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Portland, Oregon, United States

Repp K.K.,155 N First Ave | Hostetler T.P.,155 N First Ave | Keene W.E.,Oregon Public Health Division
Journal of Infectious Diseases

We investigated an outbreak of norovirus infection affecting 12 of 16 auto dealership employees (75%) subsequent to a staff meeting. Take-out sandwiches initially seemed the likely source, but a cohort study found no association between illness and food consumption. Employees reported seeing a toddler with diarrhea in a dealership restroom shortly before the luncheon. Indistinguishable norovirus was isolated from employees and the child (genotype GII6.C) and from a diaper-changing station in the restroom (genogroup GII). Counterintuitively, this point-source outbreak following a meal was caused by environmental exposures, not food. Environmental exposures should be considered even in routine outbreak investigations. © 2013 2013. Source

Trivedi T.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lee L.,Oregon Public Health Division | Curns A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hall A.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Context: Norovirus outbreaks are common among vulnerable, elderly populations in US nursing homes. Objectives: To assess whether all-cause hospitalization and mortality rates are increased during norovirus outbreak vs nonoutbreak periods in nursing homes, and to identify factors associated with increased risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of Medicare-certified nursing homes in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania that reported at least 1 confirmed or suspected norovirus outbreak to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS), January 2009 to December 2010. Deaths and hospitalizations occurring among residents of these nursing homes were identified through the Medicare Minimum Data Set (MDS). Main Outcome Measures: Rates of all-cause hospitalization and mortality during outbreak compared with nonoutbreak periods were estimated using a random-effects Poisson regression model controlling for background seasonality in both outcomes. Results: The cohort consisted of 308 nursing homes that reported 407 norovirus outbreaks to NORS. Per MDS, 67 730 hospitalizations and 26 055 deaths occurred in these homes during the 2-year study. Hospitalization rates were 124.0 (95% CI, 119.4- 129.1) vs 109.5 (95% CI, 108.6-110.3) hospitalizations per nursing home-year during outbreak vs nonoutbreak periods, yielding a seasonally adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.14). Similarly, mortality rates were 53.7 (95% CI, 50.6-57.0) vs 41.9 (95% CI, 41.4-42.4) deaths per nursing home-year in outbreak vs nonoutbreak periods (seasonally adjusted RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18). The increases in hospitalizations and mortality were concentrated in the first 2 weeks (week 0 and 1) and the initial week (week 0) of the outbreak, respectively. Homes with lower daily registered nurse (RN) hours per resident (<0.75) had increased mortality rates during norovirus outbreaks compared with baseline (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14-1.40), while no increased risk (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96-1.12) was observed in homes with higher daily RN hours per resident (P=.007 by likelihood ratio test); the increase in hospitalization rates did not show a similar pattern. Conclusion: Norovirus outbreaks were associated with significant concurrent increases in all-cause hospitalization and mortality in nursing homes. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Thigpen M.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Whitney C.G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Messonnier N.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Zell E.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 10 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: The rate of bacterial meningitis declined by 55% in the United States in the early 1990s, when the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine for infants was introduced. More recent prevention measures such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and universal screening of pregnant women for group B streptococcus (GBS) have further changed the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We analyzed data on cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents in eight surveillance areas of the Emerging Infections Programs Network, consisting of approximately 17.4 million persons, during 1998-2007. We defined bacterial meningitis as the presence of H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, GBS, Listeria monocytogenes, or Neisseria meningitidis in cerebrospinal fluid or other normally sterile site in association with a clinical diagnosis of meningitis. RESULTS: We identified 3188 patients with bacterial meningitis; of 3155 patients for whom outcome data were available, 466 (14.8%) died. The incidence of meningitis changed by -31% (95% confidence interval [CI], -33 to -29) during the surveillance period, from 2.00 cases per 100,000 population (95% CI, 1.85 to 2.15) in 1998-1999 to 1.38 cases per 100,000 population (95% CI 1.27 to 1.50) in 2006-2007. The median age of patients increased from 30.3 years in 1998-1999 to 41.9 years in 2006-2007 (P<0.001 by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The case fatality rate did not change significantly: it was 15.7% in 1998-1999 and 14.3% in 2006-2007 (P = 0.50). Of the 1670 cases reported during 2003-2007, S. pneumoniae was the predominant infective species (58.0%), followed by GBS (18.1%), N. meningitidis (13.9%), H. influenzae (6.7%), and L. monocytogenes (3.4%). An estimated 4100 cases and 500 deaths from bacterial meningitis occurred annually in the United States during 2003-2007. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of bacterial meningitis have decreased since 1998, but the disease still often results in death. With the success of pneumococcal and Hib conjugate vaccines in reducing the risk of meningitis among young children, the burden of bacterial meningitis is now borne more by older adults. (Funded by the Emerging Infections Programs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Repp K.K.,Oregon Health And Science University | Keene W.E.,Oregon Public Health Division
Journal of Infectious Diseases

We investigated a norovirus outbreak (genotype GII.2) affecting 9 members of a soccer team. Illness was associated with touching a reusable grocery bag or consuming its packaged food contents (risk difference, 0.636; P <. 01). By polymerase chain reaction, GII norovirus was recovered from the bag, which had been stored in a bathroom used before the outbreak by a person with norovirus-like illness. Airborne contamination of fomites can lead to subsequent point-source outbreaks. When feasible, we recommend dedicated bathrooms for sick persons and informing cleaning staff (professional or otherwise) about the need for adequate environmental sanitation of surfaces and fomites to prevent spread. © 2012 The Author. Source

Angus L.,Oregon Public Health Division | DeVoe J.,Oregon Health And Science University
Health Affairs

The 2005 federal Deficit Reduction Act made proof of citizenship a requirement for Medicaid eligibility. We examined the effects on visits to Oregon's Medicaid family planning services eighteen months after the citizenship requirement was implemented. We analyzed 425,381 records of visits that occurred between May 2005 and April 2008 and found that, compared to the eighteen-month period before the mandate went into effect, visits declined by 33 percent. We conclude that Medicaid citizenship documentation requirements have been burdensome for Oregon Family Planning Expansion Project patients and costly for health care providers, reducing access to family planning and preventive measures and increasing the strain on the safety net. ©2010 Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

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