Organisational Sustainability Ltd.

Cardiff, United Kingdom

Organisational Sustainability Ltd.

Cardiff, United Kingdom
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Lozano R.,University of Gävle | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | Suzuki M.,Sophia University | Carpenter A.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2017

During the last decade, there has been increasing research on Corporate Sustainability, whereby most of such research was undertaken in theWestern world. This paper is aimed at analysing the contribution of Japanese Business terms to Corporate Sustainability. The paper analyses, using Grounded Theory, 28 Japanese business terms through a Corporate Sustainability framework based on the four dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental, social, and time), the company system (operations and processes, strategy and management, organisational systems, procurement and marketing, and assessment and communication), and stakeholders (internal, interconnecting, and external). The underpinning principles of the Japanese business terms provide complementary approaches toWestern views on corporate sustainability by offering a more holistic perspective by linking the company system and its stakeholders to the four dimensions of sustainability. The paper proposes that Corporate Sustainability can learn from Japanese business approaches through: (1) the interaction and alignment of the factory, the firm, and inter-firm network; (2) the relationships between management and employees; (3) the inter-linkages between the company system elements; and (4) how Japanese companies remained competitive, even under the stress of a long-term major economic crisis. However, the analysis indicates that the relationship with external stakeholders and communicating with them through assessment and reporting is lacking in Japanese business management practice. Japanese businesses and their management can also learn from the Corporate Sustainability of the West by: (1) considering the four dimensions of sustainability and how they interact; (2) taking a holistic and systemic approach to Corporate Sustainability; (3) engaging in more Corporate Sustainability research; and (4) making Corporate Sustainability part of a company's culture and activities. Businesses in the East and theWest need to recognise that they can both contribute to making the world more sustainable by learning from each other's approaches on Corporate Sustainability and adapting them to their own contexts. © 2017 by the author.

Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | Nummert B.,Competence Center for Renewable Resources | Ceulemans K.,Catholic University of Leuven
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

An increasing number of companies have, during the last two decades, engaged in reporting their sustainability efforts. Although Sustainability Reporting is considered to be a key driver for organisational change in companies; research into the link between these two processes has been limited. This paper is aimed at elucidating the interrelations between these processes. A survey was applied to 91 companies from the Global Reporting Initiative's Sustainability Disclosure Database that published sustainability reports in 2013. The data from the survey were analysed using a combination of descriptive, Grounded Theory, and inferential analyses. The results showed that the decision to publish the first sustainability report has been primarily driven by company internal motivations, whilst for subsequent reports it has been due to a combination of internal motivations and external stimuli. The development and publication of a sustainability report drives sustainability changes in the company, leading to a transition period during the development of the next report. This leads to changes in data and indicators, strategy, organisational change, reputation and validation, stakeholders, and the report itself. The changes become part of the organisation until the start of the following report. The research shows that Sustainability Reporting and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability have reciprocal reinforcing relationships, where Sustainability Reporting provides a starting point for planning organisational change for sustainability and organisational change for sustainability improves the reporting process. The paper reinforces that planning organisational changes can help companies better and more holistically integrate their efforts for sustainability into their systems. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Carpenter A.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2013

