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PubMed | Ruder Boskovic Institute, Lviv National Medical University, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Zagreb and French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Type: | Journal: British journal of pharmacology | Year: 2016

The concept of oxidative stress (OS) which associates altered redox biology with various diseases was introduced thirty years ago and has generated intensive research over the past two decades. Whereas it is now commonly accepted that macromolecule oxidation in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with a variety of pathologies, the emergence of NO as a key regulator of redox signalling has led to the discovery of the pathophysiological significance of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). RNS can elicit various modifications of macromolecules and lead to nitrative or nitro-OS. In order to investigate oxidative and nitro-OS in human and in live animal models, circulating biomarker assays have been developed. This article provides an overview of key biomarkers used to assess lipid peroxidation and NO/NO

Stueckler C.,Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry | Mueller N.J.,Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry | Winkler C.K.,Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry | Glueck S.M.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2010

Nonracemic aryl-substituted α-methyldihydrocinnamaldehyde derivatives employed as olfactory principles in perfumes (Lilial™, Helional™) were obtained via enzymatic reduction of the corresponding cinnamaldehyde precursors using cloned and overexpressed ene-reductases. (R)-Enantiomers were obtained using the old-yellow-enzyme (OYE) homolog YqjM from Bacillus subtilis and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase isoenzyme OPR1 from tomato (e.e. max 53%), and (S)-aldehydes were furnished in up to 97% e.e. using isoenzyme OPR3, nicotinamide 2-cyclohexene-1-one reductase NCR from Zymomonas mobilis and yeast OYE isoenzymes 1-3 under optimised reaction conditions in the presence of t-butyl methyl ether as the co-solvent. The stereochemical outcome of the reduction of α-methylcinnamaldehyde using NCR and OYEs 1-3 [previously reported to be (R)] was unambiguously corrected to be (S). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hall M.,Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry | Bansal P.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Lee J.H.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Realff M.J.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Bommarius A.S.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

In this study, cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) of cellulases from Trichoderma reesei were used in a pretreatment step and were found to effectively reduce the crystallinity of cellulose (both Avicel and fibrous cellulose). This, in turn, led to higher glucose concentrations (up to 25% increase) in subsequent hydrolysis of cellulose using a mixture of cellulases and without the need for any intermediate purification step. CBDs were shown to be active in a range of temperatures (up to 50. °C), while cellulase hydrolytic activity was greatly reduced after incubation at 50. °C. This was explained by retention of full binding capacity after incubation at 50. °C for 15 h. Our findings suggest that CBDs may be a valuable tool in pretreating cellulose and eventually afford faster enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose, thus contributing to more affordable processes in the production of biofuels. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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