North Andover, MA, United States

Organic Waste Management
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Moreno-Jimenez E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Clemente R.,Organic Waste Management | Mestrot A.,University of Bern | Meharg A.A.,Queen's University of Belfast
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

Organic matter amendments are applied to contaminated soil to provide a better habitat for re-vegetation and remediation, and olive mill waste compost (OMWC) has been described as a promising material for this aim. We report here the results of an incubation experiment carried out in flooded conditions to study its influence in As and metal solubility in a trace elements contaminated soil. NPK fertilisation and especially organic amendment application resulted in increased As, Se and Cu concentrations in pore water. Independent of the amendment, dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the most abundant As species in solution. The application of OMWC increased pore water dissolved organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations, which may explain the observed mobilisation of As, Cu and Se; phosphate added in NPK could also be in part responsible of the mobilisation caused in As. Therefore, the application of soil amendments in mine soils may be particularly problematic in flooded systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gell K.,Wageningen University | van Groenigen J.,Wageningen University | Cayuela M.L.,Wageningen University | Cayuela M.L.,Organic Waste Management
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

The current shift towards bioenergy production increases streams of bioenergy rest-products (RPs), which are likely to end-up as soil amendments. However, their impact on soil remains unclear. In this study we evaluated crop phytotoxicity of 15 RPs from common bioenergy chains (biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol and pyrolysis). The RPs were mixed into a sandy soil and the seedling root and shoot elongation of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) were measured. Immediate phytotoxic effects were observed with biodiesel and bioethanol RPs (root elongation reduced to 14-60% for the three crops; P< 0.05). However, phytotoxicity was no longer significant after seven days. Digestates had no phytotoxic effect whereas biochars ranged from beneficial to detrimental depending on the original feedstock and temperature of pyrolysis. Biochar amendment alleviated phytotoxicity of bioethanol by-products for wheat and radish. Phytotoxicity assessment is critical for successful soil amendment with bioenergy RPs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Alburquerque J.A.,Organic Waste Management | de la Fuente C.,Organic Waste Management | Bernal M.P.,Organic Waste Management
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

The optimisation of digestate recycling as fertilisers, based on both environmental and agricultural criteria, requires an evaluation of the effects on C and N dynamics in soil. In the present paper, six digestates from several anaerobic co-digestion experiments, using pig or cattle slurry as the main substrate, were evaluated in short-term incubations in soil.Digestate properties such as dissolved organic-C (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and digestate organic-C mineralised in the soil during the first 7 days represented properly the digestate biodegradability. These, together with their ratios with respect to the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in the digestate, were reliable parameters with respect to defining the C and N dynamics in the soil and hence the N-fertiliser potential of the digested materials. Therefore, highly biodegradable digested materials, represented in the present study by digestates from cattle slurry-glycerine mixtures were not suitable for agricultural use as they caused a high CO 2-C production and led to N-immobilisation and/or denitrification after their application to soil. Contrastingly, for less biodegradable digested materials (BOD 5d<6.0gO 2L -1 fresh weight, DOC<5.5gL -1 fresh weight and DOC/TN<1.5), less CO 2-C was evolved and ammonium was rapidly nitrified in soil-being an available N source for crops. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Hueso S.,Organic Waste Management | Garcia C.,Organic Waste Management | Hernandez T.,Organic Waste Management
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Biological activity could be affected severely by the impact on soil quality of drought, which can be very severe in Southern areas of Europe. The objective of this work was to assess, under controlled laboratory conditions, whether a long period of severe drought (six months) can affect the structure, size and activity of the microbial community of a semiarid soil, as well as the influence of organic amendments on these effects. The soil was incubated for 180 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 60/80% day/night relative humidity), with two treatments: unamended (US) and amended (AS) with manure compost (100 t ha -1). Two levels of irrigation were imposed: (1) well-watered (MUS and MAS), the soil being maintained at 60% of its water-holding capacity (WHC), and (2) dry soils, without irrigation (DUS and DAS). The drought conditions caused a significant inhibition of C and N mineralisation, and affected negatively the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass. Thus, after 180 days under drought conditions, the non-watered soils showed higher organic carbon content than the well-watered soils. Likewise, the stressed soils showed significantly lower values of water-soluble N, ATP content, microbial biomass C, alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity and total functional diversity than the well-watered soils. There was a significant decrease in the total amount of each fatty acid in DUS and DAS with respect to MUS and MAS after 180 days under drought. The physiology of the microbial community was affected more strongly by water stress than was the microbial community structure, changes in the structure caused by drought being less pronounced in amended than in unamended soils. Furthermore, the organic amendments increased the soil organic matter content, hence improving the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass and helping soil to retain moisture. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pardo T.,Organic Waste Management | Bernal M.P.,Organic Waste Management | Clemente R.,Organic Waste Management
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

