Del Rio Etayo L.,Ormazabal
Proceedings - International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, ISDEIV
Triple-junctions on both fixed and movable side of the Vacuum Interrupter are substantially overstressed depending on voltage polarity due to the absence of voltage grading and/or shielding measures in a 36kV switchgear when its enclosure is earthed. As a result partial discharges, surface tracking or flashover along the Vacuum Interrupter ceramic could be initiated at these points resulting in a possible puncture at the center shield location during withstand test. If no puncture occurs the situation could eventually result in a complete breakdown at a higher voltage and/or longer voltage duration. The situation is worst at the location where the distance between the Vacuum Interrupter and the earthed system enclosure is the smallest. The addition of different shielding measures have been checked in order to fix the dielectric problem. An improved design implementing shielding measures applied at the critical points to avoid surface tracking, flashover and discharges at the required voltages is presented along with electrostatic simulations. © 2012 IEEE. Source
Garcia Calvo J.L.,CSIC - Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science |
Alonso M.C.,CSIC - Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science |
Fernandez Luco L.,University of Buenos Aires |
Robles Velasco M.,Ormazabal
Construction and Building Materials
Heat curing, which is used to ensure the production rate, influences the microstructural and durability properties of the concrete. When a given performance is required, the influence of the heat curing in the concrete properties must be considered in the concrete design process. This paper evaluates the influence of heat curing on several parameters of two self-compacting concretes (SCC) produced in laboratory and at industrial scale, one of them designed based on sustainable issues (replacing 20% of cement with limestone filler). The obtained results show that the heat curing process modifies the properties of both concretes in a similar way thus more sustainable heat cured SCC can be fabricated. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Ramos J.C.,University of Navarra |
Beiza M.,University of Navarra |
Gastelurrutia J.,University of Navarra |
Rivas A.,University of Navarra |
And 3 more authors.
Applied Thermal Engineering
Ventilation by natural convection of two underground transformer substations has been numerically modelled. The model has been verified in terms of discretization errors and it has been validated with the experimental results of eight temperature rise tests carried out under different conditions of ventilation and transformer power losses. The results of the simulations serve to analyse the air flow pattern and the air temperature distributions inside the substation. A correlation for the air mass flow rate as a function of the ventilation conditions (discharge coefficient and area of the grilles) and the heat dissipated by the transformer has been fitted. The heat transfer coefficients on the surfaces of the transformer and the walls of the enclosure can also be obtained from the simulations of the model. All this information will be used in a future paper to develop a zonal thermal model of the ventilation of the substations that can be employed as a design and optimisation tool. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Ormazabal | Date: 2012-02-16
apparatus and instruments for conducting, switching, transforming, accumulating, regulating or controlling electricity, namely, electrical conductors for transformers, electrical switchgear for primary and secondary distribution, namely gas insulated cubicles, air-insulated cubicles, withdrawable circuit breakers, gas-insulated compact modular cubicles, low, medium and high voltage switchboards, voltage boosting devices for electric power lines, electrical switches, transformers for the distribution of electricity, transformer substations, electrical transducers, electrical transformers, namely, power transformers and high voltage transformers, patch panels for housing electrical components, electrical connectors for power converters and electrical power connectors, and electrical switches, electrical terminal blocks, electrical receptacles, electrical distribution boxes, electric switchgear and control cabinets, vacuum tubes for switchgear, specially designed cabinets for holding switchgear, electrical connectors, electrical cables, electrical wires, electrical resolvers, electrical shielding spacers for cables and cable assemblies, electrical sensors, electrical relays, electrical power connector, electrical fuses, electrical inductors, electrical controllers, electrical circuit boards, high, medium and low-voltage switchgear, electrical distribution systems, namely, power distribution panels, electrical controls for switchgear and power system control namely, remote controls for operating switchgears and electrical power supply equipment, electrical and electronic apparatus and instruments for receiving and processing broadcast signals, namely, antennae, amplifiers, distributors, modulators and attenuators, electrical connectors, electronic installations for the remote control of industrial operations, electronic apparatus for the remote control of industrial operations, electronic cordless controls for industrial equipment, electronic communications equipment for sensing and displaying information, electronic communications equipment used for the transmission and reception of electronic data for display on either digital or analog readout devices, battery chargers, namely, general purpose battery chargers and battery charging units; apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or images, namely, blank magnetic data carriers. building construction; repair, installation and maintenance of electricity conductors, switches, transformers, electrical accumulation and storage units, electrical regulators and controllers; installation, maintenance and repair of electrical switchgear, namely, gas insulated cubicles, air-insulated cubicles, withdrawable circuit breakers, gas-insulated compact modular cubicles, distribution transformers, low, medium and high voltage switchboards, transformer substations; installation, maintenance and repair of electrical switchgear, namely, voltage boosting devices for electric power lines, electrical switches, patch panels for housing electrical components, electrical connectors, and electrical switches, electrical connectors, electrical cables, electrical wires, electrical transformers, electrical transducers, electrical terminal blocks, electrical resolvers, electrical shielding spacers for cables and cable assemblies, electrical sensor apparatus, electrical relays, electrical receptacles, electrical power connectors, electrical fuses, electrical inductors, electrical distribution boxes; installation, maintenance and repair of electrical distribution systems data processors, computers, and computer peripherals; installation, maintenance and repair of photovoltaic installations; installation, maintenance and repair of wind-powered electricity generators; installation and maintenance of information technology systems and security systems; installation, maintenance and repair of electrical and electronic apparatus and instruments for receiving and processing broadcast signals, namely, antennae, amplifiers, distributors, modulators and attenuators, electrical connectors and electronic installations for the remote control of industrial operations.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2010.7.1-1 | Award Amount: 52.26M | Year: 2011
Grid4EU project is an innovative SmartGrid project proposed by a group of Distribution System Operators (from Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden), in close partnership with a set of electricity retailers, manufacturers and research organizations. Adopting a systemic approach and organized around large-scale demonstrations networks located in six different countries, its structure is built to facilitate dynamic knowledge sharing, technical assistance and review. The project will run over a 51 month period. Grid4EU aims at testing in real size some innovative system concepts and technologies in order to highlight and help to remove some of the barriers to the smart grids deployment and the achievement of the 2020 European goals. These barriers may be technical, economic, societal, environmental or regulatory barriers. It focuses on how distribution system operators can dynamically manage electricity supply and demand, which is crucial for integration of large amounts of renewable energy, and empowers consumers to become active participants in their energy choices. Ultimately, these innovative concepts and technologies should cost-effectively increase the networks reliability, flexibility, and resiliency.