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Hallegatte S.,The World Bank | Hallegatte S.,Center International Of Recherche Sur Lenvironnement Et Le Developpement Cired | Green C.,Middlesex University | Nicholls R.J.,University of Southampton | Corfee-Morlot J.,Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2013

Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6 billion per year, increasing to US$52 billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1 trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63 billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Baubion C.,Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Water Policy | Year: 2015

This paper provides a snapshot of the key findings of an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) review of flood risk prevention policies in the Paris metropolitan area. With an innovative flood risk assessment, the study shows that a major flooding of the Seine River, similar to the flood disaster of 1910, could affect up to 5 million residents in the greater Paris area and cause up to 30 billion (109) euros worth of damage. Economic growth, jobs and public finances could also be significantly affected at the national level. The OECD Review on Flood Risk Management of the Seine River - commissioned by the basin organisation Seine Grands Lacswith the French Ministry of Ecology and Île-de-France regional council - recommends raising risk awareness among citizens and businesses, and improving the resilience of the metropolitan area to flood risks. Recent floods in Europe and New York City's Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012 illustrated the vulnerability of today's ever-denser cities to flooding and the need to adapt critical infrastructure systems to be able to cope with extreme weather events. The OECD review suggests ways to minimise the risks and better prepare the Île-de-France region. It notes that proposed projects to develop and expand the city's transport and logistics networks offer an opportunity to put some of its suggestions into practice. © OECD 2015. Source


Parris K.,Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2011

Agricultural pollution of surface water, groundwater and marine waters relates to the contamination of drinking water, and harmful effects on ecosystems and costs for recreational activities, cultural values and commercial fisheries. After the introductory section, this paper examines the recent trends and economic costs of agricultural water pollution. Subsequent sections discuss recent Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) policy experiences in addressing water pollution in agriculture, and the medium outlook for pollution across OECD countries. The final section explores ways forward toward sustainable management of water quality in agriculture. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Byers-Heinlein K.,University of British Columbia | Burns T.C.,Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development | Werker J.F.,University of British Columbia
Psychological Science | Year: 2010

The first steps toward bilingual language acquisition have already begun at birth. When tested on their preference for English versus Tagalog, newborns whose mothers spoke only English during pregnancy showed a robust preference for English. In contrast, newborns whose mothers spoke both English and Tagalog regularly during pregnancy showed equal preference for both languages. A group of newborns whose mothers had spoken both Chinese and English showed an intermediate pattern of preference for Tagalog over English. Preference for two languages does not suggest confusion between them, however. Study 2 showed that both English monolingual newborns and Tagalog-English bilingual newborns could discriminate English from Tagalog. The same perceptual and learning mechanisms that support acquisition in a monolingual environment thus also naturally support bilingual acquisition. © The Author(s) 2010. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: Europe | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2016

The project implements the goals of the Horizon 2020 Work Program Europe in a Changing World: inclusive, innovative and reflective societies by 1. fostering theoretical and practical learning on innovative approaches; 2. enhancing the sharing of ideas and co-creation of innovative solutions; 3. building innovative capacity of public servants. The project consists of a combination of research activities (on system innovation, innovation life-cycle, innovation at sub-national level); Observatory of Public Sector Innovation platform enhancement to provide a useful and practical tool to OECD and EU innovators (network of innovation contact points, virtual innovation project support, onlien interactive toolbox); and initiatives to build capacities of public servants to generate innovation.

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