OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS

Innsbruck, Austria

OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS

Innsbruck, Austria
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Makrecka-Kuka M.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis | Krumschnabel G.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Gnaiger E.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Gnaiger E.,Innsbruck Medical University
Biomolecules | Year: 2015

Whereas mitochondria are well established as the source of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), it is debated if they are also the major cellular sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we describe the novel approach of combining high-resolution respirometry and fluorometric measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, applied to mitochondrial preparations (permeabilized cells, tissue homogenate, isolated mitochondria). The widely used H2O2 probe Amplex Red inhibited respiration in intact and permeabilized cells and should not be applied at concentrations above 10 μM. H2O2 fluxes were generally less than 1% of oxygen fluxes in physiological substrate and coupling states, specifically in permeabilized cells. H2O2 flux was consistently highest in the Complex II-linked LEAK state, reduced with CI&II-linked convergent electron flow and in mitochondria respiring at OXPHOS capacity, and were further diminished in uncoupled mitochondria respiring at electron transfer system capacity. Simultaneous measurement of mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 flux requires careful optimization of assay conditions and reveals information on mitochondrial function beyond separate analysis of ROS production. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Bernardinelli E.,Paracelsus Medical University | Costa R.,Paracelsus Medical University | Scantamburlo G.,Paracelsus Medical University | To J.,Nanyang Technological University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Lipoyl(Octanoyl) Transferase 2 (LIPT2) is a protein involved in the post-translational modification of key energy metabolism enzymes in humans. Defects of lipoic acid synthesis and transfer start to emerge as causes of fatal or severe early-onset disease. We show that the first 31 amino acids of the N-terminus of LIPT2 represent a mitochondrial targeting sequence and inhibition of the transit of LIPT2 to the mitochondrion results in apoptotic cell death associated with activation of the apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) current in normotonic conditions, as well as over-activation of the swelling-activated chloride current (IClswell), mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, caspase-3 cleavage and nuclear DNA fragmentation. The findings presented here may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying derangements of lipoic acid biosynthesis. © 2017 Bernardinelli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Miller B.,Colorado State University | Hamilton K.,Colorado State University | Boushel R.,University of British Columbia | Williamson K.,Waypoint Veterinary Education | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

At the annual Iditarod Race, Alaskan Huskies repeatedly run for up to 8 hours at 16 km/h to complete 1600 km. We previously demonstrated high rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis in Alaskan Huskies, which we suspected allowed rapid remodeling of mitochondrial proteins in response to energetic stress. The purpose of this study was to examine mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers of Alaskan Huskies in the offseason (Non-raced) and following the 1600 km Iditarod Sled Dog Race (Raced). We hypothesized that compared to Non-raced Huskies, raced Huskies that completed a 1600 km race would have greater mitochondrial respiratory capacities, and improvements in capacities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) based on NADH-generating substrates as compared to fatty acids. Using high-resolution respirometry (HRR) we investigated the respiration of permeabilized muscle fibers from Alaskan Huskies. Maximum capacities were 254±26 pmol.s-1.mg-1 for OXPHOS (coupled, P) and 254±37 pmol.s-1.mg-1 for the electron transfer system (ETS; non-coupled, E). After racing respiratory capacities from NADHlinked substrates, but not fat-derived substrates increased. Finally, the OXPHOS to ETS capacity ratio (P/E) increased after racing from 0.90±0.03 to 0.97±0.02. From our previous studies and the current study, we conclude that Alaskan Huskies maintain high mitochondrial protein turnover to facilitate rapid adaptation to environmental extremes and energetic challenges. © 2017 Miller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Dueregger A.,Innsbruck Medical University | Dueregger A.,Oncotyrol GmbH | Schopf B.,Oncotyrol GmbH | Schopf B.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased β-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright: © 2015 Dueregger et al.


Smolkova K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Smolkova K.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Smolkova K.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Bellance N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes | Year: 2010

Breast cancer cells can survive and proliferate under harsh conditions of nutrient deprivation, including limited oxygen and glucose availability. We hypothesized that such environments trigger metabolic adaptations of mitochondria, which promote tumor progression. Here, we mimicked aglycemia and hypoxia in vitro and compared the mitochondrial and cellular bioenergetic adaptations of human breast cancer (HTB-126) and non-cancer (HTB-125) cells that originate from breast tissue. Using high-resolution respirometry and western blot analyses, we demonstrated that 4 days of glucose deprivation elevated oxidative phosphorylation five-fold, increased the spread of the mitochondrial network without changing its shape, and decreased the apparent affinity of oxygen in cancer cells (increase in C 50 ), whereas it remained unchanged in control cells. The substrate control ratios also remained constant following adaptation. We also observed the Crabtree effect, specifically in HTB-126 cells. Likewise, sustained hypoxia (1% oxygen during 6 days) improved cell respiration in non-cancer cells grown in glucose or glucose-deprived medium (+ 32% and +38%, respectively). Conversely, under these conditions of limited oxygen or a combination of oxygen and glucose deprivation for 6 days, routine respiration was strongly reduced in cancer cells (-36% in glucose medium, -24% in glucose-deprived medium). The data demonstrate that cancer cells behave differently than normal cells when adapting their bioenergetics to microenvironmental conditions. The differences in hypoxia and aglycemia tolerance between breast cancer cells and non-cancer cells may be important when optimizing strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Harrison D.K.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Fasching M.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Fontana-Ayoub M.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Gnaiger E.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Gnaiger E.,Innsbruck Medical University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2015

