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News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: marketersmedia.com

— Global Hydrochloric Acid Market 2012- 2022 Report provides detailed analysis of market in 9 chapters with required tables and figures. Applications covered in this report are Organic Chemical Raw Materials, Metal Cleaning and Treatment, Food and Dairy Industry and Water Treatment. This report also provides key analysis for the geographical regions like Europe, North America, China, Japan & Korea. Companies like Dow Chemical, Olin, Covestro, Oxychem, Axiall, Inovyn, Westlake Chemical, Basf, Shin-Etsu Chemical, Unid, Orica Watercare, Detrex Chemicals, Canexus, Solvay, Erco Worldwide, Dupont, Coogee Chemicals, Tessenderlo Group, Agc, Formosa Plastics, Toagosei, China Greenon, Haijing Chemical, Xiyang Fertilizer, Shanghai Chlor-Alkali Chemical, Luxi Chemical, Sinopec Nanjing Chemical, Tianyuan Chemical, Jinniu Chemical And Hongri Acron, Jiheng Chemical, Nanning Chemical Industry, Ningbo Oceanking Chemical, Gehua Group, Haohua Chemical and more are profiled in this report providing information on sale, price, sales regions, products and overview. Purchase a copy of this report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/buy-now/494291 Table of Contents: 1 Market Overview 1.1 Objectives of Research 1.2 Market Segment 2 Industry Chain 2.1 Industry Chain Structure 2.2 Upstream 2.3 Market 3 Environmental Analysis 3.1 Policy 3.2 Economic 3.3 Technology 3.4 Market Entry 4 Major Vendors 5 Market/Vendors Distribution 5.1 Regional Distribution 5.2 Product and Application 6 Regions Market 6.1 Global 6.2 Europe 6.3 North America 6.4 China 6.5 Japan & Korea 6.6 Trade 7 Forecast 7.1 Market Trends 7.2 Segment Forecast 8 Marketing Overview 8.1 Ex-factory Price 8.2 Buyer Price 8.3 Price Factors 8.4 Marketing Channel 9 Conclusion Inquire more about this report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/ask-your-query/494291 For more information, please visit https://www.themarketreports.com/report/global-hydrochloric-acid-market-research-2011-2022


— The global Hydrochloric Acid market is valued at 1332.52 million USD in 2016 and is expected to reach 1873.37 million USD by the end of 2023, growing at a CAGR of 4.99% between 2016 and 2023. Companies profiled in this report are Dow Chemical, Olin, Covestro, OxyChem, Axiall, INOVYN, Westlake Chemical, BASF, Shin-Etsu Chemical, UNID, Orica Watercare, Detrex Chemicals, Canexus, Solvay, ERCO Worldwide, Dupont, Coogee Chemicals, Tessenderlo Group, AGC, Formosa Plastics, Toagosei, China Greenon, Haijing Chemical, Xiyang Fertilizer, Shanghai Chlor-Alkali Chemical, Luxi Chemical, SINOPEC Nanjing Chemical, Tianyuan Chemical, Jinniu Chemical and Hongri Acron, Jiheng Chemical, Nanning Chemical Industry, Ningbo Oceanking Chemical, Gehua Group, Haohua Chemical and more. Analysis by Product Types, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into • Synthetic Hydrochloric Acid • By-product Hydrochloric Acid Analysis by Applications, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Hydrochloric Acid in each application, can be divided into • Organic Chemical Raw Materials • Metal Cleaning and Treatment • Food and Dairy Industry • Water Treatment • Other Table of Contents: 1 Industry Overview of Hydrochloric Acid 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid 4 Global Hydrochloric Acid Overall Market Overview 5 Hydrochloric Acid Regional Market Analysis 6 Global 2012-2017E Hydrochloric Acid Segment Market Analysis (by Type) 7 Global 2012-2017E Hydrochloric Acid Segment Market Analysis (by Application) 8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid 9 Development Trend of Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid Market 10 Hydrochloric Acid Marketing Type Analysis 11 Consumers Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid 12 Conclusion of the Global Hydrochloric Acid Market Professional Survey Report 13 Methodology and Data Source Inquire more about this report at: https://www.themarketreports.com/report/ask-your-query/467147 For more information, please visit https://www.themarketreports.com/report/global-hydrochloric-acid-market-professional-survey-report-2017


