Oregon Medical Research Center

Oregon City, OR, United States

Oregon Medical Research Center

Oregon City, OR, United States

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Papp K.,Probity Medical Research | Cather J.C.,Modern Research Associates | Rosoph L.,North Bay Dermatology Center | Sofen H.,Dermatology Research Associates | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background Apremilast, a small-molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, works intracellularly to modulate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production, and doses of 20 mg twice daily have shown efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in a 12-week phase 2 study. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of different doses of apremilast in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Methods In this phase 2b, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study, patients (aged =18 years) with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive oral placebo or apremilast 10, 20, or 30 mg twice daily at 35 US and Canadian sites between Sept 24, 2008, and Oct 21, 2009. At week 16, patients in the placebo group were assigned apremilast 20 or 30 mg twice daily until week 24. Randomisation was generated with a permuted-block randomisation list via interactive voice response system. For the first 16 weeks, treatment assignment was concealed from both investigators and participants. During weeks 16-24, investigators and participants all knew that treatment was active, but the dose was concealed. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving at least 75% reduction from baseline psoriasis area and severity index (PASI-75) at week 16. Analyses were by intention to treat; missing values were imputed by last-observation-carried-forward. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00773734. Findings 89 patients were randomly assigned apremilast 10 mg, 87 apremilast 20 mg, and 88 apremilast 30 mg twice daily; 88 were assigned placebo. At week 16, PASI-75 was achieved in five patients (6%) assigned placebo, ten (11%) assigned apremilast 10 mg, 25 (29%) assigned 20 mg, and 36 (41%) assigned 30 mg. Apremilast 10 mg did not differ significantly from placebo in achievement of the endpoint (odds ratio 2.10; 95% CI 0.69-6.42); for both apremilast 20 mg (6.69; 2.43-18.5; p<0.0001) and apremilast 30 mg (11.5; 4.24-31.2; p<0.0001), the differences from placebo were significant. Most adverse events (96%) were mild or moderate; at least 5% of patients had nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, nasopharyngitis, headache, arthralgia (placebo), gastroenteritis, or dyspepsia. Eight serious adverse events occurred (three each, placebo and apremilast 20 mg; two, apremilast 30 mg); none were judged to be related to apremilast. Apremilast had no apparent effect on the results of haematological, urinalysis, immunological or inflammation, serum chemistry, or electrocardiographic tests. Interpretation Apremilast, given orally at 20 or 30 mg twice daily, seems to be efficacious, safe, and tolerable for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Our results support continuing, longer-term studies. Funding Celgene Corporation.


Hugh J.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital Center | Van Voorhees A.S.,University of Pennsylvania | Nijhawan R.I.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital Center | Lebwohl M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Background Many studies have identified cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis. Some psoriasis therapies may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) and others may decrease CVD. Objective We reviewed the literature to define the impact of common psoriasis therapies on cardiovascular measures and outcomes. Results Phototherapy has no major cardiovascular impact and may reduce levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Acitretin increases serum lipids and triglycerides, but has not been shown to increase cardiovascular risk. Cyclosporine A increases blood pressure, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Methotrexate is associated with a decreased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality. Among the biologics, data for tumor necrosis factor inhibitors suggest an overall reduction in cardiovascular events. Most data on short-term ustekinumab use suggest no effect on major adverse cardiovascular events, however some authorities remain concerned. Nevertheless, ustekinumab use over a 4-year period shows a decrease in major adverse cardiovascular events when compared both with the general US population and with psoriatics in Great Britain. Limitations Most studies lack the power and randomization of large clinical trials and long-term follow-up periods. In addition, the increased risk of CVD associated with psoriasis itself is a confounding factor. Conclusion Some therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis, including methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, may reduce cardiovascular events in psoriatic patients. Ustekinumab appears to be neutral but there may be a long-term benefit. Appropriate patient counseling and selection and clinical follow-up are necessary to maximize safety with these agents. Further long-term study is necessary to quantify the benefits and risks associated with biologic therapies. © 2013 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.


Ogawa Y.,Yamanashi University | Kawamura T.,Yamanashi University | Matsuzawa T.,Yamanashi University | Aoki R.,Yamanashi University | And 7 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2013

