Oregon Hatchery Research Center

Oregon City, OR, United States

Oregon Hatchery Research Center

Oregon City, OR, United States

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Kimmel C.B.,University of Oregon | Watson S.,University of Oregon | Couture R.B.,Oregon Hatchery Research Center | Mckibben N.S.,University of Oregon | And 3 more authors.
Evolution and Development | Year: 2015

What is the nature of evolutionary divergence of the jaw skeleton within the genus Oncorhynchus? How can two associated bones evolve new shapes and still maintain functional integration? Here, we introduce and test a "concordance" hypothesis, in which an extraordinary matching of the evolutionary shape changes of the dentary and angular articular serves to preserve their fitting together. To test this hypothesis, we examined morphologies of the dentary and angular articular at parr (juvenile) stage, and at three levels of biological organization-between salmon and trout, between sister species within both salmon and trout, and among three types differing in life histories within one species, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The comparisons show bone shape divergences among the groups at each level; morphological divergence between salmon and trout is marked even at this relatively early life history stage. We observed substantial matching between the two mandibular bones in both pattern and amount of shape variation, and in shape covariation across species. These findings strongly support the concordance hypothesis, and reflect functional and/or developmental constraint on morphological evolution. We present evidence for developmental modularity within both bones. The locations of module boundaries were predicted from the patterns of evolutionary divergences, and for the dentary, at least, would appear to facilitate its functional association with the angular articular. The modularity results suggest that development has biased the course of evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Putman N.F.,Oregon State University | Lohmann K.J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Putman E.M.,519 NW 14th Street | Quinn T.P.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2013

In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic [1]. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return [2-4], we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway [5, 6]. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Stewart H.A.,Oregon State University | Noakes D.L.G.,Oregon State University | Noakes D.L.G.,Oregon Hatchery Research Center | Cogliati K.M.,Oregon State University | And 5 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -Part A : Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2016

Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg2+) and sodium (Na+) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg2+ and Na+ concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg2+ and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na+ concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg2+ and Na+ suggests that Mg2+ may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na+. When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | University of Oregon and Oregon Hatchery Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Evolution & development | Year: 2015

What is the nature of evolutionary divergence of the jaw skeleton within the genus Oncorhynchus? How can two associated bones evolve new shapes and still maintain functional integration? Here, we introduce and test a concordance hypothesis, in which an extraordinary matching of the evolutionary shape changes of the dentary and angular articular serves to preserve their fitting together. To test this hypothesis, we examined morphologies of the dentary and angular articular at parr (juvenile) stage, and at three levels of biological organizationbetween salmon and trout, between sister species within both salmon and trout, and among three types differing in life histories within one species, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The comparisons show bone shape divergences among the groups at each level; morphological divergence between salmon and trout is marked even at this relatively early life history stage. We observed substantial matching between the two mandibular bones in both pattern and amount of shape variation, and in shape covariation across species. These findings strongly support the concordance hypothesis, and reflect functional and/or developmental constraint on morphological evolution. We present evidence for developmental modularity within both bones. The locations of module boundaries were predicted from the patterns of evolutionary divergences, and for the dentary, at least, would appear to facilitate its functional association with the angular articular. The modularity results suggest that development has biased the course of evolution.


Romer J.D.,Oregon State University | Leblanc C.A.,Oregon State University | Clements S.,8655 Highway 34 | Ferguson J.A.,Oregon State University | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2013

Anadromous salmonids are viewed as a prized commodity and cultural symbol throughout the Pacific coast of North America. Unfortunately, several native salmonid populations are threatened or at risk of extinction. Despite this, little is known about the behavior and survival of these fish as the juveniles transition from freshwater to the ocean. Our primary objectives were to estimate survival of juvenile steelhead migrating between trapping sites and the ocean and evaluate whether survival in the estuary varies temporally (within a year) or spatially (within and between estuaries) within the same distinct population segment. We also evaluated whether flow or fork length were correlated with survival and collected information on variables that have been demonstrated to affect smolt survival in other studies to lend insight regarding differences in survival estimates between basins. We compared run timing, migration rate, survival, condition factor, age composition and time of residence in the estuary for steelhead outmigrants from each basin and measured parasite loads in outmigrating steelhead to evaluate potential differences in parasite density and parasite community between basins. In 2009, we implanted acoustic transmitters in 139 wild steelhead smolts in two small rivers on the Oregon Coast. In general, only 40-50 % of the wild steelhead smolts tagged at upstream smolt traps were detected entering the ocean. The majority of mortality occurred in the lower estuary near the ocean. Wild steelhead smolts typically spent less than 1 day in the estuary in both basins. Using similar data from previous studies in the Nehalem and Alsea basins, we showed that survival appears to be negatively correlated with flow in most releases, and in 2009 fork length was not correlated with survival. Our observations provide baseline information on factors that could influence smolt survival through the estuary as well as smolt to adult survival in these basins, and emphasize the importance of monitoring smolt survival in the estuary. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Leblanc C.A.,Oregon State University | Leblanc C.A.,University of Iceland | Leblanc C.A.,Holar University College | Noakes D.L.,Oregon State University | Noakes D.L.,Oregon Hatchery Research Center
North American Journal of Fisheries Management | Year: 2012