Green and sustainable chemistry have been developed to help reduce the production and use of harmful chemicals. The two main approaches that have been used in fostering green and sustainable chemistry have been through policy initiatives and science/technology. This paper focuses on a complementary approach, Chemical Leasing. Chemical Leasing is a collaborative service-oriented business model that is aimed at shifting the focus away from profit generation, through increased sales, towards a value-added approach by providing a service. In this model the producer sells the functions performed by the chemical, while the payment basis is a functional unit rather than quantity or volume sold. The user of the chemical obtains benefits through a reduction in the chemicals used, and scientific know-how and support from the producer. This paper presents the results of a case study from Serbia with three partners: a beverage producer, a chemicals producer, and a facilitator. The Chemical Leasing implementation was done on lubricating the beverage producer's polyethylene terephthalate bottle packaging line. The results of the implementation were lower chemical consumption, substitution of a hazardous chemical by an environmentally friendly one, improvement of occupational health and safety, better packaging process efficiency, and economic savings. The case study illustrates that collaborative approaches can help reduce the use of hazardous chemicals (benefiting human health and the environment), whilst providing economic benefits to the partners. This research shows that collaborative business models can complement policy initiatives and scientific/technological approaches in fostering green and sustainable chemistry, and ultimately making societies more sustainable. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | Carpenter A.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | Huisingh D.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Corporate Sustainability has arisen as an alternative to traditional, short-term, profit-oriented approaches to managing the firm by holistically balancing economic, environmental, and social issues in the present generation and for future ones. Although a number of theories of the firm have been proposed within recent decades, their application to Corporate Sustainability has been limited. This paper presents an overview of the most widely used theories of the firm (such as the Stockholder Theory, the Aggregate Theory, the Contractual Theory, the Resource Based View, and the Stakeholder Theory), and analyses their contributions to Corporate Sustainability from an interpretative perspective. The discussion highlights the point that each of the theories, on its own, is limited in addressing sustainability's four dimensions (i.e. the economic, environmental, social, and time). Nonetheless, each theory, or group of theories, has a particular perspective or principles that can contribute to one or more of the four dimensions. The authors of this paper propose a 'Sustainability Oriented Theory of the Firm', which is built upon elements of those theories as they relate to Corporate Sustainability. This new theory can be useful in providing the firm's leaders and all of its stakeholders with a more complete vision of its obligations, opportunities, relations, and processes that the firm should address as it engages in helping to make societies become more equitable and sustainable in the short- and long-terms. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Recently, there has been a rapid growth in company sustainability reporting, as well as an improvement in quality of reports. A number of guidelines have been instrumental in this process; however, they still do not consider the importance of the inter-linkages and synergies among the different indicators and dimensions. This paper focuses on assessing sustainability inter-linkages in corporate sustainability reporting. For this study, the reports from fifty-three European companies, covering thirteen industries at A+ Global Reporting Initiative level and third party certified, were selected. These reports were analysed following a two prong, quasi-quantitative approach - firstly by checking which of the reports covered any of the inter-linking issues, and secondly by checking how well these were covered (i.e. the performance). The results showed that, although not explicitly demanded by the guidelines, the coverage of the interlinking issues ranged from medium to high, whilst performance ranged from low to high. Given the holistic nature of business and of sustainability, and the lack of inclusion of this in the current reporting guidelines, this paper calls for an update of the theory, and of the guidelines, to ensure that a more systemic approach is adopted in business praxis. It also makes an appeal to SR managers and champions, and those compiling the reports, to actively look for the inter-linking issues and dimensions, in order to gain new insights with a view to reducing, or even avoiding, conflicts between/among issues. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Watson M.K.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | Noyes C.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Rodgers M.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

There has been a rapid increase on the number of engineering schools in higher educational institutions that have incorporated sustainability into their teaching. Nonetheless, curricula reforms are still needed to better educate engineers on the implications that their work has on the environment and societies in this generation and future ones. A step to facilitate this is assessing the contribution of engineering curricula to sustainability. This assessment can provide a starting point on how sustainability is being taught, and how this can be improved. This paper presents the results from the assessment of the sustainability content of the Civil and Environmental Engineering curriculum at the Georgia Institute of Technology using two complementary approaches: the Sustainability Tool for Assessing UNiversity's Curricula Holistically system and two students' perceptions surveys. The results from the curriculum assessment indicated that the courses addressed mainly environmental issues, and that the depth of coverage could be improved. The results from the students' surveys concurred with the curriculum assessment, although there were some differences in regard to social issues. Using both approaches provides a more holistic overview of the contribution of engineering courses and degrees to sustainability, and it allows detecting discrepancies between sustainability content in the syllabus and sustainability teaching in the classroom. The approaches can help to foster educational changes by: guiding university leaders in devising curricula reforms to promote sustainability learning; providing students with opportunities to reflect upon the topic; and bridging the gap between the activities being done at the university to foster sustainability and student perception of what needs to be achieved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lozano R.,University of Leeds | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd | Young W.,University of Leeds
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

