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Invermay, New Zealand

Rummel S.,BSPG Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Dekant C.H.,BSPG Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Holzl S.,BSPG Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Palaontologie und Geologie | Holzl S.,GeoBio Center | And 10 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

The strontium isotope ratio ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) in beef, derived from 206 European cattle, has been measured. These cattle were located in 12 different European regions within France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and the UK. As animal protein is known to be a difficult material on which to conduct Sr isotope analysis, several investigations were undertaken to develop and improve the sample preparation procedure. For example, Sr isotope analysis was performed directly on freeze-dried meat and defatted dry mass from the same samples. It was found that enormous differences-sometimes exceeding the measurement uncertainty-could occur between the fractions and also within one sample even if treated in the same manner. These variations cannot be definitely allocated to one cause but are most likely due to inhomogeneities caused by physiological and biochemical processes in the animals as post mortem contamination during analytical processing could be excluded. For further Sr isotope measurements in meat, careful data handling is recommended, and for the authentic beef samples within this project, it was decided to use only freeze-dried material. It can be demonstrated, however, that Sr isotope measurements in beef proteins are a valuable tool for authentication of geographic origin. Although partly overlapping, some of the European sampling sites could be discriminated even by only using 87Sr/ 86Sr. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Frew R.,University of Otago | Frew R.,International Atomic Energy Agency | McComb K.,University of Otago | Croudis L.,Oritain Global Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The carbon isotope method (AOAC 998.12) compares the bulk honey carbon isotope value with that of the extracted protein; a difference greater than 1% suggesting that the protein and the bulk carbohydrate have different origins. New Zealand Manuka honey is a high value product and often fails this test. It has been suggested such failures are due to the pollen in the Manuka honey and an adaptation of the method to remove pollen prior to testing has been proposed. Here we test 64 authentic honey samples collected directly from the hives and find that a large proportion (37%) of Manuka honeys fail the test. Of these 60% still fail the adapted method. These honey samples were collected and processed under stringent conditions and have not been adulterated post-harvest. More work is required to ascertain the cause of these test failures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Guo H.,University of Otago | Reeder A.I.,University of Otago | McGee R.,University of Otago | Darling H.,University of Otago | Darling H.,Oritain Global Ltd
Substance Abuse: Treatment, Prevention, and Policy | Year: 2011

Background: Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample.Methods: Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built.Results and Discussion: Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which demonstrated a strong dose response effect.Conclusions: There were significant differences in the risk of daily smoking across leisure activities by gender and ethnicity. This reinforces the need to be alert for, and respond to, gender and ethnic differences in the pattern of risk and protective factors. However, given the consistently protective, dose response effect of parental monitoring, our findings confirm that assisting oversight of adolescent leisure activities may be a key component in public health policy and prevention programmes. © 2011 Guo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Reimann C.,Geological Survey of Norway | Flem B.,Geological Survey of Norway | Fabian K.,Geological Survey of Norway | Birke M.,Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe BGR | And 4 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012

Lead isotopes are widely used for age dating, for tracking sources of melts, sediments, Pb products, food and animals and for studying atmospheric Pb contamination. For the first time, a map of a Pb isotope landscape at the continental-scale is presented. Agricultural soil samples (Ap-horizon, 0-20cm) collected at an average density of 1 site/2500km2 were analysed for Pb concentration and Pb isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb). Lead concentrations vary from 1.6 to 1309mg/kg, with a median of 16mg/kg. Isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb range from 1.116 to 1.727 with a median of 1.202. The new data define the soil geochemical Pb background for European agricultural soil, providing crucial information for geological, environmental and forensic sciences, public health, environmental policy and mineral exploration. The European continental-scale patterns of Pb concentrations and Pb isotopes show a high variability dominated by geology and influenced by climate. Lead concentration anomalies mark most of the known mineralised areas throughout Europe. Some local Pb anomalies have a distinct anthropogenic origin. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


McLeod R.J.,Oritain Global Ltd | Prosser C.G.,Dairy Goat Co operative | Wakefield J.W.,Oritain Global Ltd
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ13C, and δ15N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration varied among samples and individual elements. The findings of this study support the use of trace elements and stable isotope ratios to test the authenticity of goat WMP, which can likely be applied to other dairy goat products. This approach could be used test to the factory of origin (and potentially batch of origin) of products in the supply chain, thus providing the ability to audit the supply chain and monitor for fraudulent activity. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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