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Duguma G.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Duguma G.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Mirkena T.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | And 9 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2011

Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.

Birhan T.,Jimma University | Zeleke H.,Haramaya University | Ayana A.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

Hundred pigeon pea genotypes were tested in a 10 × 10 simple lattice design at Areka Agricultural Research Center during 2009 rain feed cropping season. Correlation coefficients and path coefficients (partitioned into direct and indirect effects) were estimated on yield and its contributing traits. Seed yield had positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic association with plant height, biomass yield per plant, pods per plant, seeds per plant, days to maturity, days to flowering, seeds per pod, reproductive phase and seed yield per plant. Phenotypic path analysis showed that, days to maturity had the highest positive direct effect on seed yield followed by plant height and seeds per plant whereas; genotypic path analysis revealed that, maximum direct effect on seed yield was exerted by days to flowering and reproductive phase followed by seeds per plant and plant height. Thus, seeds per plant and plant height were the potent contributor to seed yield which could be used as indirect selection criteria. The results from correlation and path coefficient analyses showed that selection for yield improvement through days to flowering, plant height, seeds per plant, pod filling duration and biomass yield per plant appeared promising.

Adgaba N.,King Saud University | Al-Ghamdi A.A.,King Saud University | Chernet M.H.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Ali Y.A.,King Saud University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

The orientation of combs in traditional beehives is extremely important for obtaining a marketable honey product. However, the factors that could determine comb orientation in traditional hives and the possibilities of inducing honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.), to construct more desirable combs have not been investigated. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether guide marks in traditional hives can induce bees to build combs of a desired orientation. Thirty-two traditional hives of uniform dimensions were used in the experiment. In 24 hives, ridges were formed on the inner surfaces of the hives with fermented mud to obtain different orientations, circular, horizontal, and spiral, with eight replicates of each treatment. In the remaining eight control hives, the inner surface was left smooth. Thirty-two well-established honey bee colonies from other traditional hives were transferred to the prepared hives. The colonies were randomly assigned to the four treatment groups. The manner of comb construction in the donor and experimental hives was recorded. The results showed that 22 (91.66%) of the 24 colonies in the treated groups built combs along the ridges provided, whereas only 2 (8.33%) did not. Comb orientation was strongly associated with the type of guide marks provided. Moreover, of the 18 colonies that randomly fell to patterns different from those of their previous nests, 17 (94.4%) followed the guide marks provided, irrespective of the comb orientation type in their previous nest. Thus, comb orientation appears to be governed by the inner surface pattern of the nest cavity. The results suggest that even in fixed-comb hives, honey bees can be guided to build combs with orientations suitable to honey harvesting, without affecting the colonies. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Girma F.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute | Haile D.,Haramaya University
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

Crop production is limited by environmental factors among which moisture deficit imposed at critical stages of crop growth is the most important one. Drought stress has become the major limiting factor on plant growth and yield. Supplemental irrigation at stress periods is, hence, important for improving yield of crops. Faba bean production in Southeast Ethiopia is limited by terminal drought imposed at anthesis and grain filling stages. An experiment was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Southeast Ethiopia to evaluate faba bean varieties in response to yield and physiological parameters. Seven faba bean varieties were tested with two moisture regimes (rain fed and supplemental irrigation) on field and in pot. The varieties have showed significant difference in yield components. Degaga, Bulga-70 and Messay gave higher yield whereas Tesfa had a lower yield. Moisture susceptibility index was calculated to evaluate susceptibility of varieties to moisture stress. Based on the index, CS20-DK and NC-58 varieties were tolerant, Shallo, Degaga and Bulga-70 were moderately tolerant and Tesfa and Messay were relatively susceptible to moisture stress. Supplemental irrigation significantly improved yield components except harvest index and thousand seeds weight. Physiological parameters did not change among faba bean varieties indicating that the varieties perform similarly in these parameters. However, physiological parameters such as transpiration rate and internal CO2 concentration were significantly improved by supplemental irrigation at anthesis whereas irrigation did not affect photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence ratio. Leaf temperature was decreased by supplemental irrigation showing a cooling effect on the crop canopy. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Haile D.,Haramaya University | Nigussie D.,Haramaya University | Ayana A.,Oromia Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2012

The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of nitrogen (N) rate and time of application on N use efficiency (NUE) of bread wheat, and their association with grain yield and protein content. Factorial combinations of four N levels, two bread wheat varieties and three timings of N applications were laid out in a randomized complete block design. N rate significantly influenced grain yield, protein content, N uptake efficiency, N biomass production efficiency, N utilization efficiency, N use efficiency for grain and N use efficiency for protein yield. Time of N application had highly significant effect on grain yield, protein content and NUE traits. Rate of N application and variety were significantly interacted to influence grain yield. Grain yield for Madda Walabu found sharply increase with each increase in N application rate. The improved variety provided significantly higher grain yield, N utilization efficiency and N use efficiency for grain yield (NUEGY) when N was applied 1/4 at planting, 1/2 at mid-tillering, and 1/4 at anthesis. Variations in NUEGY were explained more by the variations in N uptake efficiency. Harvest index contribution to NUEGY was higher for the local variety. Although NUE significantly decreased with increasing N rates, yield response of the varieties did not plateau out.

Gebre K.T.,Mekelle University | Gebre K.T.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Fuerst-Waltl B.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 5 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

A bio-economic model was adapted to estimate economic values for important traits of two Ethiopian indigenous sheep breeds, the Menz and Horro breeds. To do so, a meat sheep herd for fattening lambs and rearing young replacement sheep was simulated. Traits included in the analysis were: daily gain (fattening trait), live weight of ewes, length of productive life, lambing interval, litter size, stillbirths and lamb survival (functional traits). To avoid double counting, the economic value for each trait was derived while keeping all other traits constant. Economic values were obtained per ewe place, year, and genetic standard deviation. For the Menz breed, economic values in € per genetic standard deviation were 0.63 (daily gain), -0.77 (mature ewe live weight), -0.97 (length of productive life), 1.57 (lambing interval), 0.98 (litter size), 0.41 (stillbirths) and 2.20 (lamb survival). Economic values (in €) of 1.35 (daily gain), -1.26 (mature ewe live weight), -1.15 (length of productive life), 1.98 (lambing interval), 3.67 (litter size), 0.56 (stillbirth) and 3.25 (lamb survival) were derived for the Horro breed. Negative economic values for length of productive life and mature ewe live weight were estimated for both breeds. After setting the economic values of length of productive life and mature ewe live weight to zero, the economic values (in %) for the ratio of the trait complexes fattening: functional traits were 11:89 and 12.5:87.5 for Menz and Horro, respectively. Economic values for litter size, lambing interval and lamb survival traits were sensitive to changes in price for breeding rams in both breeds. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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