Shuh M.,Institute of Translational Research |
Bohorquez H.,Multi Organ Transplant Center |
Bohorquez H.,University of New Orleans |
Loss Jr. G.E.,Multi Organ Transplant Center |
And 4 more authors.
Ochsner Journal | Year: 2013
Background: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine involved in a variety of disease pathologies, including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in transplantation. The interaction of TNF-α with its cognate receptor TNF receptor I (TNFRI) results in the activation of signal transduction pathways that regulate either cell survival or cell death. Hepatocytes express TNFRI and respond to TNF-α released by resident Kupffer cells as well as leukocytes that migrate to the liver during I/R injury. Upon binding TNF-α, the hepatocyte proliferates or undergoes apoptosis or necroptosis. The decision by the cell to commit to one path or the other is not understood. The damaged tissue exhibits cell death and hemorrhaging from the influx of immune mediators. TNF-α inhibitors ameliorate the injury in animal models, suggesting that lowering (but not eliminating) TNF-α levels shifts the balance of TNF-α toward its beneficial functions. Methods: We review TNF-α signal transduction pathways and the role of TNF-α in liver I/R injury. Conclusions: Because TNF-α plays an important role in hepatocyte proliferation, complete inhibition of TNF-α is not desirable in treating liver I/R injury. The strategy for developing pharmacological therapies may be the identification of specific intermediates in the TNF-α/TNFR1 signal transduction pathway and directed targeting of proapoptotic and pronecroptotic events. © Academic Division of Ochsner Clinic Foundation.
Schieffelin J.S.,Tulane University |
Garcia-Diaz J.B.,Ochsner Clinic Foundation |
Garcia-Diaz J.B.,University of New Orleans |
Loss G.E.,University of New Orleans |
And 7 more authors.
Transplant Infectious Disease | Year: 2014
Background: Dematiaceous, or dark-pigmented, fungi are known to cause infections such as phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. These fungi are becoming increasingly important opportunistic pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). We present a retrospective chart review of 27 SOTR who developed phaeohyphomycosis infections post transplant from 1988 to 2009. Methods: Cases were reviewed for fungal species isolated, date and source of culture, immunosuppressive and fungal therapy used, and outcome. The majority of isolates obtained were from the skin and soft tissue, with 3 pulmonary and brain abscesses. Results: The time from transplantation to onset of infection ranged from 2 months to 11 years. The species isolated were Exophiala (11), Ochroconis (3), Alternaria (2), Phoma (2), Wangiella (1), Cladosporium (1), Aureobasidium (1), Chaetomium (1), Coniothyrium (1), and non-sporulating fungi (2). An additional 4 patients had infections confirmed by pathology, but no cultures were done. Most of the affected skin lesions were surgically debrided and treated with itraconazole; 2 patients were treated with voriconazole and 2 with amphotericin D. Death from fungal disease occurred only in patients with pulmonary and brain abscesses. Conclusions: As the number of SOTR increases, so does the incidence of fungal infections in that population. Surgery, along with antifungal therapy and a reduction in immunosuppression, are the cornerstones of treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.