Oregon Health & Science University is a public university in Oregon with a main campus, including two hospitals, in Portland. It was formed in 1974 as the University of Oregon Health science Center, combining state dentistry, medicine, and nursing programs into a single center Wikipedia.
Jacques S.L.,Oregon Health And Science University
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013
A review of reported tissue optical properties summarizes the wavelength-dependent behavior of scattering and absorption. Formulae are presented for generating the optical properties of a generic tissue with variable amounts of absorbing chromophores (blood, water, melanin, fat, yellow pigments) and a variable balance between small-scale scatterers and large-scale scatterers in the ultrastructures of cells and tissues. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.
Corless C.L.,Oregon Health And Science University
Modern Pathology | Year: 2014
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract, arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal, primarily in the stomach and small intestine. They manifest a wide range of morphologies, from spindle cell to epithelioid, but are immunopositive for KIT (CD117) and/or DOG1 in essentially all cases. Although most tumors are localized at presentation, up to half will recur in the abdomen or spread to the liver. The growth of most GISTs is driven by oncogenic mutations in either of two receptor tyrosine kinases: KIT (75% of cases) or PDGFRA (10%). Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib is effective in controlling unresectable disease; however, drug resistance caused by secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations eventually develops in 90% of cases. Adjuvant therapy with imatinib is commonly used to reduce the likelihood of disease recurrence after primary surgery, and for this reason assessing the prognosis of newly resected tumors is one of the most important roles for pathologists. Approximately 15% of GISTs are negative for mutations in KIT and PDGFRA. Recent studies of these so-called wild-type GISTs have uncovered a number of other oncogenic drivers, including mutations in neurofibromatosis type I, RAS genes, BRAF, and subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. Routine genotyping is strongly recommended for optimal management of GISTs, as the type and dose of TKI used for treatment is dependent on the mutation identified. © 2014 USCAP, Inc.
McCormick J.A.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Ellison D.H.,Oregon Health And Science University
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2011
WNKs are serine/threonine kinases that comprise a unique branch of the kinome. They are so-named owing to the unusual placement of an essential catalytic lysine. WNKs have now been identified in diverse organisms. In humans and other mammals, four genes encode WNKs. WNKs are widely expressed at the message level, although data on protein expression is more limited. Soon after the WNKs were identified, mutations in genes encoding WNK1 and -4 were determined to cause the human disease familial hyperkalemic hypertension (also known as pseudohypoaldosteronism II, or Gordon's Syndrome). For this reason, a major focus of investigation has been to dissect the role of WNK kinases in renal regulation of ion transport. More recently, a different mutation in WNK1 was identified as the cause of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II, an early-onset autosomal disease of peripheral sensory nerves. Thus the WNKs represent an important family of potential targets for the treatment of human disease, and further elucidation of their physiological actions outside of the kidney and brain is necessary. In this review, we describe the gene structure and mechanisms regulating expression and activity of the WNKs. Subsequently, we outline substrates and targets of WNKs as well as effects of WNKs on cellular physiology, both in the kidney and elsewhere. Next, consequences of these effects on integrated physiological function are outlined. Finally, we discuss the known and putative pathophysiological relevance of the WNKs. Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society.
Hanahan D.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Coussens L.,Oregon Health And Science University
Cancer Cell | Year: 2012
Mutationally corrupted cancer (stem) cells are the driving force of tumor development and progression. Yet, these transformed cells cannot do it alone. Assemblages of ostensibly normal tissue and bone marrow-derived (stromal) cells are recruited to constitute tumorigenic microenvironments. Most of the hallmarks of cancer are enabled and sustained to varying degrees through contributions from repertoires of stromal cell types and distinctive subcell types. Their contributory functions to hallmark capabilities are increasingly well understood, as are the reciprocal communications with neoplastic cancer cells that mediate their recruitment, activation, programming, and persistence. This enhanced understanding presents interesting new targets for anticancer therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Rotwein P.,Oregon Health And Science University
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exert powerful influences on somatic growth, metabolism, and tissue repair, and have been implicated in aging and carcinogenesis. Since the formulation of the somatomedin hypothesis over 50 years ago, GH and IGF-I have been linked intimately to one another. Recent studies have established that GH potently stimulates IGF-I gene transcription, and through this mechanism controls production of IGF-I. A key mediator of the GH-IGF-I biosynthetic pathway is the latent transcription factor Stat5b. This review summarizes the potentially complex mechanistic relationship between GH action, Stat5b, and IGF-I gene activation, and suggests that Stat5b may have a broad role in mediating IGF-I gene regulation in response to diverse physiological inputs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kamimae-Lanning A.N.,Oregon Health And Science University
Blood | Year: 2013
Hematopoietic failure is the predominant clinical manifestation of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare, recessively inherited disorder. Mutations in 1 of 15 genes that coordinately function in a complex pathway to maintain DNA integrity also predispose patients to constitutional defects in growth and development. The hematologic manifestations have been considered to reflect the progressive loss of stem cells from the postnatal bone marrow microenvironment. Ethical concerns preclude the study of human hematopoiesis in utero. We report significant late gestational lethality and profound quantitative and qualitative deficiencies in the murine Fancc(-/-) fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell pool. Fancc(-/-) fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells revealed a significant loss of quiescence and decline in serial repopulating capacity, but no substantial difference in apoptosis or levels of reactive oxygen species. Our studies suggest that compromised hematopoiesis in Fancc(-/-) animals is developmentally programmed and does not arise de novo in bone marrow.
