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Andronov E.E.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Petrova S.N.,Orel State Agrarian University | Pinaev A.G.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pershina E.V.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Eurasian Soil Science | Year: 2012

Molecular methods were used to study variation in the taxonomic structure of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in soil samples taken along a salinity gradient from a solonchak in the vicinity of Lake Akkol' (Shingirlau, Kazakhstan). Soils from arable fields located 195 km from the solonchak served as the control. Total DNA was isolated from every sample and analyzed by T-RFLP and real-time PCR. Salinization was found to be the main ecological factor determining the structure of soil microbial community in the study region. The values of Simpson's index characterizing the diversity of this community proved to be similar in all the samples, which, however, significantly differed in the taxonomic composition of microorganisms. A significantly increased content of archaea was revealed in the sample with the highest salinity. The results of this study show that the structure of soil microbial community reflects specific features of a given soil and can be used as an indicator of its ecological state. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Konstantinov I.S.,Belgorod State University | Ivaschuk O.A.,Orel State Agrarian University
Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 7th International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems, IDAACS 2013 | Year: 2013

The paper provides the results of automated control system simulation by an ecological situation in the urbanized territory, methods of system's intellectualization of carrying out monitoring and support of administrative decisions' acceptance. © 2013 IEEE.

Ivashchuk O.A.,Orel State Agrarian University | Ivashchuk O.D.,Belgorod State University
Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 7th International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems, IDAACS 2013 | Year: 2013

The article presents the results of modeling for organization of functioning and intellectualization of automated systems of ecological situation control in the urbanized territories. It gives the set-theoretical and schematical model of ecological situation as an object of monitoring and management, demonstrates methods of problems solutions of decision support in the sphere of ecological safety management on the ground of smart technologies of modeling, and shows realization examples. © 2013 IEEE.

Amelin A.V.,Orel State Agrarian University | Fesenko A.N.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Chekalin E.I.,Orel State Agrarian University | Zaikin V.V.,Orel State Agrarian University
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Crop breeding if aimed mainly at the highest productivity results in a significant loss of defense system activity thus causing a decreased plant resistance to adverse environment factors. Reasonably, more attention is now being paid to evolution base in breeding. With this, we studied the norm of reaction to environment changes in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars and landraces as reflecting plant adaptation potential for photosynthesis and yield production to be further involved in breeding. A total of 11 buckwheat cultivars of which Kalininskaya, Bogatyr' and Shatilovskaya 5 have been derived in 1930-1970, and Chatyr-Tay, Batyr, Devyatka, Dizain, Demetra, Dikul' and Bashkirskaya krasnostebel'naya are the modern cultivars, together with landraces k-406 and k-1709 (VIR collection, St. Petersburg) were investigated. For the first time it was shown that in the course of buckwheat breeding no improvements in photosynthesis and production sustainability, as well as in homeostasis of grain formation have been achieved. Modern buckwheat cultivars possess high photosynthesis and productivity under favorable weather conditions, whereas at stresses do not have any significant advantage over their predecessors. In dry 2010 the seed production in modern cultivars was not reliably different from that in landraces and old cultivars, while in 2011-2013 at more favorable water supply and temperature it was on average 67.5 % higher, mostly due to the response of photosynthetic system to growing conditions. When drought occurred during the seed filling phase the photosynthetic activity in leaves decreased on average by 32.1 %, dry mass of the aboveground parts and seeds was lower by 46.7 % and 67.5 %, respectively, compared to those under favorable conditions in 2011-2013. With increasing water deficit the situation becomes worse. At soil moisture of 30 % of full capacity the activity of photosynthesis in buckwheat plant leaves was on average 4.4 times less, and seed production was 41.8 % less compared to the optimal moistening. At that, the losses were significantly higher in modern cultivars, e.g. in the k-1709 plants a 66.1 % decrease was found compared to 78.8 % in Dikul' and Dozhdik plants. Thus the obtained data suggests a low adaptive potential of modern buckwheat varieties. So we propose to improve the seed formation homeostasis in buckwheat plants. In this regard, the selection of autogamous form and the creation of self-pollinating varieties can be used as more effective approaches. The hybridization with F. homotropicum can significantly improve the viability of self-pollinated inbred lines of buckwheat, which can be successfully used in breeding programs to create autogamous varieties. Moreover, the adaptiveness of the of yield formation processes which are not sustainable enough to guarantee the high and sustainable crop production must be improved. An increased activity and effectiveness of photosynthesis and initial growth seem to be of interest. It is shown that the leaf photosynthetic rate in buckwheat varies plants varies widely from 4.65 to 17.8 μmol CO2 •m-2 • s-1, which allows to select forms both by hybridizing and using selection within a population.

Kolomeichenko A.V.,Orel State Agrarian University | Kuznetsov I.S.,Orel State Agrarian University
Journal of Friction and Wear | Year: 2014

The tribotechnical characteristics of electrospark coatings of amorphous and nanocrystalline iron alloys have been determined. The influence of the crystalline phase on the wear rate of electrospark coating has been established. © 2014, Allerton Press, Inc.

Jakovlevich D.G.,Orel State Agrarian University
Water and Ecology | Year: 2015

The new method of wastewater sludge utilization by means of destruction and clearance of hazardous substances containing in the sludge and blockage of heavy metals by high-temperature processing in ceramic mixture with the simultaneous production of new useful products - wall ceramics, is justified. © 2015, Vodoproekt-Giprokommunvodokanal.Sankt-Peterburg. All rights Reserved.