This report studies Hydrochloric Acid in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with capacity, production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering Dow Chemical Olin Covestro OxyChem Axiall INOVYN Westlake Chemical BASF Shin-Etsu Chemical UNID Orica Watercare Detrex Chemicals Canexus Solvay ERCO Worldwide Dupont Coogee Chemicals Tessenderlo Group AGC Formosa Plastics Toagosei China Greenon Haijing Chemical Xiyang Fertilizer Shanghai Chlor-Alkali Chemical Luxi Chemical SINOPEC Nanjing Chemical Tianyuan Chemical Jinniu Chemical Hongri Acron View Full Report With Complete TOC, List Of Figure and Table: http://globalqyresearch.com/global-hydrochloric-acid-market-research-report-2016 Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of Hydrochloric Acid in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like North America Europe China Japan Southeast Asia India Split by product type, with production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Type I Type II Type III Split by application, this report focuses on consumption, market share and growth rate of Hydrochloric Acid in each application, can be divided into Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Global Hydrochloric Acid Market Research Report 2016 1 Hydrochloric Acid Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Hydrochloric Acid 1.2 Hydrochloric Acid Segment by Type 1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Hydrochloric Acid by Type in 2015 1.2.2 Type I 1.2.3 Type II 1.2.4 Type III 1.3 Hydrochloric Acid Segment by Application 1.3.1 Hydrochloric Acid Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015 1.3.2 Application 1 1.3.3 Application 2 1.3.4 Application 3 1.4 Hydrochloric Acid Market by Region 1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.5 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.6 India Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value) of Hydrochloric Acid (2011-2021) 7 Global Hydrochloric Acid Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis 7.1 Dow Chemical 7.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.1.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.1.2.1 Type I 7.1.2.2 Type II 7.1.3 Dow Chemical Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.1.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.2 Olin 7.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.2.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.2.2.1 Type I 7.2.2.2 Type II 7.2.3 Olin Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.2.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.3 Covestro 7.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.3.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.3.2.1 Type I 7.3.2.2 Type II 7.3.3 Covestro Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.3.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.4 OxyChem 7.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.4.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.4.2.1 Type I 7.4.2.2 Type II 7.4.3 OxyChem Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.4.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.5 Axiall 7.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.5.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.5.2.1 Type I 7.5.2.2 Type II 7.5.3 Axiall Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.5.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.6 INOVYN 7.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.6.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.6.2.1 Type I 7.6.2.2 Type II 7.6.3 INOVYN Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.6.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.7 Westlake Chemical 7.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.7.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.7.2.1 Type I 7.7.2.2 Type II 7.7.3 Westlake Chemical Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.7.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.8 BASF 7.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.8.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.8.2.1 Type I 7.8.2.2 Type II 7.8.3 BASF Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.8.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.9 Shin-Etsu Chemical 7.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.9.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.9.2.1 Type I 7.9.2.2 Type II 7.9.3 Shin-Etsu Chemical Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.9.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.10 UNID 7.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Its Competitors 7.10.2 Hydrochloric Acid Product Type, Application and Specification 7.10.2.1 Type I 7.10.2.2 Type II 7.10.3 UNID Hydrochloric Acid Capacity, Production, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015 and 2016) 7.10.4 Main Business/Business Overview 7.11 Orica Watercare 7.12 Detrex Chemicals 7.13 Canexus 7.14 Solvay 7.15 ERCO Worldwide 7.16 Dupont 7.17 Coogee Chemicals 7.18 Tessenderlo Group 7.19 AGC 7.20 Formosa Plastics 7.21 Toagosei 7.22 China Greenon 7.23 Haijing Chemical 7.24 Xiyang Fertilizer 7.25 Shanghai Chlor-Alkali Chemical 7.26 Luxi Chemical 7.27 SINOPEC Nanjing Chemical 7.28 Tianyuan Chemical 7.29 Jinniu Chemical 7.30 Hongri Acron Global QYResearch ( http://globalqyresearch.com/ ) is the one spot destination for all your research needs. Global QYResearch holds the repository of quality research reports from numerous publishers across the globe. Our inventory of research reports caters to various industry verticals including Healthcare, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Technology and Media, Chemicals, Materials, Energy, Heavy Industry, etc. With the complete information about the publishers and the industries they cater to for developing market research reports, we help our clients in making purchase decision by understanding their requirements and suggesting best possible collection matching their needs.


