Orlando Immunology Center

Orlando, FL, United States

Orlando Immunology Center

Orlando, FL, United States
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Clotet B.,University of Vic | Feinberg J.,University of Cincinnati | Van Lunzen J.,Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf | Khuong-Josses M.-A.,Hopital Delafontaine | And 10 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Dolutegravir has been shown to be non-inferior to an integrase inhibitor and superior to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). In FLAMINGO, we compared dolutegravir with darunavir plus ritonavir in individuals naive for antiretroviral therapy. Methods In this multicentre, open-label, phase 3b, non-inferiority study, HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive adults with HIV-1 RNA concentration of 1000 copies per mL or more and no resistance at screening were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either dolutegravir 50 mg once daily or darunavir 800 mg plus ritonavir 100 mg once daily, with investigator-selected tenofovir.emtricitabine or abacavir.lamivudine. Randomisation was stratifi ed by screening HIV-1 RNA (.100 000 or >100 000 copies per mL) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) selection. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA concentration lower than 50 copies per mL (Food and Drug Administration [FDA] snapshot algorithm) at week 48 with a 12% non-inferiority margin. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01449929. Findings Recruitment began on Oct 31, 2011, and was completed on May 24, 2012, in 64 research centres in nine countries worldwide. Of 595 patients screened, 484 patients were included in the analysis (242 in each group). At week 48, 217 (90%) patients receiving dolutegravir and 200 (83%) patients receiving darunavir plus ritonavir had HIV-1 RNA of less than 50 copies per mL (adjusted diff erence 7E1%, 95% CI 0E9.13E2), non-inferiority and on pre-specifi ed secondary analysis dolutegravir was superior (p=0E025). Confi rmed virological failure occurred in two (<1%) patients in each group; we recorded no treatment-emergent resistance in either group. Discontinuation due to adverse events or stopping criteria was less frequent for dolutegravir (four [2%] patients) than for darunavir plus ritonavir (ten [4%] patients) and contributed to the diff erence in response rates. The most commonly reported (.10%) adverse events were diarrhoea (dolutegravir 41 [17%] patients vs darunavir plus ritonavir 70 [29%] patients), nausea (39 [16%] vs 43 [18%]), and headache (37 [15%] vs 24 [10%]). Patients receiving dolutegravir had signifi cantly fewer low-density lipoprotein values of grade 2 or higher (11 [2%] vs 36 [7%]; p=0E0001). Interpretation Once-daily dolutegravir was superior to once-daily darunavir plus ritonavir. Once-daily dolutegravir in combination with fixed-dose NRTIs represents an effective new treatment option for HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients. Funding ViiV Healthcare and Shionogi & Co. © Chataway et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.


Sulkowski M.S.,Johns Hopkins University | Gardiner D.F.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Rodriguez-Torres M.,Fundacion de Investigacion | Reddy K.R.,University of Pennsylvania | And 19 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: All-oral combination therapy is desirable for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated daclatasvir (an HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus sofosbuvir (a nucleotide analogue HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor) in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3. Methods: In this open-label study, we initially randomly assigned 44 previously untreated patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and 44 patients infected with HCV geno-type 2 or 3 to daclatasvir at a dose of 60 mg orally once daily plus sofosbuvir at a dose of 400 mg orally once daily, with or without ribavirin, for 24 weeks. The study was expanded to include 123 additional patients with genotype 1 infection who were randomly assigned to daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, for 12 weeks (82 previously untreated patients) or 24 weeks (41 patients who had previous virologic failure with telaprevir or boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa- ribavirin). The primary end point was a sustained virologic response (an HCV RNA level of <25 IU per milliliter) at week 12 after the end of therapy. Results: Overall, 211 patients received treatment. Among patients with genotype 1 infection, 98% of 126 previously untreated patients and 98% of 41 patients who did not have a sustained virologic response with HCV protease inhibitors had a sustained virologic response at week 12 after the end of therapy. A total of 92% of 26 patients with genotype 2 infection and 89% of 18 patients with genotype 3 infection had a sustained virologic response at week 12. High rates of sustained virologic response at week 12 were observed among patients with HCV subtypes 1a and 1b (98% and 100%, respectively) and those with CC and non-CC IL28B genotypes (93% and 98%, respectively), as well as among patients who received ribavirin and those who did not (94% and 98%, respectively). The most common adverse events were fatigue, headache, and nausea. Conclusions: Once-daily oral daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir was associated with high rates of sustained virologic response among patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3, including patients with no response to prior therapy with telaprevir or boceprevir. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Sax P.E.,Harvard University | DeJesus E.,Orlando Immunology Center | Mills A.,Anthony Mills MD | Zolopa A.,Stanford University | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background: The integrase inhibitor elvitegravir (EVG) has been co-formulated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor cobicistat (COBI), emtricitabine (FTC), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in a single tablet given once daily. We compared the efficacy and safety of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with standard of care-co-formulated efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF-as initial treatment for HIV infection. Methods: In this phase 3 trial, treatment-naive patients from outpatient clinics in North America were randomly assigned by computer-generated allocation sequence with a block size of four in a 1:1 ratio to receive EVG/COBI/FTC/ TDF or EFV/FTC/TDF, once daily, plus matching placebo. Patients and study staffinvolved in giving study treatment, assessing outcomes, and collecting and analysing data were masked to treatment allocation. Eligibility criteria included screening HIV RNA concentration of 5000 copies per mL or more, and susceptibility to efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir. The primary endpoint was HIV RNA concentration of fewer than 50 copies per mL at week 48. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01095796. Findings: 700 patients were randomly assigned and treated (348 with EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF, 352 with EFV/FTC/TDF). EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was non-inferior to EFV/FTC/TDF; 305/348 (87·6%) versus 296/352 (84·1%) of patients had HIV RNA concentrations of fewer than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (difference 3·6%, 95% CI -1·6% to 8·8%). Proportions of patients discontinuing drugs for adverse events did not differ substantially (13/348 in the EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF group vs 18/352 in the EFV/FTC/TDF group). Nausea was more common with EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF than with EFV/FTC/TDF (72/348 vs 48/352) and dizziness (23/348 vs 86/352), abnormal dreams (53/348 vs 95/352), insomnia (30/348 vs 49/352), and rash (22/348 vs 43/352) were less common. Serum creatinine concentration increased more by week 48 in the EVG/ COBI/FTC/TDF group than in the EFV/FTC/TDF group (median 13 μmol/L, IQR 5 to 20 vs 1 μmol/L, -6 to 8; p<0·001). Interpretation: If regulatory approval is given, EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF would be the only single-tablet, once-daily, integrase-inhibitor-based regimen for initial treatment of HIV infection.