Fu S.,Xiamen University of Technology | Li S.,Xiamen University of Technology | Luo N.,Xiamen University of Technology | Elena M.,Orel State Agrarian University
Advances in Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2016

Aiming at the vehicle power train, system dynamic optimization is profoundly studied based on the system torsional vibration characteristics analysis. First, based on the concentrated mass method, the general torsional vibration model of vehicle power train is established and solved after parameters' (inertia, stiffness, and damping) matrix and mathematic constraint conditions are acquired. Furthermore, both free vibration and forced vibration characteristics are analyzed. Second, the effects of the coupling stiffness on the dynamics behaviors of power train are thoroughly analyzed. The sensitivity analysis procedure is explored. And sensitivity models of both free and forced vibration feature parameters are deduced. Finally, dynamic optimization theory model and program are constructed based on genetic algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed optimization method could contribute to the sharp attenuation of system torsional vibration. © SAGE Publications Ltd.

Kuzmicheva Y.V.,Orel State Agrarian University | Shaposhnikov A.I.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Azarova T.S.,Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Petrova S.N.,Orel State Agrarian University | And 6 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

The qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular exometabolites in roots of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was studied with a cultivar Triumph and its parental forms (a symbiotically effective variety k-8274 and a modern highly productive cv. Classic). A relationship between root exudation and the ability of cultivars to establish symbiosis was analyzed. In the early stages of plant growth, the roots of cv. Triumph exhibited low exudation of organic acids, sugars, and amino acids. The quantitative composition of organic acids in the root exudates of cv. Triumph was close to that of cv. k-8274, whereas the composition of sugars and amino acids was similar to that of cv. Classic. In the field experiment, the effect of inoculation with a mixture of rhizobium strains and mycorrhizal fungus on plant growth was more evident in cv. Triumph than in cvs. Classic and k-8274. The results suggest that the high symbiotic potential of cv. Triumph is related to exudation of pyruvic and succinic acids that were the major components of root exometabolites both in Triumph and k-8274 cultivars. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Kuzmicheva Yu.V.,Orel State Agrarian University | Tychinskaya I.L.,Orel State Agrarian University | Petrova S.N.,Orel State Agrarian University | Parakhin N.V.,Orel State Agrarian University
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Resource-saving technologies contribute to the reproduction of the soil fertility and increase sustainability of agrocenoses. Legumes are most relevant to the modern requirements for formation of ecological balance. They form a multicomponent symbiosis with various groups of useful soil micro flora, which not only improves soil properties and increase the yield and its quality, but also makes them a valuable precursor in the rotation. In this regard, promising search and practical use of new microorganisms with multifunctional properties that will improve the economic efficiency of legume cropcultivation. Of particular interest is the use of ACC-utilizing bacteria having a versatile anti-stress effect on plants.We have carried out a study on the impact of the introduction of promising strains ACC utilizing rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas oiyzihabitans Ep4 and Variovorax paradoxus 3P-4) and nodule bacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum 634b) on efficiency of cultivation of the northern soybean ecotype Svapa in Orel Region depending on mineral nutrition (NPK 100 % and NPK 70 %). The strain of nodule bacteria was used for inoculation of seeds in the amount of 200 g per hectare seed rate. Strains of associative ACC utilizing microorganisms were added to the rows in the seedling stage (10 % solution). NPK was applied to the soil before planting in the form of fertilizer mixture with the percentage of mineral nutrients 10:26:26. Biochemical assessment of the quality of soybean was performed in the laboratory conditions. In forming symbioses with introduced microflora the soybean agrocenoses were more environmentally adaptable, which was reflected in increasing the productivity in drought years by 35-98 %. The positive effect of the bacteria was evident in increasing the grain protein content by 34 %. Getting a high yield and high yield quality of the studied soybean variety due to formation of effective plant-microbe system leaded to the increase of total protein up to 1.05-1.30 t/ha. The introduction of microorganisms was the most effective at lowering the dose of mineral fertilizers by 30 %. It was found that the use of rhizobacteria Pseudomonas oiyzihabitans together with nodule bacteria ensured maximum economic benefit and allowed to obtain cheaper and high-quality protein with high profitability. This will reduce the costs associated with the application of mineral fertilizers without crop losses.

Shabelskiy A.,Orel State Agrarian University
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2011

The development of novel potentiometric sensors for cobalt (II) ions in aqueous solutions is reported here. Cobalt-polymer composites have been used to produce cobalt-selective membranes. Analytical characteristics of the proposal sensors have been determined. Morphological investigation allows revealing the formation of the endless conductive cluster in the threshold area of cobalt metal concentrations. The existence of such a structural unit makes possible the usage of the elaborated composites as a sensitive membrane for ion-selective electrodes. Results obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy prove the formation of cobalt-polymer complexes in these composites. Strong cobalt-polymer interaction is detected by the X-ray diffraction method. Metal - polymer complexes determine the electrochemical properties of the composite ion-selective membranes. Composite cobalt-selective electrodes can find application in a chemical or ecological monitoring for the presence of Co (II) ions. © 2011 IEEE.

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