News Article | November 15, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

MarketStudyReport.com adds “Global Hydrochloric Acid Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021” new report to its research database. The report spread across 112 pages with table and figures in it. Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water. Technology is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid wTechnologyh many industrial uses. Scope of the Report: This report focuses on the Hydrochloric Acid in Global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application. Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers Dow Chemical Olin Covestro OxyChem Axiall INOVYN Westlake Chemical BASF Shin-Etsu Chemical UNID Orica Watercare Detrex Chemicals Canexus Solvay ERCO Worldwide Dupont Coogee Chemicals Tessenderlo Group AGC Formosa Plastics Toagosei China Greenon Haijing Chemical Xiyang Fertilizer Shanghai Chlor-Alkali Chemical Luxi Chemical SINOPEC Nanjing Chemical Tianyuan Chemical Jinniu Chemical Hongri Acron Jiheng Chemical Nanning Chemical Industry Ningbo Oceanking Chemical Gehua Group Haohua Chemical Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers North America (USA, Canada and Mexico) Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Technologyaly) Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia) South America, Middle East and Africa Market Segment by Type, covers Synthetic hydrochloric acid By-product hydrochloric acid Industrial hydrochloride Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into Organic chemical raw materials Metal cleaning and treatment Food and Dairy Industry Browse full table of contents and data tables at https://www.marketstudyreport.com/reports/global-hydrochloric-acid-market-by-manufacturers-regions-type-and-application-forecast-to-2021/ There are 13 Chapters to deeply display the global Hydrochloric Acid market. Chapter 1, to describe Hydrochloric Acid Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunTechnologyies, market risk, market driving force; Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Hydrochloric Acid, wTechnologyh sales, revenue, and price of Hydrochloric Acid, in 2015 and 2016; Chapter 3, to display the competTechnologyive sTechnologyuation among the top manufacturers, wTechnologyh sales, revenue and market share in 2015 and 2016; Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, wTechnologyh sales, revenue and market share of Hydrochloric Acid, for each region, from 2011 to 2016; Chapter 5, 6, 7 and 8, to analyze the key regions, wTechnologyh sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions; Chapter 9 and 10, to show the market by type and application, wTechnologyh sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2011 to 2016; Chapter 11, Hydrochloric Acid market forecast, by regions, type and application, wTechnologyh sales and revenue, from 2016 to 2021; Chapter 12 and 13, to describe Hydrochloric Acid sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, appendix and data source. To receive personalized assistance write to us @ [email protected] with the report title in the subject line along with your questions or call us at +1 866-764-2150


Liu C.,Hohai University | Chen W.,Hohai University | Robert V.M.,Orica Watercare | Han Z.G.,Hohai University
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2011

Natural organic matter (NOM) fouling continues to be the major barrier to efficient application of ultrafiltration (UF) in drinking water treatment. Algogenic organic matter (AOM), the main contributor to total NOM levels in raw waters characterised by elevated algae levels, is currently the subject of much investigation. In this study, the effect of AOM on fouling of ultrafiltration and the effectiveness of magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX®) pre-treatment for AOM removal and membrane fouling control was evaluated. The results showed that, the main species of algae in raw water were Chlorella vulgaris, which accounted for 80% of total algae. AOM was predominantly hydrophilic (50% or more) with a low SUVA (1.7 Lm-1 mg-1). Coagulation alone could not remove AOM effectively (less than 20%), however, when combined with magnetic ion exchange resin pre-treatment, more than 60% of AOM was be removed; pre-treatment followed by coagulation was observed to be very effective in controlling membrane fouling by AOM. The application of magnetic ion exchange resin technology at a bed volume treatment rate (BVTR) of 800 was observed to effectively eliminate fouling of UF membrane. Careful analyses of the molecular weight (MW) distribution of AOM and UV absorbance of treated water revealed that the effectiveness in membrane fouling control was the result of the changes in AOM molecular characteristics in treated water, namely a change in MW due to the preferential removal of high molecular proteins by coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin pre-treatment. The results demonstrate that magnetic ion exchange resin followed by coagulation might be a new membrane pre-treatment option for UF membrane fouling control. © IWA Publishing 2011.


