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Islam F.M.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Bhuiyan A.,Organisation for Rural Community Development | Bhuiyan A.,CSIRO | Chakrabarti R.,Organisation for Rural Community Development | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Human Hypertension

Hypertension is mainly asymptomatic and remains undiagnosed until the disease progresses. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in rural Bangladesh. Using a population-based cluster random sampling strategy, 3096 adults aged ≥30 years were recruited from a rural district in Bangladesh. Data collected included two blood pressure (BP) measurements, fasting blood glucose, socio-demographic and anthropometric measurements. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg or self-reported diagnosed hypertension. Logistic regression techniques were used for data analyses. The crude prevalence of hypertension was 40% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-42%) of which 82% were previously undiagnosed. People from lower socio-economic status (SES) had a significantly higher percentage of undiagnosed hypertension compared with people with higher SES (P<0.001). There was no significant gender difference in severity of hypertension. Males with higher education level compared with no education had a higher prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio 2.34, 95% CI 1.49-3.69). Older age and waist circumference in both genders, and diabetes, lack of physical activity in females were found to be associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. Our research suggests the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was higher in the rural area in Bangladesh than that reported from the rural area in neighbouring India and China. Lower SES was associated with a higher risk of undiagnosed hypertension. Public health programs at the grass-roots level must emphasise the provision of primary care and preventive services in managing this non-communicable disease. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Islam F.M.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Chakrabarti R.,Organisation for Rural Community Development | Chakrabarti R.,University of Melbourne | Islam S.Z.,Organisation for Rural Community Development | And 3 more authors.

Background To assess the awareness, attitudes, and practices associated with common eye diseases and eye care utilization in a rural district of Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected using a multilevel cluster random sampling technique from 3104 adults aged 30 years from the Banshgram union with a questionnaire assessing the awareness, attitudes and practice about diabetes and common eye diseases, educational attainment, socio-economic status, and medical history. Results Participants were aged between 30 and 89 years with a mean (SD) age of 51 (12) years and 65% were female. The majority of participants had heard of cataracts (90%), trachoma (86%) and Pterygium (84%), yet only 4% had heard of diabetic retinopathy (DR), 7% of glaucoma and 8% of Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, 58% of participants did not know vision loss could be prevented. Factors associated with lower awareness regarding common eye diseases were increasing age, lack of formal schooling, and lower socio-economic status. A lower proportion (57%) of people with no schooling compared to those who had attained at least secondary school certificate education (72%) reported that they knew that vision loss could be prevented (p<0.001). Overall 51% of people had heard of at least six (67%) out of nine items relating to awareness of common eye diseases. This included 41% of participants aged 65 years or older compared to 61% of those aged 30-35 years (p<0.001). Only 4% had an eye check at least once a year and higher education and better SES were associated with higher frequency of eye checks. Conclusions In rural Bangladesh awareness of cataract, trachoma and pterygium was good but limited in relation to the potentially blinding conditions of glaucoma, DR, and AMD. The results show a large gap between public awareness and treatment practices about common eye diseases. Public health promotion should be designed to address these knowledge gaps. © 2015 Islam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Islam F.M.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Chakrabarti R.,Organisation for Rural Community Development | Chakrabarti R.,University of Melbourne | Dirani M.,University of Melbourne | And 6 more authors.

Background: To assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) amongst the general community regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in rural Bangladesh. Methods: Data was collected using cluster random sampling from 3104 adults residing in a rural district in Bangladesh. Participants underwent a KAP questionnaire survey regarding assessing diabetes, socio-demographic and medical history. Descriptive, Chi-square and regression analyses were performed. Results: Participants were aged between 30 and 89 years (M = 51, SD = 11.8) and 65.5% were female. The prevalence of diabetes was found to be 8.3%. The majority (93%) reported to have heard of diabetes, yet only 4% knew what a glucose tolerance test was. Only 50% reported that they knew physical inactivity was a risk factor. Age, gender, level of education and socio-economic status (SES) were significantly associated with KAP. A lower proportion (41%) of older participants (aged ≥65 years) reported that they knew that dietary modifications assist in diabetes control compared to those aged less than 35 years (69%), p≤0.001. Males (β = 0.393, 95% CI = 0.142-0.643), and any level of education compared to no schooling (β = 0.726, 95% CI = 0.596, 0.857) reported significantly more knowledge, after multivariate adjustments for covariates. Participants aged under 35 years, (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.22-2.43) had significantly higher positive attitudes towards treatments of diabetes compared to those aged ≥65 years. Of the 99 people with known diabetes, more than 50% (n = 52) never had their blood sugar levels checked since diagnosis. Conclusions: Knowledge of diabetes and its risk factors is very limited in rural Bangladesh, even in persons diagnosed with type 2 DM. The development of public health programmes to increase knowledge of diabetes and its complications is required to assist people living in rural Bangladesh to control and management of diabetes. © 2014 Islam et al. Source

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