Sax P.E.,Harvard University | Zolopa A.,Stanford University | Brar I.,Ford Motor Company | Elion R.,George Washington University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the novel tenofovir prodrug, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), as part of a single-tablet regimen (STR) for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection. Design: Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, active-controlled study. Methods: Antiretroviral naive adults with HIV-1 RNA 5000 copies per milliliter and a CD4 count 50 cells per microliter were randomized 2:1 to receive an STR of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) or elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF), plus placebo for 48 weeks. Results: Patients on both E/C/F/TAF (n = 112) and E/C/F/TDF (n = 58) had high rates of virologic suppression (<50 HIV copies per milliliter) at week 24 (86.6%; 89.7%) and at week 48 (88.4%; 87.9%), and had similar improvements in CD4 at week 48 (177; 204), respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated, and most adverse events were self-limiting and of mild to moderate severity. Compared with patients on E/C/F/TDF, patients on E/C/F/TAF had smaller reductions in estimated creatinine clearance (-5.5 vs.-10.1 mL/min, P = 0.041), significantly less renal tubular proteinuria, and smaller changes in bone mineral density for hip (-0.62% vs.-2.39%, P < 0.001) and spine (-1.00% vs.-3.37%, P < 0.001). Patients on E/C/F/TAF had higher increases in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein, but the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio was unchanged for both. Conclusions: Treatment-naive patients given the STR that contained either TAF or TDF achieved a high rate of virologic success. Compared with those receiving TDF, patients on E/C/F/TAF experienced significantly smaller changes in estimated creatinine clearance, renal tubular proteinuria, and bone mineral density. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Lawitz E.,The Texas Institute | Sulkowski M.S.,Johns Hopkins University | Ghalib R.,The Texas Institute | Rodriguez-Torres M.,Fundacion de Investigacion | And 18 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Interferon-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. We investigated the efficacy of combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir.Methods We enrolled patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections who had previously not responded to pegylated interferon (peginterferon) and ribavirin or were treatment naive. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1:2:1 ratio to receive 150 mg simeprevir and 400 mg sofosbuvir daily for 24 weeks with (group 1) or without (group 2) ribavirin or for 12 weeks with (group 3) or without (group 4) ribavirin, in two cohorts: previous non-responders with METAVIR scores F0-F2 (cohort 1) and previous non-responders and treatment-naive patients with METAVIR scores F3-F4 (cohort 2). The primary endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks after stopping treatment (SVR12). Analysis was done by intention to treat. Safety data from cohorts 1 and 2 were pooled for analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01466790. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Findings 168 patients were enrolled and randomised, and 167 started treatment (n=80 in cohort 1 and n=87 in cohort 2). SVR12 was achieved in 154 (92%) patients (n=72 [90%, 95% CI 81-96] in cohort 1 and n=82 [94%, 87-98] in cohort 2). The most common adverse events in the pooled groups were fatigue (n=52 [31%]), headache (n=33 [20%]), and nausea (n=26 [16%]). Grade 4 adverse events were seen in one (2%) of 54 patients in each of groups 1 and 3 and in three (10%) of 31 patients in group 2, whereas grade 3-4 events were reported in less than 5% of all patients, except increased blood amylase concentration. Serious adverse events were seen in four (2%) patients, all in groups 1 and 2. Four (2%) patients discontinued all study treatment because of adverse events, three before week 12.Interpretation Combined simeprevir and sofosbuvir was efficacious and well tolerated. Funding Janssen.