As more universities become interested in, and engaged with, sustainability, there has been a growing need to assess how their curricula addresses sustainable development and its myriad issues. Different tools and assessment exercises have looked at course descriptors; however, the influence of the number of students enrolled on courses, or the relative weight in credits of the courses in respect of the degrees, has not been explored. The paper compares, with the help of t-tests, three hypotheses developed to investigate the effect of these two influences. The analysis was done using the results from an updated version of the Sustainability Tool for Assessing UNiversities' Curricula Holistically (STAUNCH®) for the Bachelor and Master programmes from the Faculty of Business and the Faculty of Environment of the University of Leeds. The analysis shows that the results are not statistically dissimilar. Nonetheless, the curricula assessment (including the number of students enrolled and the number of credits) can help to better understand where the university's courses and programmes are, and how they could be changed to become more sustainability oriented, and, ultimately, to have the greatest impact to help make societies more sustainable. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lozano F.J.,Monterrey Institute of Technology | Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

With a growing interest in sustainability, a number of universities have engaged in educating the future leaders, decision makers, scientists, and engineers on how their decisions can help societies become more sustainable. This paper presents the process for developing the Bachelor's degree curriculum in Engineering for Sustainable Development at Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico. The process was initiated in response to a request from top management of the university to a small committee of faculty members to prepare a draft of the degree's curriculum structure. Subsequently, a wider committee was appointed to design the courses' content and to refine the degree's structure. The process of developing a new degree posed a number of challenges, such as connectivity of courses and the curricular contribution to sustainability. These challenges were overcome by: using Concept Maps to help characterise and to overcome the challenges of inter-connecting courses by providing a systemic framework through a qualitative graphical tool titled, the 'Sustainability Tool for Assessing UNiversities' Curricula Holistically' (STAUNCH®). This tool helped the faculty team to develop a quasi-quantitative approach to the courses' coverage and their individual and collective contribution to education of their students for sustainability. The two methods provided a broader, more holistic, and systemic approach when developing a degree, because it allowed assessing the needed connectivity among curriculum courses from a systemic perspective, as well as evaluating the contribution of environmental, economic, and social issues in the degree. The systematic process followed in developing this degree curriculum can help other institutions to design and implement their own sustainability curricula. This can ensure that they develop sustainability-educated and empowered students, who can be change agents in making societies more sustainable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Witjes S.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2016

Sustainability aims at addressing environmental and socio-economic issues in the long term. In general, the literature on sustainability has focused mainly on the environmental issues, whereas, more recently, a Circular Economy has been proposed as one of the latest concepts for addressing both the environmental and socio-economic issues. A Circular Economy aims at transforming waste into resources and on bridging production and consumption activities; however, there is still limited research focusing on these aspects. This paper addresses the link between procurement and supply practices, and proposes changing from a traditional public procurement process, based on product-selling business models, to a more service-oriented system. The paper proposes a framework to include technical and non-technical specifications of product/service combinations that improve resource usage efficiency through recovery. The framework also considers socio-cultural specifications and physical and social proximity between the stakeholders in the procurement process. The framework is based on collaboration, which is a vital link between the public procurement process and the development of more sustainable business models, where the experience gained in the collaboration process serves as the bases for suppliers and procurers in improving their contribution to CE, whilst at the same time securing economic benefits for both parties. Although, in this process, the specification setting may take longer, the relationships between procurer and supplier tend to be longer lasting and stronger. This research shows that collaboration between procurers and suppliers throughout the procurement process can lead to reductions in raw material utilisation and waste generation, whilst promoting the development of new, more sustainable, business models. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lozano R.,University Utrecht | Lozano R.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | Carpenter A.,Organisational Sustainability Ltd. | Carpenter A.,University of Leeds | Lozano F.J.,Monterrey Institute of Technology
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2014

Chemical Leasing has been developed as a collaborative business model to complement the two main approaches (policy initiatives and scientific/ technological) used to foster green chemistry and sustainable chemistry. Chemical Leasing is based on using chemicals more efficiently, reducing waste, and closing the feedback loop more effectively. This is done by shifting the focus away from profit generation, through increased sales, towards a value-added approach by providing a service. Most of the available Chemical Leasing studies have been empirical and descriptive, and generally identify only short-term benefits from process change. This paper provides critical reflections on the Chemical Leasing model based on types of chemicals, green and sustainable chemistry, business models, collaboration, and the chemical leasing cases available. Chemical Leasing offers a more efficient business model alternative to traditional industry practice, bringing economic and environmental benefits to both suppliers and users; however, its use is restricted to some specific types of chemicals (such as solvents and catalysts). The paper proposes a clearer and more precise definition of chemical leasing and argues that chemical leasing needs to be part of a holistic approach, so that the economic, environmental, social, and time dimensions of sustainability are fully addressed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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