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Washburn I.J.,Oklahoma State University | Capaldi D.M.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Development and Psychopathology | Year: 2014

Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Another issue not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues and the associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses using a longitudinal data set of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Individual psychopathology and family characteristics from the men's adolescence were used to predict their patterns of marijuana use across their 20s, and aspects of the men's psychopathology in their mid-30s were predicted from these patterns. Three patterns of marijuana use in the 20s were identified using growth mixture modeling and were associated with diagnoses of marijuana disorders at age 26 years. Parental marijuana use predicted chronic use for the men in adulthood. Patterns of marijuana use in the 20s predicted antisocial behavior and deviant peer association at age 36 years (controlling for adolescent levels of the outcomes by residualization). These findings indicate that differential patterns of marijuana use in early adulthood are associated with psychopathology toward midlife. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

Low S.,Wichita State University | Shortt J.W.,Oregon Social Learning Center | Snyder J.,Wichita State University
Development and Psychopathology | Year: 2012

The longitudinal associations of older sibling substance use as well as dyadic sibling conflict and collusion to younger sibling substance use were examined in a community-based sample of 244 same-sex sibling pairs. Indirect effects of older siblings on younger sibling substance use were hypothesized via younger sibling deviant peer affiliation and conflict with friends. Adolescents, parents, friends, and teachers completed measures of substance use, conflict, and deviant peer involvement. Observational data were used for both measures of collusion and conflict. Findings suggest that older sibling substance use has a direct effect on younger sibling use, but relationship dynamics and reinforcement played a significant role as well. Specifically, collusion and conflict in the sibling relationship both had indirect effects through younger siblings' deviant peer affiliation. Findings validate the powerful socializing role of both siblings and peers, and elucidate the complex mechanisms through which socialization occurs. Furthermore, data underscore the importance of considering how multiple dimensions of socialization operate in the elaboration of antisocial behavior. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

Feingold A.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2015

Objective: Multilevel and latent growth models are frequently used interchangeably to examine differences between groups in trajectories of outcomes from controlled clinical trials. The unstandardized coefficient for the effect from group to slope (the treatment effect) from such models can be converted to a standardized mean difference (Cohen's d) between the treatment and control groups at end of study. This article addresses the confidence interval (CI) for this effect size. Method: Two sets of equations for estimating the CI for the treatment effect size in multilevel models were derived, and the usage of each was illustrated with data from the National Youth Study (Elliott, Huizinga, & Menard, 1989). Validity of the CIs was examined with a Monte Carlo simulation study that manipulated effect potency and sample size. Results: The equivalence of the 2 new CI estimation methods was demonstrated, and the Monte Carlo study found that bias in the CI for the effect size was not appreciably larger than bias in the CI for the widely used unstandardized coefficient. Conclusions: Investigators reporting this increasingly popular effect size can estimate its CI with equations presented in this article. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Van Ryzin M.J.,Oregon Social Learning Center | Leve L.D.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2012

In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social competence. With regards to convergent validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with all subscales of the Adult Attachment Scale (i.e., Depend, Anxiety, and Close) as measured 3 years later. Further, these links were found even after controlling for mother-child relationship quality as assessed by the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), and chi-square difference tests indicated that the Security Scale was generally a stronger predictor as compared to the IPPA. These results suggest that the Security Scale can be used to assess perceived attachment security across both childhood and adolescence, and thus could contribute significantly to developmental research during this period. © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

Van Ryzin M.J.,Oregon Social Learning Center | Leve L.D.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2012

Objective: This study evaluated the ability of delinquent peer affiliation to mediate the effects of multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC; Chamberlain, 2003) on girls' delinquent behavior. Method: This study used a sample of girls from 2 cohorts (N = 166; M = 15.31 years old at baseline, range 13-17 years; 74% European American, 2% African American, 7% Hispanic, 4% Native American, 1% Asian, and 13% mixed ethnicity) and measures of delinquent behavior, including general delinquency, number of criminal referrals, and number of days in locked settings. As the mediator, we used self-reports of affiliation with delinquent peers. Our analytic plan specified an intent-to-treat analysis within the framework of a randomized controlled trial comparing MTFC with traditional community-based group care. Results: Random assignment to the MTFC program reduced girls' number of criminal referrals and number of days in locked settings at 24 months. The MTFC condition also reduced girls' exposure to delinquent peers at 12 months, which in turn reduced levels of all forms of delinquent behavior at 24 months; indirect effects were statistically significant. Conclusions: Reduction in exposure to delinquent peers mediated MTFC effects on the number of criminal referrals and number of days in locked settings; delinquent peers also served as an intervening variable between MTFC and self-report delinquency, suggesting that, by reducing contact with delinquent peers, MTFC helped to encourage lower levels of self-report delinquency. Existing prevention and intervention programs targeting similar populations may benefit from increased attention to reductions in delinquent peer affiliation in female samples. © 2012 American Psychological Association.