Sulkowski M.,Johns Hopkins University | Hezode C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gerstoft J.,Rigshospitalet | Vierling J.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 18 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Both hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients are in need of safe, effective, all-oral HCV regimens. In a phase 2 study we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of grazoprevir (MK-5172; HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and two doses of elbasvir (MK-8742; HCV NS5A inhibitor) in patients with HCV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection. Methods The C-WORTHY study is a phase 2, multicentre, randomised controlled trial of grazoprevir plus elbasvir with or without ribavirin in patients with HCV; here, we report findings for previously untreated (genotype 1) patients without cirrhosis who were HCV mono-infected or HIV/HCV co-infected. Eligible patients were previously untreated adults aged 18 years or older with chronic HCV genoype 1 infection and HCV RNA at least 10 000 IU/mL in peripheral blood without evidence of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or decompensated liver disease. In part A of the study we randomly assigned HCV-mono-infected patients to receive 12 weeks of grazoprevir (100 mg) plus elbasvir (20 mg or 50 mg) with or without ribavirin (arms A1-3); in part B we assigned HCV-mono-infected patients to 8 or 12 weeks of grazoprevir (100 mg) plus elbasvir (50 mg) with or without ribavirin (arms B1-3) and HIV/HCV co-infected patients to 12 weeks of therapy with or without ribavirin. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving HCV RNA less than 25 IU/mL 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12). Randomisation was by presence or absence of ribavirin, 8 or 12 weeks of treatment, and dosage of elbasvir. Patients were stratified by gentoype 1a versus 1b. The patients, investigators, and study site personnel were masked to treatment group assignements but the funder was not. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01717326. Findings 218 patients with HCV mono-infection (n=159) and HIV/HCV co-infection (n=59) were enrolled. SVR12 for patients treated for 12 weeks with or without ribavirin ranged from 93-98% in mono-infected and 87-97% in co-infected patients. SVR12 rates in mono-infected and co-infected patients treated for 12 weeks without ribavirin were 98% (95% CI 88-100; 43/44) and 87% (95% CI 69-96; 26/30), respectively, and with ribavirin were 93% (95% CI 85-97; 79/85) and 97% (95% CI 82-100; 28/29), respectively. Among mono-infected patients with genotype 1a infection treated for 8 weeks, SVR12 was 80% (95% CI 61-92; 24/30). Five of six patients who discontinued early for reasons other than virological failure had HCV RNA less than 25 IU/mL at their last study visit. Virological failure among patients treated for 12 weeks occurred in seven patients (7/188, 4%) and was associated with emergence of resistance-associated variants to one or both drugs. The safety profile of grazoprevir plus elbasvir with or without ribavirin was similar in mono-infected and co-infected patients. No patient discontinued due to an adverse event or laboratory abnormality. The most common adverse events were fatigue (51 patients, 23%), headache (44, 20%), nausea (32, 15%), and diarrhoea (21, 10%). Interpretation Once-daily grazoprevir plus elbasvir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks in previously untreated HCV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected patients without cirrhosis achieved SVR12 rates of 87-98%. These results support the ongoing phase 3 development of grazoprevir plus elbasvir. Funding Merck & Co, Inc. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Zolopa A.,Stanford University | Sax P.E.,Harvard University | Dejesus E.,Orlando Immunology Center | Mills A.,Anthony Mills MD Inc. | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

We report week 96 results from a phase 3 trial of elvitegravir/cobicistat/ emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF, n = 348) vs efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF, n = 352). At week 48, EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was noninferior to EFV/FTC/TDF (88% vs 84%, difference +3.6%, 95% confidence interval: -1.6% to 8.8%). Virologic success (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL) was maintained at week 96 (84% vs 82%, difference +2.7%, 95% CI: -2.9% to 8.3%). Discontinuation due to adverse events was low (5% vs 7%). Median changes in serum creatinine (mg/dL) at week 96 were similar to week 48. These results support the durable efficacy and long-term safety of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


