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Luo Y.,Jinling Institute of Technology | Xie W.,Organic Food Development Center
British Food Journal | Year: 2013

Purpose: The bioavailability of iron from faba bean is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytate, fiber and tannin. The purpose of this paper is to try to identify the nature of the complexes between anti-nutritional factors and iron in faba bean and legume fractions by using simulations of gastro-intestinal digestion. Design/methodology/approach: To this aim, the authors evaluated the effect of the action of fiber- and/or phytate-degrading enzymes on solubilization of iron from insoluble residues obtained after gastro-intestinal digestion of faba bean flour and fractions. Findings: In insoluble residues of raw faba bean flour, simultaneous action of cellulase and phytases made it possible to release about 28 percent units more iron than that released with the treatment without enzymes. About 49.8 percent of iron in raw faba bean flour was solubilized after in vitro digestion and simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase. In the residues of the hull fraction, a significant increase in iron solubility has not been seen (p>0.05) after action of cellulase or phytases. Simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase led to the release of more than 60 and 18 percent units of additional iron for residues of dehulled faba bean and hull fractions, respectively. Originality/value: In dehulled faba bean, iron was chelated by phytates and fibers. In the hull of faba bean, a high proportion of iron was chelated by iron-tannins, while the rest of iron was chelated in complexes between phytates and fibers. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Xie B.,Nanjing Normal University | Qin J.,Nanjing Normal University | Yang H.,Nanjing Normal University | Wang X.,Organic Food Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

Negative environmental impacts, safety issues for aquaculture products, increased fish consumption and increasing market share of organic foods have combined to focus attention on organic aquaculture from both researchers and industries worldwide. There is much extant research that investigates the organic aquaculture development in the world. However, little emphasis is given to China, the biggest aquaculture production country and highest growing organic market. This research aims to narrow this gap in the literature by reviewing organic aquaculture in China from a global perspective. Organic aquaculture has experienced a remarkable growth over the last decade in China. The total production from organic aquaculture increased by 1700%, from 5000. tonnes in 2003 to 85,000. tonnes in 2012, mainly of fish (62,000. tonnes), shrimps (7600. tonnes), scallop (6400. tonnes), sea cucumber (5000. tonnes), crabs (2200. tonnes), clams (500. tonnes), eel (480. tonnes), Chinese softshell turtle (370. tonnes), trumpet shell (180. tonnes), sea hedgehog etc. (270. tonnes). 174 operations have received organic aquaculture certification, with the total area of about 400,000. ha. Organic aquaculture production is concentrated mainly in 10 provinces, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Hunan, Inter Mongolia, Xinjiang, Anhui, Liaoning, Hainan, Fujian and Shandong. The majority of organic aquaculture farms give priority to polyculture. The development of nutritionally efficient diets using organic sources of ingredients is a challenge. Practical guidelines for energy efficiency, disease control and polyculture in organic aquaculture standard should be elaborated. Major constraints regarding organic aquaculture arise from the fragmentation of certification due to the absence of an internationally recognized standard, and limited possibilities for knowledge. The future market penetration of organic aquaculture products will depend on the improvement of the coordination between production and market. This review provides some necessary background to national conventional and organic aquaculture production. Environmental impacts and food safety issues of aquaculture are discussed. It focuses briefly on the development and operating characteristics of organic aquaculture. Finally, the authors examine the important issues of the organic standards and certification and offer recommendations for stimulating future development. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Qiu X.-L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zong L.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liu Y.-F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Du X.-F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Combined with the research in an organic farm in the past 10 years, differences of soil aggregates composition, distribution and organic carbon fractions between organic and conventional cultivation were studied by simultaneous sampling analysis. The results showed that the percentages of aggregates (>1 mm, 1-0.5 mm, 0.5-0.25 mm and <0.25 mm) in the conventional cultivation were 23.75%, 15.15%, 19.98% and 38.09%, while those in organic cultivation were 9.73%, 18.41%, 24.46% and 43.90%, respectively. The percentage of <0.25 mm micro-aggregates was significantly higher in organic cultivation than that in conventional cultivation. Organic cultivation increased soil organic carbon (average of 17.95 g·kg-1) and total nitrogen contents (average of 1.51 g·kg-1). Among the same aggregates in organic cultivation, the average content of heavy organic carbon fraction was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation. This fraction accumulated in <0.25 mm micro-aggregates, which were main storage sites of stable organic carbon. In organic cultivation, the content of labile organic carbon in>1 mm macro-aggregates was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation, while no significant difference was found among the other aggregates, indicating that the labile organic carbon was enriched in>1 mm macro-aggregates. Organic cultivation increased the amounts of organic carbon and its fractions, reduced tillage damage to aggregates, and enhanced the stability of organic carbon. Organic cultivation was therefore beneficial for soil carbon sequestration. The findings of this research may provide theoretical basis for further acceleration of the organic agriculture development. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Xiong Y.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Luo M.,Organic Food Development Center
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

Based on the survey data of 538 farmers from 15 counties (or cities) in Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Sichuan provinces, this paper empirically analyzes the factors affecting farmers' production willingness of safe agricultural products by Logit regression model. And the results indicate that relative price of safe agricultural products, production scale, government subsidy, guidance from agricultural technicians and joining agricultural industrialization organizations have significant positive influence while farmers' age and family income have significant negative influence. To further identify influencial power of these significant variables, the calculation of their standard coefficients reveals that the influencial power of production scale, relative price of safe agricultural products and joining agricultural industrialization organizations is comparatively powerful. On the basis of empirical analysis, some countermeasures are brought up. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Xiong Y.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Luo M.,Organic Food Development Center
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

This paper discusses the construction and development of eco-industrial parks. It points out that the core of eco-industrial park construction is to advance low-carbon production and puts forward three principles of "cutting, exchanging and turning". Based on three perspectives of enterprise itself, among enterprises, between enterprises and the park, it explains the meanings and implementations of three principles. Then, the key factors are analyzed to establish cooperation between enterprises and the park based on game theory. Finally some effective ways are given out to promote the development of eco-industrial parks. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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