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Clotet B.,University of Vic | Feinberg J.,University of Cincinnati | Van Lunzen J.,Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf | Antinori A.,National Institute for Infectious | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Dolutegravir has been shown to be non-inferior to an integrase inhibitor and superior to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). In FLAMINGO, we compared dolutegravir with darunavir plus ritonavir in individuals naive for antiretroviral therapy. Methods In this multicentre, open-label, phase 3b, non-inferiority study, HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive adults with HIV-1 RNA concentration of 1000 copies per mL or more and no resistance at screening were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either dolutegravir 50 mg once daily or darunavir 800 mg plus ritonavir 100 mg once daily, with investigator-selected tenofovir.emtricitabine or abacavir.lamivudine. Randomisation was stratifi ed by screening HIV-1 RNA (.100 000 or >100 000 copies per mL) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) selection. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA concentration lower than 50 copies per mL (Food and Drug Administration [FDA] snapshot algorithm) at week 48 with a 12% non-inferiority margin. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01449929. Findings Recruitment began on Oct 31, 2011, and was completed on May 24, 2012, in 64 research centres in nine countries worldwide. Of 595 patients screened, 484 patients were included in the analysis (242 in each group). At week 48, 217 (90%) patients receiving dolutegravir and 200 (83%) patients receiving darunavir plus ritonavir had HIV-1 RNA of less than 50 copies per mL (adjusted diff erence 7E1%, 95% CI 0E9.13E2), non-inferiority and on pre-specifi ed secondary analysis dolutegravir was superior (p=0E025). Confi rmed virological failure occurred in two (<1%) patients in each group; we recorded no treatment-emergent resistance in either group. Discontinuation due to adverse events or stopping criteria was less frequent for dolutegravir (four [2%] patients) than for darunavir plus ritonavir (ten [4%] patients) and contributed to the diff erence in response rates. The most commonly reported (.10%) adverse events were diarrhoea (dolutegravir 41 [17%] patients vs darunavir plus ritonavir 70 [29%] patients), nausea (39 [16%] vs 43 [18%]), and headache (37 [15%] vs 24 [10%]). Patients receiving dolutegravir had signifi cantly fewer low-density lipoprotein values of grade 2 or higher (11 [2%] vs 36 [7%]; p=0E0001). Interpretation Once-daily dolutegravir was superior to once-daily darunavir plus ritonavir. Once-daily dolutegravir in combination with fixed-dose NRTIs represents an effective new treatment option for HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients. Funding ViiV Healthcare and Shionogi & Co. © Chataway et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Source


Lawitz E.,The Texas Institute | Sulkowski M.S.,Johns Hopkins University | Ghalib R.,The Texas Institute | Rodriguez-Torres M.,Fundacion de Investigacion | And 18 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Interferon-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We investigated the efficacy of combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir.Methods We enrolled patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections who had previously not responded to pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin or were treatment naive. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1:2:1 ratio to receive 150 mg simeprevir and 400 mg sofosbuvir daily for 24 weeks with (group 1) or without (group 2) ribavirin or for 12 weeks with (group 3) or without (group 4) ribavirin, in two cohorts: previous non-responders with METAVIR scores F0-F2 (cohort 1) and previous non-responders and treatment-naive patients with METAVIR scores F3-F4 (cohort 2). The primary endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks after stopping treatment (SVR12). Analysis was done by intention to treat. Safety data from cohorts 1 and 2 were pooled for analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01466790. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Findings 168 patients were enrolled and randomised, and 167 started treatment (n=80 in cohort 1 and n=87 in cohort 2). SVR12 was achieved in 154 (92%) patients (n=72 [90%, 95% CI 81-96] in cohort 1 and n=82 [94%, 87-98] in cohort 2). The most common adverse events in the pooled groups were fatigue (n=52 [31%]), headache (n=33 [20%]), and nausea (n=26 [16%]). Grade 4 adverse events were seen in one (2%) of 54 patients in each of groups 1 and 3 and in three (10%) of 31 patients in group 2, whereas grade 3-4 events were reported in less than 5% of all patients, except increased blood amylase concentration. Serious adverse events were seen in four (2%) patients, all in groups 1 and 2. Four (2%) patients discontinued all study treatment because of adverse events, three before week 12.Interpretation Combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir was efficacious and well tolerated. Funding Janssen. Source