DeJesus E.,Orlando Immunology Center | Rockstroh J.K.,University of Bonn | Henry K.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Molina J.-M.,University Paris Diderot | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background: The HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor elvitegravir (EVG) has been co-formulated with the CYP3A4 inhibitor cobicistat (COBI), emtricitabine (FTC), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) into a once-daily, single tablet. We compared EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with a ritonavir-boosted (RTV) protease inhibitor regimen of atazanavir (ATV)/RTV+FTC/TDF as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection. Methods: This phase 3, non-inferiority study enrolled treatment-naive patients with an HIV-1 RNA concentration of 5000 copies per mL or more and susceptibility to atazanavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF or ATV/RTV+FTC/TDF plus matching placebos, administered once daily. Randomisation was by a computer-generated random sequence, accessed via an interactive telephone and web response system. Patients, and investigators and study staff who gave treatments, assessed outcomes, or analysed data were masked to the assignment. The primary endpoint was HIV RNA concentration of 50 copies per mL or less after 48 weeks (according to the US FDA snapshot algorithm), with a 12% non-inferiority margin. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01106586. Findings: 1017 patients were screened, 715 were enrolled, and 708 were treated (353 with EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF and 355 with ATV/RTV+FTC/TDF). EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF was non-inferior to ATV/RTV+FTC/TDF for the primary outcome (316 patients [89·5%] vs 308 patients [86·8%], adjusted difference 3·0%, 95% CI -1·9% to 7·8%). Both regimens had favourable safety and tolerability; 13 (3·7%) versus 18 (5·1%) patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Fewer patients receiving EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF had abnormal results in liver function tests than did those receiving ATV/RTV+FTC/TDF and had smaller median increases in fasting triglyceride concentration (90 μmol/L vs 260 μmol/L, p=0·006). Small median increases in serum creatinine concentration with accompanying decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate occurred in both study groups by week 2; they generally stabilised by week 8 and did not change up to week 48 (median change 11 μmol/L vs 7 μmol/L). Interpretation: If regulatory approval is given, EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF would be the first integrase-inhibitor-based regimen given once daily and the only one formulated as a single tablet for initial HIV treatment.


Ruane P.J.,Peter J. Ruane MD Inc | Dejesus E.,Orlando Immunology Center | Berger D.,Northstar Healthcare | Markowitz M.,Rockefeller University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the antiviral activity, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of short-term monotherapy with tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a next-generation tenofovir (TFV) prodrug. DESIGN:: A phase 1b, randomized, partially blinded, active- and placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. METHODS:: Treatment-naive and experienced HIV-1-positive adults currently off antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive 8, 25, or 40 mg TAF, 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), or placebo, each once daily for 10 days. RESULTS:: Thirty-eight subjects were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were similar across dose groups. Significant reductions in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline to day 11 were observed for all TAF dose groups compared with placebo (P < 0.01), with a median decrease of 1.08-1.73 log10 copies per milliliter, including a dose-response relationship for viral load decrease up to 25 mg. At steady state, 8, 25, and 40 mg TAF yielded mean TFV plasma exposures [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCtau)] of 97%, 86%, and 79% lower, respectively, as compared with the TFV exposures observed with 300 mg TDF. For 25 and 40 mg TAF, the mean intracellular peripheral blood mononuclear cell tenofovir diphosphate AUCtau was ∼7-fold and ∼25-fold higher, relative to 300 mg TDF. CONCLUSIONS:: Compared with 300 mg TDF, TAF demonstrated more potent antiviral activity, higher peripheral blood mononuclear cell intracellular tenofovir diphosphate levels, and lower plasma TFV exposures, at approximately 1/10th of the dose. This may translate into greater antiviral efficacy, a higher barrier to resistance, and an improved safety profile relative to TDF, supporting further investigation of TAF dosed once daily in HIV-infected patients. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Rockstroh J.K.,University of Bonn | Dejesus E.,Orlando Immunology Center | Henry K.,Hennepin County Medical Center | Molina J.-M.,Paris-Sorbonne University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

This ongoing, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled phase 3 international trial demonstrated the noninferior efficacy of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EVG/COBI/ FTC/TDF) compared with atazanavir boosted by ritonavir (ATV/ RTV) plus emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) at 48 weeks. Here, we report the week 96 results. Of 708 treated subjects, virological success (Food and Drug Administration snapshot) was maintained at week 96 with EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF and ATV/ RTV + FTC/TDF (83% vs 82%, difference 1.1%, 95% confidence interval 24.5% to 6.7%). Study drug discontinuations due to adverse events were low (4% vs 6%). Median increases from baseline in serum Cr (mg/dL) in EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF vs ATV/RTV + FTC/TDF at week 96 (0.12 vs 0.08) were similar to those at week 48 (0.12 vs 0.08). EVG/ COBI/FTC/TDF showed similar mean decreases (%) in bone mineral density from baseline vs ATV/RTV + FTC/TDF (hip: 23.16 vs 24.19, P = 0.069; spine: 21.96 vs 23.54, P = 0.049). Overall, week 96 results support durable efficacy and safety of EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF in HIV-1- infected patients. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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