Marrakesh, Morocco
Marrakesh, Morocco
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Le Page M.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | Toumi J.,Cadi Ayyad University | Khabba S.,Cadi Ayyad University | Hagolle O.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | And 8 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

This paper describes the setting and results of a real-time experiment of irrigation scheduling by a time series of optical satellite images under real conditions, which was carried out on durum wheat in the Haouz plain (Marrakech, Morocco), during the 2012/13 agricultural season. For the purpose of this experiment, the irrigation of a reference plot was driven by the farmer according to, mainly empirical, irrigation scheduling while test plot irrigations were being managed following the FAO-56 method, driven by remote sensing. Images were issued from the SPOT4 (Take5) data set, which aimed at delivering image time series at a decametric resolution with less than five-day satellite overpass similar to the time OPEN ACCESS series ESA Sentinel-2 satellites will produce in the coming years. With a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.91mm per day, the comparison between daily actual evapotranspiration measured by eddy-covariance and the simulated one is satisfactory, but even better at a five-day integration (0.59mm per day). Finally, despite a chaotic beginning of the experiment-the experimental plot had not been irrigated to get rid of a slaking crust, which prevented good emergence-our plot caught up and yielded almost the same grain crop with 14% less irrigation water. This experiment opens up interesting opportunities for operational scheduling of flooding irrigation sectors that dominate in the semi-arid Mediterranean area. © 2014 by the authors.

Belaqziz S.,Cadi Ayyad University | Khabba S.,Cadi Ayyad University | Er-Raki S.,LP2M2E | Jarlan L.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

Irrigation scheduling has become an important tool that significantly influences growth, development and production of crops, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the South Mediterranean. In these regions, most of the irrigation scheduling of the gravity irrigation networks are not optimized in terms of timing and water quantity. In this paper, we present a way of characterizing the irrigation distribution by the extensively used irrigation systems through a new irrigation index: the "irrigation priority index" (IPI). This normalized indicator takes into account the water stress coefficient and the time of irrigation with regard to the duration of an irrigation round. The IPI ranges between -1 and 1 and decreases with irrigation priority. The IPI was used to evaluate the actual irrigation scheduling in an irrigated perimeter of 2800ha of Tensift Al Haouz plain close to Marrakech in Morocco during the 2002-2003 winter wheat season. The obtained results showed that about 32% of the R3 zone plots receive late irrigation, when the stress was maximum (IPI less than -0.3). The sensitivity of grain yield to the IPI values was evaluated on a data set of wheat yields acquired on the 2008-2009 season. The spatial yield was simply calculated using a linear relationship between wheat yields and the spatial accumulated NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) of the last 10 days of March (R2=0.84). The result showed a clear relationship between grain yield and IPI. Indeed, with significantly positive IPI [0.37, 0.63], production ranged from 3.8 to 4.7t/ha, whereas, it was less than 2.6t/ha when the IPI values are ranged from -0.52 to -0.16. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kharrou M.H.,ORMVAH | Le Page M.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | Chehbouni A.,Boulevard Prince My abdellah | Simonneaux V.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | And 5 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

The irrigation performance criteria of equity and adequacy are of primary concern for irrigation managers. The input data required at various scales to assess irrigation performance, often not available, need costly intensive field campaigns. Remote sensing techniques, used to directly estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc), became recently an attractive option to assess irrigation performance from individual fields to irrigation scheme or river basin scale. In this study, ETc maps were obtained by combining the FAO-56 dual approach with relationships between crop biophysical variables and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), using high spatial resolution time series of SPOT and Landsat images. This approach was applied for 2002/2003 growing season in Haouz plain, Morocco. Remote sensing-based indicators, reflecting equity and adequacy of the irrigation water delivery were estimated. Adequacy was determined according to Relative Irrigation supply (RIS), Depleted Fraction (DF) and Relative Evapotranspiration (RET) and equity according to the coefficient of variation of ETc. The analysis of these indicators exhibits a great variability among fields. Variability in irrigation performance at all levels, associated factors and possible improvements are discussed. This study demonstrates how remote sensing-based estimates of water consumption provide better estimates of irrigation performance at different scales than the traditional field survey methods. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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