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Morlais I.,Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre Les Endemies en Afrique Centrale | Morlais I.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Nsango S.E.,Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre Les Endemies en Afrique Centrale | Nsango S.E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Plasmodium falciparum infections in malaria endemic areas often harbor multiple clones of parasites. However, the transmission success of the different genotypes within the mosquito vector has remained elusive so far. The genetic diversity of malaria parasites was measured by using microsatellite markers in gametocyte isolates from 125 asymptomatic carriers. For a subset of 49 carriers, the dynamics of co-infecting genotypes was followed until their development within salivary glands. Also, individual oocysts from midguts infected with blood from 9 donors were genotyped to assess mating patterns. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) was high both in gametocyte isolates and sporozoite populations, reaching up to 10 genotypes. Gametocyte isolates with multiple genotypes gave rise to lower infection prevalence and intensity. Fluctuations of genotype number occurred during the development within the mosquito and sub-patent genotypes, not detected in gametocyte isolates, were identified in the vector salivary glands. The inbreeding coefficient Fis was positively correlated to the oocyst loads, suggesting that P. falciparum parasites use different reproductive strategies according to the genotypes present in the gametocyte isolate. The number of parasite clones within an infection affects the transmission success and the mosquito has an important role in maintaining P. falciparum genetic diversity. Our results emphasize the crucial importance of discriminating between the different genotypes within an infection when studying the A. gambiae natural resistance to P. falciparum, and the need to monitor parasite diversity in areas where malaria control interventions are implemented. © 2015 Morlais et al.


Nwane P.,Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale | Nwane P.,University of Yaounde I | Etang J.,Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale | Etang J.,University of Douala | And 5 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: The spread of insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is a serious threat for current vector control strategies which rely on the use of insecticides. Two mutations at position 1014 of the S6transmembrane segment of domain II in the voltage gated sodium channel, known as kdr (knockdown resistance) mutations leading to a change of a Leucine to a Phenylalanine (L1014F) or to a Serine (L1014S) confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides in the insect. This paper presents the current distribution of the kdr alleles in wild Anopheles gambiae populations in Cameroon. Results: A total of 1,405 anopheline mosquitoes were collected from 21 localities throughout Cameroon and identified as An. gambiae (N = 1,248; 88.8%), An. arabiensis (N = 120; 8.5%) and An. melas (N = 37; 2.6%). Both kdr alleles 1014F and 1014S were identified in the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. The frequency of the 1014F allele ranged from 1.7 to 18% in the M-form, and from 2 to 90% in the S-form. The 1014S allele ranged from 3-15% in the S-form and in the M-form its value was below 3%. Some specimens were found to carry both resistant kdr alleles. Conclusion: This study provides an updated distribution map of the kdr alleles in wild An. gambiae populations in Cameroon. The co-occurrence of both alleles in malaria mosquito vectors in diverse ecological zones of the country may be critical for the planning and implementation of malaria vector control interventions based on IRS and ITNs, as currently ongoing in Cameroon. © 2011 Nwane et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement, University Paris - Sud, Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale, Institute Des Science Of Levolution and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Plasmodium falciparum infections in malaria endemic areas often harbor multiple clones of parasites. However, the transmission success of the different genotypes within the mosquito vector has remained elusive so far. The genetic diversity of malaria parasites was measured by using microsatellite markers in gametocyte isolates from 125 asymptomatic carriers. For a subset of 49 carriers, the dynamics of co-infecting genotypes was followed until their development within salivary glands. Also, individual oocysts from midguts infected with blood from 9 donors were genotyped to assess mating patterns. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) was high both in gametocyte isolates and sporozoite populations, reaching up to 10 genotypes. Gametocyte isolates with multiple genotypes gave rise to lower infection prevalence and intensity. Fluctuations of genotype number occurred during the development within the mosquito and sub-patent genotypes, not detected in gametocyte isolates, were identified in the vector salivary glands. The inbreeding coefficient Fis was positively correlated to the oocyst loads, suggesting that P. falciparum parasites use different reproductive strategies according to the genotypes present in the gametocyte isolate. The number of parasite clones within an infection affects the transmission success and the mosquito has an important role in maintaining P. falciparum genetic diversity. Our results emphasize the crucial importance of discriminating between the different genotypes within an infection when studying the A. gambiae natural resistance to P. falciparum, and the need to monitor parasite diversity in areas where malaria control interventions are implemented.


Nwane P.,Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale | Nwane P.,University of Yaounde I | Etang J.,Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale | Etang J.,University of Douala | And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Methods. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt§ssub§50§esub§ and kdt§ssub§95§esub§ ) were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S) using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. Results: The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates > 98%) and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. Conclusion: In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An. gambiae resulting in heterogeneous resistance profiles, whereas in the M form and An. arabiensis insecticide tolerance seems to be essentially mediated by enzyme-based detoxification. Synergists partially restored susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides, and might help mitigate the impact of vector resistance in the field. However, additional vector control tools are needed to further impact on malaria transmission in such settings. © 2013 Nwane et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Toto J.C.,Organisation de Coordination Pour la Lutte Contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale | Besnard P.,Service Medical de la Societe Nationale de Metallurgie Sonamet | Mire J.L.,Service Medical de la Societe Nationale de Metallurgie Sonamet | Almeida D.S.I.,Programme de Controle Antipaludique de Sonamet MCP Sonamet | And 6 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2011