Sax P.E.,Harvard University | Zolopa A.,Stanford University | Brar I.,Ford Motor Company | Elion R.,George Washington University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the novel tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), as part of a single-tablet regimen (STR) for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. Design: Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, active-controlled study. Methods: Antiretroviral naive adults with HIV-1 RNA 5000 copies per milliliter and a CD4 count 50 cells per microliter were randomized 2:1 to receive an STR of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) or elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF), plus placebo for 48 weeks. Results: Patients on both E/C/F/TAF (n = 112) and E/C/F/TDF (n = 58) had high rates of virologic suppression (<50 HIV copies per milliliter) at week 24 (86.6%; 89.7%) and at week 48 (88.4%; 87.9%), and had similar improvements in CD4 at week 48 (177; 204), respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated, and most adverse events were self-limiting and of mild to moderate severity. Compared with patients on E/C/F/TDF, patients on E/C/F/TAF had smaller reductions in estimated creatinine clearance (-5.5 vs.-10.1 mL/min, P = 0.041), significantly less renal tubular proteinuria, and smaller changes in bone mineral density for hip (-0.62% vs.-2.39%, P < 0.001) and spine (-1.00% vs.-3.37%, P < 0.001). Patients on E/C/F/TAF had higher increases in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein, but the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio was unchanged for both. Conclusions: Treatment-naive patients given the STR that contained either TAF or TDF achieved a high rate of virologic success. Compared with those receiving TDF, patients on E/C/F/TAF experienced significantly smaller changes in estimated creatinine clearance, renal tubular proteinuria, and bone mineral density. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Sax P.E.,Harvard University | DeJesus E.,Orlando Immunology Center | Mills A.,Anthony Mills MD | Zolopa A.,Stanford University | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background: The integrase inhibitor elvitegravir (EVG) has been co-formulated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor cobicistat (COBI), emtricitabine (FTC), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in a single tablet given once daily. We compared the efficacy and safety of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with standard of care-co-formulated efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF-as initial treatment for HIV infection. Methods: In this phase 3 trial, treatment-naive patients from outpatient clinics in North America were randomly assigned by computer-generated allocation sequence with a block size of four in a 1:1 ratio to receive EVG/COBI/FTC/ TDF or EFV/FTC/TDF, once daily, plus matching placebo. Patients and study staffinvolved in giving study treatment, assessing outcomes, and collecting and analysing data were masked to treatment allocation. Eligibility criteria included screening HIV RNA concentration of 5000 copies per mL or more, and susceptibility to efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir. The primary endpoint was HIV RNA concentration of fewer than 50 copies per mL at week 48. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01095796. Findings: 700 patients were randomly assigned and treated (348 with EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF, 352 with EFV/FTC/TDF). EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was non-inferior to EFV/FTC/TDF; 305/348 (87·6%) versus 296/352 (84·1%) of patients had HIV RNA concentrations of fewer than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (difference 3·6%, 95% CI -1·6% to 8·8%). Proportions of patients discontinuing drugs for adverse events did not differ substantially (13/348 in the EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF group vs 18/352 in the EFV/FTC/TDF group). Nausea was more common with EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF than with EFV/FTC/TDF (72/348 vs 48/352) and dizziness (23/348 vs 86/352), abnormal dreams (53/348 vs 95/352), insomnia (30/348 vs 49/352), and rash (22/348 vs 43/352) were less common. Serum creatinine concentration increased more by week 48 in the EVG/ COBI/FTC/TDF group than in the EFV/FTC/TDF group (median 13 μmol/L, IQR 5 to 20 vs 1 μmol/L, -6 to 8; p<0·001). Interpretation: If regulatory approval is given, EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF would be the only single-tablet, once-daily, integrase-inhibitor-based regimen for initial treatment of HIV infection. Source


Zolopa A.,Stanford University | Sax P.E.,Harvard University | Dejesus E.,Orlando Immunology Center | Mills A.,Anthony Mills MD Inc. | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

We report week 96 results from a phase 3 trial of elvitegravir/cobicistat/ emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF, n = 348) vs efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF, n = 352). At week 48, EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was noninferior to EFV/FTC/TDF (88% vs 84%, difference +3.6%, 95% confidence interval: -1.6% to 8.8%). Virologic success (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL) was maintained at week 96 (84% vs 82%, difference +2.7%, 95% CI: -2.9% to 8.3%). Discontinuation due to adverse events was low (5% vs 7%). Median changes in serum creatinine (mg/dL) at week 96 were similar to week 48. These results support the durable efficacy and long-term safety of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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