Harrison DK, Fasching M, Fontana-Ayoub M, Gnaiger E. Cytochrome redox states and respiratory control in mouse and beef heart mitochondria at steady-state levels of hypoxia. J Appl Physiol 119: 1210-1218, 2015. First published August 6, 2015; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00146.2015.-Mitochondrial control of cellular redox states is a fundamental component of cell signaling in the coordination of core energy metabolism and homeostasis during normoxia and hypoxia. We investigated the relationship between cytochrome redox states and mitochondrial oxygen consumption at steady-state levels of hypoxia in mitochondria isolated from beef and mouse heart (BHImt, MHImt), comparing two species with different cardiac dynamics and local oxygen demands. A low-noise, rapid spectrophotometric system using visible light for the measurement of cytochrome redox states was combined with high-resolution respirometry. Monophasic hyperbolic relationships were observed between oxygen consumption, JO2, and oxygen partial pressure, PO2, within the range <1.1 kPa (8.3 mmHg; 13 μM). P50j (PO2 at 0.5 Jmax) was 0.015 ± 0.0004 and 0.021 ± 0.003 kPa (0.11 and 0.16 mmHg) for BHImt and MHImt, respectively. Maximum oxygen consumption, Jmax, was measured at saturating ADP levels (OXPHOS capacity) with Complex I-linked substrate supply. Redox states of cytochromes aa3 and c were biphasic hyperbolic functions of PO2. The relationship between cytochrome oxidation state and oxygen consumption revealed a separation of distinct phases from mild to severe and deep hypoxia. When cytochrome c oxidation increased from fully reduced to 45% oxidized at 0.1 Jmax, PO2 was as low as 0.002 kPa (0.02 μM), and trace amounts of oxygen are sufficient to partially oxidize the cytochromes. At higher PO2 under severe hypoxia, respiration increases steeply, whereas redox changes are small. Under mild hypoxia, the steep slope of oxidation of cytochrome c when flux remains more stable represents a cushioning mechanism that helps to maintain respiration high at the onset of hypoxia. © 2015 The American Physiological Society.


Krumschnabel G.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Eigentler A.,Innsbruck Medical University | Fasching M.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Gnaiger E.,OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS | Gnaiger E.,Innsbruck Medical University
Methods in Enzymology | Year: 2014

The mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψmt or mtMP) is directly influenced by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The exact nature of the interactions between respiration (flux) and mtMP (force) under various physiological and pathological conditions remains unclear, partially due to methodological limitations. Here, we describe a combination of high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry based on the OROBOROS Oxygraph-2k and the widely applied mtMP indicator safranin. The analysis of OXPHOS in mouse brain homogenates revealed that, at commonly applied concentrations, safranin inhibits Complex I-driven OXPHOS capacity, primarily targeting the phosphorylation system, but has no effects on LEAK respiration. Conversely, Complex II-driven OXPHOS capacity was inhibited by < 20% by safranin concentrations normally used for mtMP monitoring. The mtMP was higher in the LEAK state without adenylates than at identical LEAK respiration after ADP stimulation and Complex V inhibition with oligomycin. The maximal electron transfer system (ETS) capacity was reached in uncoupler titrations before the mtMP fully collapsed, whereas respiration was inhibited at increasing uncoupler concentrations, resulting in the progressive reduction of mtMP. In a pharmacologically induced state of Complex II dysfunction, mtMP was rather insensitive to the inhibition of OXPHOS to 50% of its normal capacity, but robustly responded to inhibitors when respiration was limited by substrate depletion. The optimal concentration of uncoupler supporting maximal ETS capacity varied as a function of pharmacological intervention. Taken together, the combined measurement of respiration and mtMP greatly enhances the informative potential of OXPHOS studies. The respirometric validation of inhibitory and uncoupling effects is mandatory for any fluorophore employed to assess mtMP in any respiratory state, tissue type, and pathophysiological condition. The methodological issues analyzed herein are relevant for the study of mitochondrial respiration in a wide variety of setting, including cancer cell metabolism. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | OROBOROS INSTRUMENTS and Innsbruck Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) | Year: 2015

Mitochondrial control of cellular redox states is a fundamental component of cell signaling in the coordination of core energy metabolism and homeostasis during normoxia and hypoxia. We investigated the relationship between cytochrome redox states and mitochondrial oxygen consumption at steady-state levels of hypoxia in mitochondria isolated from beef and mouse heart (BHImt, MHImt), comparing two species with different cardiac dynamics and local oxygen demands. A low-noise, rapid spectrophotometric system using visible light for the measurement of cytochrome redox states was combined with high-resolution respirometry. Monophasic hyperbolic relationships were observed between oxygen consumption, JO2, and oxygen partial pressure, Po2, within the range <1.1 kPa (8.3 mmHg; 13 M). P50j (Po2 at 0.5Jmax) was 0.015 0.0004 and 0.021 0.003 kPa (0.11 and 0.16 mmHg) for BHImt and MHImt, respectively. Maximum oxygen consumption, Jmax, was measured at saturating ADP levels (OXPHOS capacity) with Complex I-linked substrate supply. Redox states of cytochromes aa3 and c were biphasic hyperbolic functions of Po2. The relationship between cytochrome oxidation state and oxygen consumption revealed a separation of distinct phases from mild to severe and deep hypoxia. When cytochrome c oxidation increased from fully reduced to 45% oxidized at 0.1 Jmax, Po2 was as low as 0.002 kPa (0.02 M), and trace amounts of oxygen are sufficient to partially oxidize the cytochromes. At higher Po2 under severe hypoxia, respiration increases steeply, whereas redox changes are small. Under mild hypoxia, the steep slope of oxidation of cytochrome c when flux remains more stable represents a cushioning mechanism that helps to maintain respiration high at the onset of hypoxia.

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