Being able to individually follow fish <40 mm in length is a challenge for fish research. In the present study we examined whether the use of visible implant elastomer (VIE) tags is suitable for research on first-feeding rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss raised under laboratory conditions.We assessed the effect of tagging and tagging location on the growth and survival of juveniles over a 34-d period. We also documented the retention rate and visibility of the tags under natural light. This study validates the use of VIE tags for 25-40-mm fish under laboratory conditions, using the base of the dorsal fin and upper or lower caudal fin as tagging locations. © American Fisheries Society 2012.


Putman N.F.,Oregon State University | Putman N.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Jenkins E.S.,Pacific Salmon Commission | Michielsens C.G.J.,Pacific Salmon Commission | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2014

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Putman N.F.,Oregon State University | Putman N.F.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Meinke A.M.,Oregon Hatchery Research Center | Noakes D.L.G.,Oregon State University | Noakes D.L.G.,Oregon Hatchery Research Center
Biology Letters | Year: 2014

We used simulated magnetic displacements to test orientation preferences of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to magnetic fields existing at the northernmost and southernmost boundaries of their oceanic range. Fish reared in natural magnetic conditions distinguished between these two fields by orienting in opposite directions, with headings that would lead fish towards marine foraging grounds. However, fish reared in a spatially distorted magnetic field failed to distinguish between the experimental fields and were randomly oriented. The non-uniform field in which fish were reared is probably typical of fields that many hatchery fish encounter due to magnetic distortions associated with the infrastructure of aquaculture. Given that the reduced navigational abilities we observed could negatively influence marine survival, homing ability and hatchery efficiency, we recommend further study on the implications of rearing salmonids in unnatural magnetic fields. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Putman N.F.,Oregon State University | Scanlan M.M.,Oregon State University | Billman E.J.,Oregon State University | O'Neil J.P.,Oregon Hatchery Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2014

Migratory marine animals exploit resources in different oceanic regions at different life stages, but how they navigate to specific oceanic areas is poorly understood [1-3]. A particular challenge is explaining how juvenile animals with no prior migratory experience are able to locate specific oceanic feeding habitats that are hundreds or thousands of kilometers from their natal sites [1-7]. Although adults reproducing in the vicinity of favorable ocean currents can facilitate transport of their offspring to these habitats [7-9], variation in ocean circulation makes passive transport unreliable, and young animals probably take an active role in controlling their migratory trajectories [10-13]. Here we experimentally demonstrate that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) respond to magnetic fields like those at the latitudinal extremes of their ocean range by orienting in directions that would, in each case, lead toward their marine feeding grounds. We further show that fish use the combination of magnetic intensity and inclination angle to assess their geographic location. The "magnetic map" of salmon appears to be inherited, as the fish had no prior migratory experience. These results, paired with findings in sea turtles [12-21], imply that magnetic maps are phylogenetically widespread and likely explain the extraordinary navigational abilities evident in many long-distance underwater migrants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Oregon Hatchery Research Center, University of Washington, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Oregon State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current biology : CB | Year: 2014

Migratory marine animals exploit resources in different oceanic regions at different life stages, but how they navigate to specific oceanic areas is poorly understood. A particular challenge is explaining how juvenile animals with no prior migratory experience are able to locate specific oceanic feeding habitats that are hundreds or thousands of kilometers from their natal sites. Although adults reproducing in the vicinity of favorable ocean currents can facilitate transport of their offspring to these habitats, variation in ocean circulation makes passive transport unreliable, and young animals probably take an active role in controlling their migratory trajectories. Here we experimentally demonstrate that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) respond to magnetic fields like those at the latitudinal extremes of their ocean range by orienting in directions that would, in each case, lead toward their marine feeding grounds. We further show that fish use the combination of magnetic intensity and inclination angle to assess their geographic location. The magnetic map of salmon appears to be inherited, as the fish had no prior migratory experience. These results, paired with findings in sea turtles, imply that magnetic maps are phylogenetically widespread and likely explain the extraordinary navigational abilities evident in many long-distance underwater migrants.

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