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Huang T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Su I.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Lewis J.L.,University of Minnesota | Chang M.-S.,National Cheng Kung University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2015

To investigate the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MetR) and endurance exercise on bone quality under a condition of estrogen deficiency, female Sprague-Dawley rats (36-wk-old) were assigned to a sham surgery group or one of five ovariectomized groups subjected to interventions of no treatment (Ovx), endurance exercise (Exe), methionine restriction (MetR), methionine restriction plus endurance exercise (MetR + Exe), and estrogen treatment (Est). Rats in the exercise groups were subjected to a treadmill running regimen. MetR and control diets contained 0.172 and 0.86% methionine, respectively. After the 12-wk intervention, all animals were killed, and serum and bone tissues were collected for analyses. Compared with estrogen treatment, MetR diet and endurance exercise showed better or equivalent efficiency in reducing body weight gain caused by ovariectomy (P < 0.05). Whereas only the Est group showed evidence for reduced bone turnover compared with the Ovx group, MetR diet and/or endurance exercise demonstrated efficiencies in downregulating serum insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P < 0.05). Both the Exe and MetR groups showed higher femoral cortical and total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), but only the Exe and Est groups preserved cancellous bone volume and/or vBMD of distal femora (P < 0.05) compared with the Ovx group. After being normalized to body mass, femora of the MetR and MetR + Exe groups had relatively higher bending strength and dimension values followed by the Sham, Exe, and Est groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, both MetR diet and endurance exercise improved cortical bone properties, but only endurance exercise preserved cancellous bone under estrogen deficiency. © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Source

Huang T.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Lewis J.L.,University of Minnesota | Lin H.-S.,National Cheng Kung University | Lin H.-S.,National Taiwan Normal University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Dietary methionine restriction (MR) has been suggested to be comparable to endurance exercise with respect to its beneficial effects on health. To further investigate the effects ofMRand endurance exercise on growing bone, 7-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley ratswere fed different L-methionine (Met)-containing diets with orwithout endurance exercise intervention (Ex; 0.86% Met, 0.52% Met, 0.17% Met, 0.86% Met-Ex, 0.52% Met-Ex, and 0.17% Met-Ex groups). After an 8-wk intervention period, exercise-trained rats had a 9.2%lower body weight (BW) than did sedentary rats (P < 0.05). Additionally, 0.17% Met-fed rats had 32% lower BW when compared with rats fed the other 2 diets (P < 0.05). Serum osteocalcin was lower in the 0.17% Met-Ex group compared with the other 2 exercise groups and the 0.17% Met group (P < 0.05). Serum concentrations of C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen were lower in exercise-trained and 0.17% Met-fed rats than in sedentary rats and rats fed the other 2 diets (P < 0.05 for both). Rats fed the 0.17% Met diet had lower trabecular bone volume, bone mineralization activities, and bone mineral content (BMC; e.g., total, cortical, and spongy BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD; e.g., total and spongy BMD) indices compared with rats fed the other 2 diets (P < 0.05). Exercisetrained rats also had lower bonemineralization activity, trabecular osteoclast density, total BMC, cortical BMC, and total BMD compared with sedentary rats (P < 0.05). In total BMD, only the 0.17% Met-Ex group had values lower than the other 2 exercise groups and the 0.17%Met group (P < 0.05). Comparedwith rats fed the other 2 diets and sedentary rats, the femora of 0.17% Met-fed and exercise-trained rats, respectively, had smaller size and/or lower extrinsic strength but enhanced intrinsic biomechanical properties (P < 0.05). The results indicate that MR and endurance exercise caused lower whole bone mass, size, and/or strength but might enhance intrinsic bone strength. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Plummer J.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science | Park M.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science | Perodin F.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science | Horowitz M.C.,Connecticut. | Hens J.R.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Dietary methionine restriction (MR) increases longevity and improves healthspan in rodent models. Young male C57BL/6J mice were placed on MR to assess effects on bone structure and formation. Mice were fed diets containing 0.86% or 0.12% methionine for 5 weeks. Fasting blood plasma was analyzed for metabolic and bone-related biomarkers. Tibiae were analyzed by histomorphometry, while femurs were analyzed by micro-CT and biomechanically using 4-point bending. MR mice had reduced plasma glucose and insulin, while FGF21 and FGF23 increased. Plasma levels of osteocalcin and osteoprotegrin were unaffected, but sclerostin and procollagen I decreased. MR induced bone marrow fat accretion, antithetical to the reduced fat depots seen throughout the body. Cortical bone showed significant decreases in Bone Tissue Density (BTD). In trabecular bone, mice had decreased BTD, bone surface, trabecula and bone volume, and trabecular thickness.. Biomechanical testing showed that on MR, bones were significantly less stiff and had reduced maximum load and total work, suggesting greater fragility. Reduced expression of RUNX2 occurred in bone marrow of MR mice. These results suggest that MR alters bone remodeling and apposition. In MR mice, miR-31 in plasma and liver, and miR-133a, miR-335-5p, and miR-204 in the bone marrow was elevated. These miRNAs were shown previously to target and regulate Osterix and RUNX2 in bone, which could inhibit osteoblast differentiation and function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Mentch S.J.,Cornell University | Mentch S.J.,Duke University | Mehrmohamadi M.,Cornell University | Mehrmohamadi M.,Duke University | And 11 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2015

S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) link one-carbon metabolism to methylation status. However, it is unknown whether regulation of SAM and SAH by nutrient availability can be directly sensed to alter the kinetics of key histone methylation marks. We provide evidence that the status of methionine metabolism is sufficient to determine levels of histone methylation by modulating SAM and SAH. This dynamic interaction led to rapid changes in H3K4me3, altered gene transcription, provided feedback regulation to one-carbon metabolism, and could be fully recovered upon restoration of methionine. Modulation of methionine in diet led to changes in metabolism and histone methylation in the liver. In humans, methionine variability in fasting serum was commensurate with concentrations needed for these dynamics and could be partly explained by diet. Together these findings demonstrate that flux through methionine metabolism and the sensing of methionine availability may allow direct communication to the chromatin state in cells. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ables G.P.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science | Perrone C.E.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science | Orentreich D.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science | Orentreich N.,Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Dietary methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan, an effect associated with reduction of body weight gain, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in mice and rats as a result of metabolic adaptations in liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. To test whether MR confers resistance to adiposity and insulin resistance, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) containing either 0.86% methionine (control fed; CF) or 0.12% methionine (methionine-restricted; MR). MR mice on HFD had lower body weight gain despite increased food intake and absorption efficiency compared to their CF counterparts. MR mice on HFD were more glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive with reduced accumulation of hepatic triglycerides. In plasma, MR mice on HFD had higher levels of adiponectin and FGF21 while leptin and IGF-1 levels were reduced. Hepatic gene expression showed the downregulation of Scd1 while Pparg, Atgl, Cd36, Jak2 and Fgf21 were upregulated in MR mice on HFD. Restriction of growth rate in MR mice on HFD was also associated with lower bone mass and increased plasma levels of the collagen degradation marker C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1). It is concluded that MR mice on HFD are metabolically healthy compared to CF mice on HFD but have decreased bone mass. These effects could be associated with the observed increase in FGF21 levels. © 2012 Ables et al. Source

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