Sack R.L.,Oregon Health And Science University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010
A 55-year-old physician is planning a trip from Los Angeles to London to attend a scientific conference. His previous trip to Europe was complicated by sleepiness during meetings and difficulty falling asleep and remaining asleep at night. He wants to know what he can do to avoid jet lag. What would you advise? Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ORGANIZATION | Award Amount: 567.40K | Year: 2016
Developing nerve cells must often migrate through the brain to form the circuits that control behavior, but how this process is controlled is not understood. One group of molecules that are important for nerve cell migration (called Ephrins) exist as multiple types in mammals, making their detailed functions difficult to study. Taking advantage of the fact that insects (including the tobacco hornworm Manduca used here) produce a single type of Ephrin protein, a molecule (RACK1) that Ephrin interacts with in a major way during nerve cell development has been identified. This project will determine how RACK1 works together with Ephrin to regulate nerve cell migration and circuit development. The new discoveries made during this project will provide valuable information about how Ephrins function during nervous system development in more complex animals, including the human brain. The project will also provide unique opportunities for undergraduate students to learn advanced methods for investigating how specific proteins regulate nerve cell growth. Students will conduct experiments in Manduca to test the role of Ephrin and RACK1 in this process, and to identify other proteins that are required for Ephrin function. The data and resources produced by this project will be presented at major scientific conferences, published in scientific journals, and be posted on web sites that are freely available to other scientists and to the public. In addition, discoveries from this project will be presented to more general audiences at the Oregon Health and Science University Brain Fair, an interactive educational opportunity that is held annually at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry.
This project will investigate how type-A Ephrins (which are attached to cells by GPI lipid anchors) can regulate the activity of intracellular tyrosine kinases in the Src family, and how this signaling pathway controls the migratory behavior of developing neurons. Preliminary studies indicate that the adapter protein RACK1 (Receptor of Activated Protein Kinase C) functions as a molecular rheostat that restricts Src signaling until MsEphrin signaling is initiated. Studies will be carried out using a well-characterized assay of neuronal migration in cultured Manduca embryos. Targeted manipulations of gene expression will test whether RACK1 is essential for the activation of a specific Src kinase (Src42) by type-A Ephrins. Biochemical assays of Src activity and Src-RACK1 interactions will test whether RACK1 functions as both a regulator and substrate for Src42 in this process. Time-lapse imaging and quantitative assays of neuronal migration will be used to investigate how this signaling pathway affects specific aspects of neuronal behavior in the developing nervous system. Similar methods will test whether a toll family protein (Toll-7) functions as a novel co-receptor for type-A Ephrins in this pathway. These experiments will also permit the downstream effectors of type-A Ephrins to be identified in related projects that will be conducted by selected undergraduate participants.
Lieberman D.,Oregon Health And Science University
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death throughout the world. There is evidence that screening of average-risk individuals can result in mortality reduction with early cancer detection and cancer prevention by detection and removal of cancer precursor lesions. The optimal form of screening is not clear. Fecal screening tests can be performed at home at low initial cost, but current versions lack high sensitivity for cancer precursor lesions, and tests need to be repeated at regular intervals. Adherence to repeat testing for negative tests and referral for colonoscopy for positive tests are important elements of program effectiveness. Structural examinations of the colon are more invasive and may result in detection of both early cancer and cancer precursor lesions. Every screening program has advantages and limitations, but each program ultimately depends on quality and patient adherence. © 2010 AGA Institute.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ORGANIZATION | Award Amount: 599.93K | Year: 2016
The development of new connections between neuronal cells in the brain is a critical process which ultimately underlies our ability to learn and remember. This proposal focuses on a newly-discovered process called Nuclear Envelope Budding (NEB) that allows cells to make targeted changes to the structure of their connections with other cells. Three sets of experiments will be carried out, examining (1) molecular changes that underlie NEB, (2) the mechanical means through which NEB is accomplished, and (3) how NEB actually functions in newly-developing cell-to-cell connections. An exciting and novel aspect of this latter set of experiments is the use of live cell microscopy to document the development of new connections in real time as they form in a living organism. These studies will provide novel and critical insights into how the brain develops and into how our experiences can lead to changes in our neuronal circuitry.
This proposal takes advantage of the well-established Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) model of synapse outgrowth and maturation to further our understanding of how RNA granules are formed and subsequently trafficked to synaptic sites during development. In particular, these studies will focus on the recently described process of Nuclear Envelope Budding (NEB), a nuclear export pathway by which RNA granules that contain postsynaptic transcripts are released from postsynaptic muscle nuclei. In Aim 1, we will investigate how Pin1, a highly conserved enzyme, functions to regulate NEB via nuclear lamina remodeling. In Aim 2, we will explore the role of a non-canonical Nuclear Pore Complex that we hypothesize loads mRNA transcripts into RNA granules forming at the periphery of the nucleus. Finally, in Aim 3, we will take advantage of a new tool to image trafficking dynamics of RNA granules in postsynaptic muscles at the time of synaptogenesis. This proposal utilizes high resolution imaging modalities including array tomography, immunogold EM and live cell imaging. These approaches, combined with the genetic tractability of the in vivo system, poise this study to make a significant contribution to our understanding of RNA granule biology and provide exciting new mechanistic insight into the bidirectional communication that occurs between the nucleus and the forming synapse during NMJ development.