Keiserman M.,University of Porto |
Handa R.,Apollo Indraprastha Hospitals |
Xibille-Friedmann D.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos |
Mysler E.,Organizacion Medica de Investigacion |
And 2 more authors.
Expert Review of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014
Biologic therapies, predominantly TNF-α inhibitors, have revolutionized the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their clinical utility can be limited by the development of antidrug antibodies (ADAs). Immunogenicity is a complex phenomenon related to various drug, disease, and patient characteristics, and may be more common with the monoclonal antibodies than with etanercept, a soluble TNF receptor-Fc immunoglobulin fusion protein. Neutralizing antibodies-those that hinder bioactivity by preventing drug molecules from binding to TNF-are correlated with reduced serum drug concentrations, loss of therapeutic response, adverse events, and treatment discontinuation. Cost-effective use of these agents will depend on further research into drug and ADA assays, and how they should guide dose reduction or switching strategies. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.
Schlesinger N.,University of New Brunswick |
Mysler E.,Organizacion Medica de Investigacion |
Lin H.-Y.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital |
De Meulemeester M.,Pratique Medicale |
And 6 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011
Objective: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody, for prophylaxis against acute gouty arthritis flares in patients initiating urate-lowering treatment. Methods: In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, 432 patients with gouty arthritis initiating allopurinol treatment were randomised 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 to receive: a single dose of canakinumab, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg subcutaneously; 4x4-weekly doses of canakinumab (50+50+25+25 mg subcutaneously); or daily colchicine 0.5 mg orally for 16 weeks. Patients recorded details of flares in diaries. The study aimed to determine the canakinumab dose having equivalent efficacy to colchicine 0.5 mg at 16 weeks. Results: A dose-response for canakinumab was not apparent with any of the four predefined dose-response models. The estimated canakinumab dose with equivalent efficacy to colchicine was below the range of doses tested. At 16 weeks, there was a 62% to 72% reduction in the mean number of flares per patient for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine based on a negative binomial model (rate ratio: 0.28-0.38, p≤0.0083), and the percentage of patients experiencing ≥1 flare was significantly lower for all canakinumab doses (15% to 27%) versus colchicine (44%, p<0.05). There was a 64% to 72% reduction in the risk of experiencing ≥1 flare for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine at 16 weeks (hazard ratio (HR): 0.28-0.36, p≤0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment groups. Conclusions: Single canakinumab doses ≥50 mg or four 4-weekly doses provided superior prophylaxis against flares compared with daily colchicine 0.5 mg.
Mysler E.F.,Organizacion Medica de Investigacion |
Spindler A.J.,National University of Costa Rica |
Guzman R.,Saludcoop Clinic |
Bijl M.,Martini Hospital |
And 8 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab in patients with class III/IV lupus nephritis (LN). Methods Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive placebo, 400 mg ocrelizumab, or 1,000 mg ocrelizumab given as an intravenous infusion on days 1 and 15, followed by a single infusion at week 16 and every 16 weeks thereafter, accompanied by background glucocorticoids plus either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial (ELNT) regimen (cyclophosphamide followed by azathioprine). The study was terminated early due to an imbalance in serious infections in ocrelizumab-treated patients versus placebo-treated patients. We report week 48 efficacy data for patients receiving ≥32 weeks of treatment (n = 223) and safety results for all treated patients (n = 378). Results The overall renal response rate was 54.7%, 66.7%, 67.1%, and 66.9% in the placebo-treated, 400 mg ocrelizumab-treated, 1,000 mg ocrelizumab-treated, and combined ocrelizumab-treated groups, respectively. The associated treatment difference versus placebo for the combined ocrelizumab-treated groups was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.8, 26.1) (P = 0.065), with similar differences observed for both ocrelizumab-treated groups. Ocrelizumab versus placebo treatment differences were apparent in patients receiving the background ELNT regimen, but not in those receiving background MMF. A numerically greater proportion of ocrelizumab-treated patients had a ≥50% reduction in the urinary protein:urinary creatinine ratio at 48 weeks compared with placebo-treated patients (placebo-treated patients, 58.7%; 400 mg ocrelizumab-treated patients, 70.7%; 1,000 mg ocrelizumab-treated patients, 68.5%). Serious adverse events occurred in 27.2% of placebo-treated patients, 35.7% of 400 mg ocrelizumab-treated patients, and 22.0% of 1,000 mg ocrelizumab-treated patients. Corresponding serious infection rates (events/100 patient-years) were 18.7 (95% CI 12.2, 28.7), 28.8 (95% CI 20.6, 40.3), and 25.1 (95% CI 17.4, 36.1), respectively. The imbalance in serious infections with ocrelizumab occurred with background MMF but not with the background ELNT regimen. Conclusion In patients with active LN, overall renal response rates with ocrelizumab were numerically but not statistically significantly superior to those with placebo. Ocrelizumab treatment was associated with a higher rate of serious infections in the subgroup receiving background MMF. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Genovese M.C.,Stanford University |