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 shedding is associated with increased risk for sexually acquiring HIV. Because Langerhans cells (LCs), the mucosal epithelium resident dendritic cells, are suspected to be one of the initial target cell types infected by HIV following sexual exposure, we examined whether and how HSV-2 affects HIV infection of LCs. Although relatively few HSV-2/HIV-coinfected LCs were detected, HSV-2 dramatically enhanced the HIV susceptibility of LCs within skin explants. HSV-2 stimulated epithelial cell production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including human β defensins and LL-37. LL-37 strongly upregulated the expression of HIV receptors in monocyte-derived LCs (mLCs), thereby enhancing their HIV susceptibility. Culture supernatants of epithelial cells infected with HSV-2 enhanced HIV susceptibility in mLCs, and this effect was abrogated by blocking LL-37 production. These data suggest that HSV-2 enhances sexual transmission of HIV by increasing HIV susceptibility of LCs via epithelial cell production of LL-37. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Blauvelt A.,Oregon Medical Research Center | Prinz J.C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Gottlieb A.B.,Tufts Medical Center | Kingo K.,University of Tartu | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Background Secukinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, demonstrated efficacy and safety in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis when administered via subcutaneous injection. Self-administration by pre-filled syringe (PFS) can offer patients clinical benefits of a drug, with increased convenience. Objectives To assess efficacy, safety and usability of secukinumab administration via PFS in subjects with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Materials and methods Subjects in this phase 3 trial were randomized 1: 1: 1 to secukinumab 300 or 150 mg or matching placebo. Results to week 12 are presented here. Each treatment was delivered using a PFS once weekly to week 4, and again at week 8. Co-primary endpoints were secukinumab superiority over placebo for week 12 PASI 75 (≥ 75% reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) and IGA mod 2011 (2011 modified Investigator's Global Assessment) 0/1 response rates. Secondary endpoints included PFS usability, determined by observer rating of successful, hazard-free self-injection and subject rating of acceptability by the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire (SIAQ). Results Co-primary endpoints were met, with demonstration of superiority for each secukinumab dose vs. placebo at week 12 (PASI 75: 75·9%, 69·5% and 0% for secukinumab 300 mg, 150 mg and placebo; IGA mod 2011 0/1: 69·0%, 52·5% and 0%, respectively; P < 0·0001 for all comparisons vs. placebo). PFS usability was high: 100% of subjects successfully self-administered treatment at week 1, and subjects reported high SIAQ-assessed acceptability of the PFS throughout the trial. No new/unexpected safety signals were observed. Conclusions Secukinumab administration by PFS was effective, with an acceptable safety profile and high usability. The PFS provides a reliable, convenient form of secukinumab administration in subjects with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.


Sofen H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Smith S.,Dermatology | Matheson R.T.,Oregon Medical Research Center | Leonardi C.L.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014

Background IL-23 expression is increased in psoriatic lesions and might regulate TH17 T-cell counts in patients with psoriasis. Objectives We sought to test a novel IL-23-specific therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the safety, tolerability, and clinical response of guselkumab, an anti-IL-23-specific mAb, were evaluated in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. A total of 24 patients were randomized to receive a single dose of placebo or 10, 30, 100, or 300 mg of guselkumab. Clinical response was assessed by using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Additionally, histologic analysis and gene expression in skin biopsy specimens from guselkumab-treated patients were compared with those from placebo-treated patients. Results At week 12, 50% (10 mg), 60% (30 and 100 mg), and 100% (300 mg) of guselkumab-treated patients, respectively, achieved a 75% improvement in PASI scores from baseline compared with 0% of placebo-treated patients. Improvements in PASI scores were generally maintained through week 24 in all guselkumab-treated patients. The proportion of patients experiencing an adverse event was comparable between the combined guselkumab (13/20 [65.0%]) and placebo (2/4 [50.0%]) groups through week 24. Analysis of lesional and nonlesional skin biopsy specimens demonstrated decreases in epidermal thickness and T-cell and dendritic cell expression in guselkumab-treated patients compared with values seen in placebo-treated patients. At week 12, significant reductions in psoriasis gene expression and serum IL-17A levels were observed in guselkumab-treated patients. Conclusion IL-23 inhibition with a single dose of guselkumab results in clinical responses in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, suggesting that neutralization of IL-23 alone is a promising therapy for psoriasis. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


Blauvelt A.,Oregon Medical Research Center | Lebwohl M.G.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Bissonnette R.,Innovaderm Research
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2015

Biologics that neutralize specific cytokines have improved outcomes for several immune-mediated disorders but may also increase risks for particular side effects. This article postulates potential immunologic consequences of inhibiting components of the IL-23/T-helper cell 17 pathway-the target of next-generation biologics for treating psoriasis-based on clinical phenotypes of inherent or acquired deficiencies in this pathway. Generally, downstream deficiencies (e.g., IL-17A, IL-17F) are associated with fewer disorders compared with upstream deficiencies, suggesting that selectively blocking downstream targets may result in a narrower range of side effects. However, safety of these specific inhibitions must be established in long-term studies. © 2015 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.