A mesocosm experiment, in columns, was conducted in a growth chamber to assess the viability of two organic materials (pig slurry and compost; in combination with hydrated lime) for the remediation of a highly acidic and trace elements (TEs) contaminated mine soil and the reduction of its associated leaching risks. Their influence on the evolution throughout the soil depth of the physicochemical properties (including TEs mobility) of the soil and soil solution ( in situ periodic collection) and on Lolium perenne growth and foliar TEs accumulation was evaluated. Soluble and extractable concentrations of the different TEs were considerably high, although the organic amendments (with lime) and lime addition successfully decreased TEs mobility in the top soil layer, as a consequence of a rise in pH and changes in the redox conditions. Compost and pig slurry increased the soluble organic-C and dissolved N, K and P of the soil, producing a certain downwards displacement of N and K. The organic amendments allowed the growth of L. perenne in the soil, thus indicating improvement of soil conditions, but elevated TEs availability in the soil led to toxicity symptoms and abnormally high TEs concentrations in the plants. An evaluation of the functioning and ecotoxicological risks of the remediated soils is reported in part II: this allows verification of the viability of the amendments for remediation strategies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Martinez-Medina A.,Organic Waste Management | Roldan A.,Organic Waste Management | Pascual J.A.,Organic Waste Management
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the interactions between four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae, Glomus claroideum, and Glomus constrictum) and the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum, inoculated in a greenhouse nursery, with regard to their effects on melon crop growth under conventional and integrated-system field conditions, and the biocontrol effect against Fusarium wilt. A synergistic effect on AM root colonization due to the interaction between T. harzianum and G. constrictum or G.intraradices, was observed under a reduced fertilizer dosage, while no significant effect was observed for G. claroideum or G. mosseae. With the reduced fertilizer input, AMF-inoculated plants and T. harzianum-inoculated plants had improved shoot weight and nutritional status, but the combined inoculation of AMF and T. harzianum did not result in an additive effect. Under the conventional fertilizer dosage, plant growth was not influenced by AM formation; however, it was increased significantly in T. harzianum-inoculated plants. The AMF-inoculated plants were effective in controlling Fusarium wilt, G. mosseae-inoculated plants showing the greatest capacity for reduction of disease incidence. The T. harzianum-inoculated plants were more effective than AMF-inoculated plants with regard to suppressing disease incidence. Co-inoculation of plants with the AMF and T. harzianum produced a more effective control of Fusarium wilt than each AMF inoculated alone, but with an effectiveness similar to that of T. harzianum-inoculated plants. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Hueso S.,Organic Waste Management | Hernandez T.,Organic Waste Management | Garcia C.,Organic Waste Management
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2011

Changes in mean global air temperature and precipitation patterns, leading to longer drought periods and more extremely dry years, are predicted. The objective of this work was to assess whether a long period of severe drought can affect the growth and activity of the microbiota of a semiarid soil, as well as the effect of organic amendments on soil resistance and resilience to this severe drought. A soil incubation experiment was carried out over 60 days, under controlled conditions (25°C and 60/80% day/night relative humidity), with two treatments: unamended (US) and amended (AS) with manure compost (100tha-1). Two levels of irrigation were imposed: (1) well-watered (MUS and MAS), the soil being maintained at 60% of its water-holding capacity (WHC), and (2) dry, without irrigation (DUS and DAS). Then, a single level of irrigation was established for 37 days, dry soils being irrigated under the same conditions than well-watered soils, to assess soil resilience to this period of drought. Under well-watered conditions, the soil water-soluble nitrogen contents were 73 and 88% higher, the microbial biomass carbon 63 and 48% higher, alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity 46 and 32% higher, β-glucosidase activity 16 and 25% higher and urease activity 30 and 19% higher for the US and AS treatments, respectively, compared with the dry conditions at the end of the experimental period. Furthermore, the organic amendment helped the soil to retain moisture and encouraged the growth and activity of soil microbial populations. However, a 2-month drought seems insufficient to destroy the native microbial biomass in the arid soil used in this study, indicating that it is well adapted to adverse climate conditions. Thus, microbiological and biochemical parameters experienced a rapid recovery after soil rewetting, DUS and DAS showing values similar to MUS and MAS, after rewetting, highlighting the resilience of this type of soil against drought stress. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Pardo T.,Organic Waste Management | Clemente R.,Organic Waste Management | Bernal M.P.,Organic Waste Management
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

The use of organic wastes as amendments in heavy metal-polluted soils is an ecological integrated option for their recycling. The potential use of alperujo (solid olive-mill waste) compost and pig slurry in phytoremediation strategies has been studied, evaluating their short-term effects on soil health. An aerobic incubation experiment was carried out using an acid mine spoil based soil and a low OM soil from the mining area of La Unión (Murcia, Spain). Arsenic and heavy metal solubility in amended and non-amended soils, and microbial parameters were evaluated and related to a phytotoxicity test. The organic amendments provoked an enlargement of the microbial community (compost increased biomass-C from non detected values to 35μgg-1 in the mine spoil soil, and doubled control values in the low OM soil) and an intensification of its activity (including a twofold increase in nitrification), and significantly enhanced seed germination (increased cress germination by 25% in the mine spoil soil). Organic amendments increased Zn and Pb EDTA-extractable concentrations, and raised As solubility due to the influence of factors such as pH changes, phosphate concentration, and the nature of the organic matter of the amendments. Compost, thanks to the greater persistence of its organic matter in soil, could be recommended for its use in (phyto)stabilisation strategies. However, pig slurry boosted inorganic N content and did not significantly enhance As extractability in soil, so its use could be specifically recommended in As polluted soils. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Organic Waste Management | Date: 2015-01-29

The invention provides a system and method for processing at least one document thereby rendering the document illegible; and recording an information summary associated with the document and the processing of the document.

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