Covarrubias A.,Centro Medico Of Las Americas |
Leon G.,Institute Ginecologia y Reproduccion |
Mysler E.,Organizacion Medica de Investigacion |
And 13 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2011
Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) abatacept. Methods In this phase IIIb double-blind, double-dummy, 6-month study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inadequate responses to methotrexate were randomized to receive 125 mg SC abatacept on days 1 and 8 and weekly thereafter (plus an IV loading dose [∼10 mg/kg] on day 1) or IV abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) on days 1, 15, and 29 and every 4 weeks thereafter. The primary end point for determining the noninferiority of SC abatacept to IV abatacept was the proportion of patients in each group meeting the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (achieving an ACR20 response) at month 6. Other efficacy end points, immunogenicity, and safety were also assessed. Results Of 1,457 patients, 693 of 736 (94.2%) treated with SC abatacept and 676 of 721 (93.8%) treated with IV abatacept completed 6 months. At month 6, 76.0% (95% confidence interval 72.9, 79.2) of SC abatacept-treated patients versus 75.8% (95% confidence interval 72.6, 79.0) of IV abatacept-treated patients achieved an ACR20 response (estimated difference between groups 0.3% [95% confidence interval -4.2, 4.8]), confirming noninferiority of SC abatacept to IV abatacept. Onset and magnitude of ACR responses and disease activity and physical function improvements were comparable between the SC and IV abatacept-treated groups. The proportions of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs over 6 months were 67.0% and 4.2%, respectively, in the SC abatacept-treated group and 65.2% and 4.9%, respectively, in the IV abatacept-treated group, with comparable frequencies of serious infections, malignancies, and autoimmune events between groups. SC injection site reactions (mostly mild) occurred in 19 SC abatacept (IV placebo)-treated patients (2.6%) and 18 IV abatacept (SC placebo)-treated patients (2.5%). Abatacept-induced antibodies occurred in 1.1% of SC abatacept-treated patients and 2.3% of IV abatacept-treated patients. Conclusion SC abatacept provides efficacy and safety comparable with that of IV abatacept, with low immunogenicity and high retention rates, consistent with the established IV abatacept profile. Rates of injection site reactions were low. SC abatacept will provide additional treatment options, such as an alternative route of administration, for patients with RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Brown D.M.,Methodist Hospital |
Nguyen Q.D.,University of Nebraska Medical Center |
Marcus D.M.,Southeast Retina Center |
Boyer D.S.,Retina Vitreous Associates Medical Group |
And 9 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013
Purpose: To report 36-month outcomes of RIDE (NCT00473382) and RISE (NCT00473330), trials of ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME). Design: Phase III, randomized, multicenter, double-masked, 3-year trials, sham injection-controlled for 2 years. Participants: Adults with DME (n=759), baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 20/40 to 20/320 Snellen equivalent, and central foveal thickness (CFT) ≥275 μm on optical coherence tomography. Methods: Patients were randomized equally (1 eye per patient) to monthly 0.5 mg or 0.3 mg ranibizumab or sham injection. In the third year, sham patients, while still masked, were eligible to cross over to monthly 0.5 mg ranibizumab. Macular laser was available to all patients starting at month 3; panretinal laser was available as necessary. Main Outcome Measures: The proportion of patients gaining ≥15 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters in BCVA from baseline at month 24. Results: Visual acuity (VA) outcomes seen at month 24 in ranibizumab groups were consistent through month 36; the proportions of patients who gained ≥15 letters from baseline at month 36 in the sham/0.5 mg, 0.3 mg, and 0.5 mg ranibizumab groups were 19.2%, 36.8%, and 40.2%, respectively, in RIDE and 22.0%, 51.2%, and 41.6%, respectively, in RISE. In the ranibizumab arms, reductions in CFT seen at 24 months were, on average, sustained through month 36. After crossover to 1 year of treatment with ranibizumab, average VA gains in the sham/0.5 mg group were lower compared with gains seen in the ranibizumab patients after 1 year of treatment (2.8 vs. 10.6 and 11.1 letters). Per-injection rates of endophthalmitis remained low over time (∼0.06% per injection). The incidence of serious adverse events potentially related to systemic vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition was 19.7% in patients who received 0.5 mg ranibizumab compared with 16.8% in the 0.3 mg group. Conclusions: The strong VA gains and improvement in retinal anatomy achieved with ranibizumab at month 24 were sustained through month 36. Delayed treatment in patients receiving sham treatment did not seem to result in the same extent of VA improvement observed in patients originally randomized to ranibizumab. Ocular and systemic safety was generally consistent with the results seen at month 24. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. © 2013 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study of the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab versus intravenous tocilizumab in combination with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (SUMMACTA study)
Burmester G.R.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin |
Burmester G.R.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Rubbert-Roth A.,University of Cologne |
Cantagrel A.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole |
And 10 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014
Objectives This study compared the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (SC) versus intravenous (IV) formulations of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD). Methods Patients (n=1262) were randomly assigned to receive tocilizumab-SC 162 mg weekly+placebo-IV every 4 weeks or tocilizumab-IV 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks+placebo-SC weekly in combination with traditional DMARD. The primary outcome was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of tocilizumab-SC to tocilizumab-IV with regard to the proportion of patients in each group achieving an American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response at week 24 using a 12% non-inferiority margin (NIM). Secondary outcomes were disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28), ACR responses, health assessment questionnaire scores and safety assessments. Results At week 24, 69.4% (95% CI 65.5 to 73.2) of tocilizumab-SC-treated patients versus 73.4% (95% CI 69.6 to 77.1) of tocilizumab-IV-treated patients achieved an ACR20 response (weighted difference between groups -4.0%, 95% CI -9.2 to 1.2); the 12% NIM was met. ACR50/70 responses, DAS28 and physical function improvements were comparable between the tocilizumab- SC and tocilizumab-IV groups. The safety profiles of tocilizumab-SC and tocilizumab-IV were similar, and the most common adverse event was infection. Injection-site reactions (ISR) occurred more frequently in the tocilizumab- SC group than in the tocilizumab-IV (placebo-SC) group. No anaphylaxis was reported over the 24 weeks. Conclusions Tocilizumab-SC 162 mg weekly demonstrated comparable efficacy to tocilizumab-IV 8 mg/kg. The safety profile of tocilizumab-SC is consistent with the known and well-established safety profile of tocilizumab-IV, with the exception of a higher incidence of ISR, which were more common with tocilizumab-SC administration.
Castaneda-Hernandez G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico |
Szekanecz Z.,Debrecen University |
Mysler E.,Organizacion Medica de Investigacion |
Azevedo V.F.,Federal University of Paraná |
And 4 more authors.
Joint Bone Spine | Year: 2014
A biosimilar is a biopharmaceutical product intended to be comparable to a previously licensed biopharmaceutical agent. The goal of such products is to increase the accessibility of biopharmaceutical therapy for rheumatoid arthritis by reducing costs. They are not like generic drugs, in that they may differ from the reference products in manufacturing, composition, and formulation. Regulatory authorities strive to ensure the absence of clinically meaningful differences between biosimilars and their reference drugs. However, small molecular differences may potentially affect pharmacodynamics (including affinity), pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. Intended copies are non-innovator biopharmaceutical products that, unlike biosimilars, do not have enough clinical evidence to demonstrate biosimilarity. For approval of a biosimilar, most countries require preclinical and clinical studies demonstrating comparability with the reference drug. The margin for determining equivalence or non-inferiority is determined on a case-by-case basis in each country, as there are no general criteria. The European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration have stringent regulatory processes to ensure comparability of biosimilars with their reference drugs. There are also post-marketing surveillance requirements to monitor safety. Only one biosimilar, CT-P13, has been approved for rheumatoid arthritis. However, in countries with less stringent regulation, intended copies are being commercialized and safety problems have been documented. Consequently, in such countries, there is an urgent need for appropriate regulatory processes to be established. Attempts to close the affordability gap of biopharmaceuticals should not open another gap between patients treated with an innovator drug and an intended copy. © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie.