Gordon K.B.,Northwestern University | Leonardi C.L.,Saint Louis University | Lebwohl M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Blauvelt A.,Oregon Medical Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Background Patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis demonstrated positive responses to ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in a phase-II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Objective We sought to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of ixekizumab. Methods After receiving 10, 25, 75, or 150 mg of ixekizumab or placebo during randomized, placebo-controlled trial, patients with less than 75% improvement from baseline on the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (PASI75) entered open-label extension (OLE); patients with PASI75 or higher entered a treatment-free period (weeks 20-32), then entered OLE after meeting response criteria. During OLE, patients received 120 mg of subcutaneous ixekizumab every 4 weeks. Results In all, 120 patients entered OLE; 103 completed 52 weeks or more of treatment. Overall, 77% of patients achieved PASI75 at week 52 (nonresponder imputation). Patients who responded to treatment in the randomized, placebo-controlled trial maintained a high-level response by week 52 of OLE (PASI75 = 95%; 90% improvement from baseline on the PASI score = 94%; 100% improvement from baseline on the PASI score = 82%). Irrespective of dose in the randomized, placebo-controlled trial, each group had similar response rates at week 52 of OLE. The exposure-adjusted incidence rate for adverse events was 0.47 and for serious adverse events was 0.06 per patient-year during OLE. Limitations No control group, small sample sizes, and bias toward retention of patients with positive responses limit interpretation. Conclusion A high proportion of patients responded to ixekizumab therapy and maintained clinical responses over 1 year of treatment with no unexpected safety signals. © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.


Leonardi C.,Saint Louis University | Matheson R.,Oregon Medical Research Center | Zachariae C.,Copenhagen University | Cameron G.,Eli Lilly and Company | And 4 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Type 17 helper T cells have been suggested to play a pathological role in psoriasis. They secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17A (also known as interleukin-17). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab (LY2439821), a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody, for psoriasis treatment. METHODS: In our phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 142 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis to receive subcutaneous injections of 10, 25, 75, or 150 mg of ixekizumab or placebo at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with reduction in the psoriasis area-and-severity index (PASI) score by at least 75% at 12 weeks. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients with reduction in the PASI score by at least 90% or by 100%. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, the percentage of patients with a reduction in the PASI score by at least 75% was significantly greater with ixekizumab (except with the lowest, 10-mg dose) - 150 mg (82.1%), 75 mg (82.8%), and 25 mg (76.7%) - than with placebo (7.7%, P<0.001 for each comparison), as was the percentage of patients with a reduction in the PASI score by at least 90%: 150 mg (71.4%), 75 mg (58.6%), and 25 mg (50.0%) versus placebo (0%, P<0.001 for each comparison). Similarly, a 100% reduction in the PASI score was achieved in significantly more patients in the 150-mg group (39.3%) and the 75-mg group (37.9%) than in the placebo group (0%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Significant differences occurred at as early as 1 week and were sustained through 20 weeks. Adverse events occurred in 63% of patients in both the combined ixekizumab groups and in the placebo group. No serious adverse events or major cardiovascular events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody, ixekizumab, improved the clinical symptoms of psoriasis. Further studies are needed to establish its long-term safety and efficacy in patients with psoriasis. (Funded by Eli Lilly; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01107457.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Blauvelt A.,Oregon Medical Research Center
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2016

Introduction: Secukinumab is a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets and neutralizes interleukin (IL)-17A, a cytokine that is normally involved in mucocutaneous defense against extracellular organisms and is abnormally expressed in psoriasis. In 2015, secukinumab was the first IL-17A inhibitor approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Areas covered: This review evaluates the safety profile of secukinumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and its role in the clinical landscape. A literature search was performed for articles published through February 2016; additional data from a pooled safety analysis of 10 Phase II and III secukinumab studies were reviewed. Expert opinion: Collectively, these studies show that secukinumab demonstrates a highly favorable safety profile, especially compared with commonly used psoriasis treatments such as methotrexate and TNF-α blockers. More specifically, secukinumab carries no increased risks for end-organ toxicities, serious infection, multiple sclerosis, reactivation of latent tuberculosis or hepatitis B, leukemia/lymphoma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is a common side effect and occurs at a rate of 3.55/100 subject-years with secukinumab 300 mg, yet these infections usually do not interfere with maintenance of secukinumab therapy. The combination of proven efficacy and safety make secukinumab an excellent new treatment choice for individuals with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Blauvelt A.,Oregon Medical Research Center
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2016

Introduction: Psoriasis is a common, systemic, inflammatory disease with prominent skin and joint manifestations. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) has been identified as a key effector cytokine that mediates immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. Ixekizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, has been found in clinical trials to dramatically reduce signs and symptoms of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.Areas covered: The following areas are discussed: the basic structure and function of IL-17A, its role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab in clinical trials reported to date, and the possible impact of ixekizumab on the future therapeutic market for psoriasis.Expert opinion: A large proportion of patients with psoriasis achieve clear or near clear skin during treatment with ixekizumab in a rapid and sustained manner. This supports the idea that IL-17A plays a central role in psoriasis immunopathogenesis. While ixekizumab has been shown to be safe in trials up to 60 weeks, long-term safety data are not yet available. Because its efficacy is higher than all previously approved drugs for psoriasis thus far, approval and use of ixekizumab may lead to a treatment paradigm change for psoriasis, where clear or near clear skin becomes an acceptable and achievable treatment goal. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

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