Liu C.,Hohai University | Chen W.,Hohai University | Cao Z.,Hohai University | Li J.-I.,Hohai University | Van Merkenstein R.,Orica Watercare
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2010

Natural organic matter (NOM) fouling continues to be the major barrier to efficient application of ultrafiltration (UF) in drinking water treatment. Algogenic organic matters (AOM), the main contributor to total NOM levels in raw waters characterised by elevated algae levels, is currently the subject of much investigation. In this study, the effect of AOM on fouling of ultrafiltration and the effectiveness of MIEX® pre-treatment for AOM removal and membrane fouling control was evaluated. The results showed that, the main species of algae in raw water were Chlorella vulgaris, which accounted for 80% of total algae. AOM was predominantly hydrophilic (50% or more) with a low SUVA (1.7Lm-1mg-1). Coagulation alone could not remove AOM effectively (less than 20%), however, when combined with MIEX® pre-treatment, more than 60% of AOM was be removed. MIEX® pre-treatment followed by coagulation was observed to be very effective in controlling membrane fouling by AOM. The application of MIEX® technology at a bed volume treatment rate (BVTR) of 800 was observed to effectively eliminate fouling of UF membrane. Careful analyses of the molecular weight (MW) distribution of AOM and UV absorbance of treated water revealed that the effectiveness in membrane fouling control was the result of the changes in AOM molecular characteristics in treated water, namely a change in MW due to the preferential removal of high molecular proteins by coagulation and MIEX® pre-treatment. The results demonstrate that MIEX® followed by coagulation might is a new membrane pre-treatment option for UF membrane fouling control.


Richardson D.,Norske Skog Technical Support and Development | Murray B.,Orica Watercare | Blom L.,Norske Skog FOCUS
Appita Annual Conference | Year: 2010

Pilot scale experiments using the MIEX® process were conducted on biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluent from Norske Skog's Albury mill. The results of the pilot plant trial indicated that the treated water quality targets for both dissolved COD (120 mg L-1) and Colour (80 Hazen units (HU)) could be consistently achieved when using the following operating conditions: • Treatment rate of 250 bed volume (BV); • Counter current plant configuration; • Periodic high pH regeneration (i.e. 2 high pH regenerations/week); • Monthly plant disinfection using sodium hypochlorite. Analysis of the results achieved suggests that a treatment rate of 500BV combined with periodic high pH regeneration may be successful at achieving the dissolved COD treated water target. Using the treatment rate of 500BV would result in significant reductions of both capital and operating costs for a full scale installation, as well as minimising any increase in conductivity.


Myat D.T.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Mergen M.,Orica Watercare | Zhao O.,Orica Watercare | Stewart M.B.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 4 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254, organic carbon and organic nitrogen detectors (Method B), was undertaken on wastewater before and after magnetic IX treatment. Results showed partial removal of the biopolymer fraction at high IX doses. With increasing concentration of IX, evidence for nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and amino acids disappeared from the LC-OND chromatogram, complementary to the fluorescence response. A greater fluorescence response of tryptophan-like proteins (278nm/343nm) for low IX concentrations was consistent with aggregation of tryptophan-like compounds into larger aggregates, either by self-aggregation or with polysaccharides. Recycling of IX resin through multiple adsorption steps without regeneration maintained the high level of humics removal but there was no continued removal of biopolymer. Subsequent membrane filtration of the IX treated waters resulted in complex fouling trends. Filtration tests with either polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher rates of initial fouling following treatment with high IX doses (10mL/L) compared to filtration of untreated water, while treatment with lower IX doses resulted in decreased fouling rates relative to the untreated water. However, at longer filtration times the rate of fouling of IX treated waters was lower than untreated water and the relative fouling rates corresponded to the amount of biopolymer material in the feed. It was proposed that the mode of fouling changed from pore constriction during the initial filtration period to filter cake build up at longer filtration times. The organic composition strongly influenced the rate of fouling during the initial filtration period due to competitive adsorption processes, while at longer filtration times the rate of fouling appeared to depend upon the amount of biopolymer material in the feed water. © 2013.