Pablo L.E.,University of Zaragoza |
Ferreras A.,University of Zaragoza |
Schlottmann P.G.,Organizacion Medica de Investigacion
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2011
Aims: To evaluate and compare the accuracy of scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx-VCC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting glaucomatous damage observed in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) monochromatic photographs from ocular hypertensive (OHT) individuals with normal visual fields. Methods: A total of 181 eyes from 181 patients with intraocular pressure >22 mm Hg were enrolled in a cross-sectional, hospital clinic-based study. All patients underwent full ophthalmological examination, standard automated perimetry, red-free digital RNFL photographs, and RNFL imaging with Stratus OCT and GDx-VCC. Subjects were divided into two groups according to observations from RNFL photographs: 128 OHT subjects without and 53 OHT subjects with RNFL defects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves plotted for the RNFL parameters were compared between OCT and GDx-VCC. Results: The OCT parameter with the highest diagnostic accuracy for detecting early RNFL defects was average thickness, and for the GDx-VCC was temporal-superior-nasal- inferior-temporal average, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.785 and 0.758, respectively (all AUCs p<0.001). Conclusion: OCT and GDx have similar diagnostic accuracy for identifying early defects detected by RNFL monochromatic photography in OHT patients.
Petri M.,Johns Hopkins University |
Wallace D.J.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center |
Spindler A.,Centro Medico Privado Of Reumatologia |
Chindalore V.,Pinnacle Research Group |
And 9 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2013
Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of multiple intravenous (IV) doses of sifalimumab in adults with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential dose-escalation study, patients were randomized 3:1 to receive IV sifalimumab (0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg) or placebo every 2 weeks to week 26, then followed up for 24 weeks. Safety assessment included recording of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics were evaluated, and disease activity was assessed. Results Of 161 patients, 121 received sifalimumab (26 received 0.3 mg/kg; 25, 1.0 mg/kg; 27, 3.0 mg/kg; and 43, 10 mg/kg) and 40 received placebo. Patients were predominantly female (95.7%). At baseline, patients had moderate-to-severe disease activity (mean SLE Disease Activity Index score 11.0), and most (75.2%) had a high type I interferon (IFN) gene signature. In the sifalimumab group versus the placebo group, the incidence of ≥1 treatment-emergent AE was 92.6% versus 95.0%, ≥1 serious AE was 22.3% versus 27.5%, and ≥1 infection was 67.8% versus 62.5%; discontinuations due to AEs occurred in 9.1% versus 7.5%, and death occurred in 3.3% (n = 4) versus 2.5% (n = 1). Serum sifalimumab concentrations increased in a linear and dose-proportional manner. Inhibition of the type I IFN gene signature was sustained during treatment in patients with a high baseline signature. No statistically significant differences in clinical activity (SLEDAI and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group score) between sifalimumab and placebo were observed. However, when adjusted for excess burst steroids, SLEDAI change from baseline showed a positive trend over time. A trend toward normal complement C3 or C4 level at week 26 was seen in the sifalimumab groups compared with baseline. Conclusion The observed safety/tolerability and clinical activity profile of sifalimumab support its continued clinical development for SLE. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Mysler E.,Organizacion Medica de Investigacion
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2015
The European Medicines Agency’s recent approval of biosimilars and their sudden appearance on the market will revolutionize the way physicians treat the severe conditions for which biologics have had a major impact. In the field of rheumatology, these agents are especially important because most new treatments are based on this kind of medication and because patents on the original drugs are expiring. To use these new medications, the treating physician must read and understand the clinical trials related to biosimilars. These studies are not the typical superiority trials in which new agents are compared with standard treatment; rather, they evaluate different formulas to determine whether they are no better or worse. This article summarizes the clinical aspects of drug development with regard to the efficacy and safety of these new medications. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.