Field collections of the most common urban mosquito vectors Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005 to gather preliminary data on the insecticide susceptibility in mosquitoes from Lobito (Angola) using the WHO standard bioassays. Bioassays were performed on F0 adults emerging from the field larval collections and on unfed adults from landing catches on volunteers. Batches of mosquitoes from three selected locations (Alto Liro, San Jao and Bela Vista) were exposed for 1 hour to several insecticides such as DDT 4%, carbosulfan 0.4%, permethrin 1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and cyfluthrin 0.15%, in order to estimate the immediate knockdown times (kdT50 and kdT95) and the mortality rate after exposure. The results revealed that mosquito susceptibility to insecticides varied depending on the insecticide, the site and the period of collection. The main local malaria vector A. gambiae (both M and S forms) was basically resistant to DDT and susceptible to all pyrethoids, regardless of the period and the site of collections. The overall mortality rate due to DDT was 73% in Alto Liro, 89% in San Jao and varied depending on the period in Bela Vista between 95% in March 2004 and 100% in November 2005. The mortality due to pyrethoids was 100% at all locations, with the kdT50 and KdT95 times ranging between 9 and 16 minutes and between 18 and 29 minutes, respectively. Concerning the C. quinquefasciatus, populations from Yard and Caponte were resistant to all insecticides tested; the mortality rate was 40% with deltamethrin and 70% with permethrin, while no lethal effect was observed with DDT or carbosulfan. In conclusion, despite its probable high resistance to DDT, the main local malaria vector A. gambiae remained fully susceptible to pyrethroids. This could forecast a good biological efficacy of the scheduled vector control interventions in Angola, based on a large-scale distribution of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets and on the implementation of indoor residual spraying. The local vector control programme must include well-adapted IEC campaigns and full participation of the community for better management of the insecticide resistance in targeted mosquitoes and for better control of malaria vector populations. To cite this journal: Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 104 (2011). © Socíté de pathologie exotique et Springer-Verlag France 2010.


PubMed | Organisation de coordination pour la lutte contre les endemies en Afrique centrale
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990) | Year: 2011

Field collections of the most common urban mosquito vectors Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005 to gather preliminary data on the insecticide susceptibility in mosquitoes from Lobito (Angola) using the WHO standard bioassays. Bioassays were performed on F0 adults emerging from the field larval collections and on unfed adults from landing catches on volunteers. Batches of mosquitoes from three selected locations (Alto Liro, San Jao and Bela Vista) were exposed for 1 hour to several insecticides such as DDT 4%, carbosulfan 0.4%, permethrin 1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and cyfluthrin 0.15%, in order to estimate the immediate knockdown times (kdT50 and kdT95) and the mortality rate after exposure. The results revealed that mosquito susceptibility to insecticides varied depending on the insecticide, the site and the period of collection. The main local malaria vector A. gambiae (both M and S forms) was basically resistant to DDT and susceptible to all pyrethoids, regardless of the period and the site of collections. The overall mortality rate due to DDT was 73% in Alto Liro, 89% in San Jao and varied depending on the period in Bela Vista between 95% in March 2004 and 100% in November 2005. The mortality due to pyrethoids was 100% at all locations, with the kdT50 and KdT95 times ranging between 9 and 16 minutes and between 18 and 29 minutes, respectively. Concerning the C. quinquefasciatus, populations from Yard and Caponte were resistant to all insecticides tested; the mortality rate was 40% with deltamethrin and 70% with permethrin, while no lethal effect was observed with DDT or carbosulfan. In conclusion, despite its probable high resistance to DDT, the main local malaria vector A. gambiae remained fully susceptible to pyrethroids. This could forecast a good biological efficacy of the scheduled vector control interventions in Angola, based on a large-scale distribution of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets and on the implementation of indoor residual spraying. The local vector control programme must include well-adapted IEC campaigns and full participation of the community for better management of the insecticide resistance in targeted mosquitoes and for better control of malaria vector populations.


PubMed | Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2013

Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions.Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95) were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S) using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities.The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates>98%) and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control.In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An. gambiae resulting in heterogeneous resistance profiles, whereas in the M form and An. arabiensis insecticide tolerance seems to be essentially mediated by enzyme-based detoxification. Synergists partially restored susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides, and might help mitigate the impact of vector resistance in the field. However, additional vector control tools are needed to further impact on malaria transmission in such settings.


PubMed | Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2011

The spread of insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is a serious threat for current vector control strategies which rely on the use of insecticides. Two mutations at position 1014 of the S6 transmembrane segment of domain II in the voltage gated sodium channel, known as kdr (knockdown resistance) mutations leading to a change of a Leucine to a Phenylalanine (L1014F) or to a Serine (L1014S) confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides in the insect. This paper presents the current distribution of the kdr alleles in wild Anopheles gambiae populations in Cameroon.A total of 1,405 anopheline mosquitoes were collected from 21 localities throughout Cameroon and identified as An. gambiae (N = 1,248; 88.8%), An. arabiensis (N = 120; 8.5%) and An. melas (N = 37; 2.6%). Both kdr alleles 1014F and 1014S were identified in the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. The frequency of the 1014F allele ranged from 1.7 to 18% in the M-form, and from 2 to 90% in the S-form. The 1014S allele ranged from 3-15% in the S-form and in the M-form its value was below 3%. Some specimens were found to carry both resistant kdr alleles.This study provides an updated distribution map of the kdr alleles in wild An. gambiae populations in Cameroon. The co-occurrence of both alleles in malaria mosquito vectors in diverse ecological zones of the country may be critical for the planning and implementation of malaria vector control interventions based on IRS and ITNs, as currently ongoing in Cameroon.

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