Myat D.T.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Stewart M.B.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Mergen M.,Orica Watercare | Zhao O.,Orica Watercare | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014

The formation of aggregates of sodium alginate and bovine serum albumin (BSA) (as representative biopolymers) with humic acid were detected by Liquid Chromatography (LC) UV254 response in the biopolymer region for mixture solutions. BSA interaction with humic acid showed that aggregation occurred both in the presence and absence of calcium, suggesting that multivalent ions did not play a part in the aggregation process. Similar analyses of the alginate interaction with humic acid also showed a positive interaction, but only in the presence of calcium ions. The fouling characteristics for the BSA-humic acid mixture appeared to be significantly greater than the fouling characteristics of the individual solutions, while for the sodium alginate-humic acid mixture, the fouling rate was similar to that of the sodium alginate alone. The effectiveness of hydraulic backwashing, 10-15% reversibility, was observed for the BSA-humic acid mixture, while the % reversibility was 20-40% for the sodium alginate-humic acid mixture. Increased humic acid and DOC rejection were observed for both BSA-humic acid and sodium alginate-humic acid solutions compared to the individual solutions, indicating that the biopolymer filter cakes were able to retain humic acids. When compared with BSA-humic acid mixture solution, greater removal of humic acid was observed for alginate-humic mixture, suggesting that sodium alginate may have a greater capacity for associations with humic acid when in the presence of calcium than BSA. Complementary molecular dynamics simulations were designed to provide insights into the specific mechanisms of interaction between BSA and humic acid, as well as between alginate and humic acid. For the BSA-humic acid system; electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding were the dominant types of interactions predicted, whilst divalent ion-mediated bonding was not identified in the simulations, which supported the LC-results. Similarly for the alginate-humic acid system, the interactions predicted were divalent ion-mediated interactions only and this was also supported the LC results. This work suggests that LC-UV254 might be used to identify aggregated biopolymers, and that combined with current characterisation techniques, be used to better explain performance variations between water sources. © 2013.


Myat D.T.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Mergen M.,Orica Watercare | Zhao O.,Orica Watercare | Stewart M.B.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Extensive organic characterisation of a wastewater using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254 and organic carbon detector (Method B) was undertaken, as well as with fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy (EEM). Characterisation was performed on the wastewater before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, and following microfiltration of the wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. Characterisation by EEM was unable to detect biopolymers within the humic rich wastewaters and was not subsequently used to characterise the MF permeates. IX treatment preferentially removed low molecular weight (MW) organic acids and neutrals, and moderate amounts of biopolymers in contrast to a previous report of no biopolymer removal with IX. PACl preferentially removed moderate MW humic and fulvic acids, and large amounts of biopolymers. PACl showed a great preference for removal of proteins from the biopolymer component in comparison to IX. An increase in the fluorescence response of tryptophan-like compounds in the biopolymer fraction following IX treatment suggests that low MW neutrals may influence the structure and/or inhibit aggregation of organic compounds. Fouling rates for IX and PACl treated wastewaters had high initial fouling rates that reduced to lower fouling rates with time, while the untreated Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) wastewater displayed a consistent, high rate of fouling. The results for the IX and PACl treated wastewaters were consistent with the long-term fouling rate being determined by cake filtration while both pore constriction and cake filtration contributed to the higher initial fouling rates. Higher rejection of biopolymers was observed for PACl and IX waters compared to the untreated ETP water, suggesting increased adhesion of biopolymers to the membrane or cake layer may lead to the higher rejection. © 2012.

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