Kim H.K.,Oregon Social Learning Center | Leve L.D.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2011

Objective: The present study evaluated the efficacy of the Middle School Success intervention (MSS) for reducing substance use and delinquency among girls in foster care, using a randomized controlled trial design. The program was designed to fill a service gap during the summer prior to the middle school transition and to prevent delinquency, substance use, and related problems. Method: One hundred girls in foster care and their caregivers were randomly assigned either to the intervention (n = 48) or to a regular foster care control (n = 52) condition. The girls completed a baseline (T1) assessment and follow-up assessments at 6 months (T2), 12 months (T3), 24 months (T4), and 36 months (T5) postbaseline. Caregivers participated in assessments from T1 through T4. This study is a follow-up to Smith, Leve, and Chamberlain's (2011) study, which examined immediate outcomes at T2. Results: Girls in the intervention condition showed significantly lower levels of substance use than did girls in the control condition at 36 months postbaseline. The group difference was only marginally significant for delinquency. Further analyses indicated significant indirect effects of the intervention through increased prosocial behaviors that led to decreased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and then to lower levels of substance use. The direct effect of the intervention on substance use remained significant in the presence of the indirect effects. For delinquency, the intervention had positive effects mainly through increased prosocial skills. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of providing preventive intervention services for early adolescent girls in foster care. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Feingold A.,Oregon Social Learning Center | Tiberio S.S.,Oregon Social Learning Center | Capaldi D.M.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2014

Assessments of substance use behaviors often include categorical variables that are frequently related to other measures using logistic regression or chi-square analysis. When the categorical variable is latent (e.g., extracted from a latent class analysis [LCA]), classification of observations is often used to create an observed nominal variable from the latent one for use in a subsequent analysis. However, recent simulation studies have found that this classical 3-step analysis championed by the pioneers of LCA produces underestimates of the associations of latent classes with other variables. Two preferable but underused alternatives for examining such linkages - each of which is most appropriate under certain conditions - are (a) 3-step analysis, which corrects the underestimation bias of the classical approach, and (b) 1-step analysis. The purpose of this article is to dissuade researchers from conducting classical 3-step analysis and to promote the use of the 2 newer approaches that are described and compared. In addition, the applications of these newer models - for use when the independent, the dependent, or both categorical variables are latent - are illustrated through substantive analyses relating classes of substance abusers to classes of intimate partner aggressors. © 2013 American Psychological Association.

Saldana L.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Implementation Science | Year: 2014

Background: This protocol describes the 'development of outcome measures and suitable methodologies for dissemination and implementation approaches,' a priority for implementation research. Although many evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been developed, large knowledge gaps remain regarding how to routinely move EBPs into usual care. The lack of understanding of 'what it takes' to install EBPs has costly public health consequences, including a lack of availability of the most beneficial services, wasted efforts and resources on failed implementation attempts, and the potential for engendering reluctance to try implementing new EBPs after failed attempts.The Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) is an eight-stage tool of implementation process and milestones, with stages spanning three implementation phases (pre-implementation, implementation, sustainability). Items delineate the date that a site completes implementation activities, yielding an assessment of duration (time to complete a stage), proportion (of stage activities completed), and a general measure of how far a site moved in the implementation process.Methods/Design: We propose to extend the SIC to EBPs operating in child service sectors (juvenile justice, schools, substance use, child welfare). Both successful and failed implementation attempts will be scrutinized using a mixed methods design. Stage costs will be measured and examined. Both retrospective data (from previous site implementation efforts) and prospective data (from newly adopting sites) will be analyzed. The influence of pre-implementation on implementation and sustainability outcomes will be examined (Aim 1). Mixed methods procedures will focus on increasing understanding of the process of implementation failure in an effort to determine if the SIC can provide early detection of sites that are unlikely to succeed (Aim 2). Study activities will include cost mapping of SIC stages and an examination of the relationship between implementation costs and implementation performance (Aim 3).Discussion: This project fills a gap in the field of implementation science by addressing the measurement gap between the implementation process and the associated costs. The goal of this project is to provide tools that will help increase the uptake of EBPs, thereby increasing the availability of services to youth and decreasing wasted resources from failed implementation efforts. © 2014 Saldana; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Low S.,Arizona State University | Van Ryzin M.,Oregon Social Learning Center
School Psychology Quarterly | Year: 2014

Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-topost) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

DeGarmo D.S.,Oregon Social Learning Center
Child Development | Year: 2010

To better understand quantity and quality of divorced father contact, a weighted county sample of 230 divorced fathers with a child aged 4-11 years was employed to test whether fathers' antisocial personality (ASP) moderated effects of monthly contact with children in predicting children's observed noncompliance. Eighteen-month latent growth models obtained significant individual differences in levels of noncompliance and growth rates. ASP significantly moderated beneficial impact of fathers' monthly contact. Fathers' observed parenting practices significantly predicted noncompliance levels but not growth. Parenting did not account for the effect of Contact × ASP, suggesting both environmental and potentially genetic influences on child adjustment. Findings were robust across boys and girls and age levels. Implications for preventive intervention are discussed. © 2010, the Author(s).

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