News Article | May 9, 2017
In September 2012 the Google Street View car drove slowly along a road in Twickenham, London. It had to reverse when the driver found three wooden bollards blocking its way. The road was not a road at all, it was a cycleway. A cycleway built in – wait for it – 1937. Originally surfaced with red concrete, the cycleway has faded to light pink but the granite kerbs are still in situ and, fooling the Street View navigation algorithms, it looks like a narrow road instead of the normal kind of “crap cycle lane” we are so unhappily used to in the UK. The wide, protected cycleway beside the four-lane Chertsey Road is no freak. It’s one of 80 similar cycleways I discovered while researching the 1930s chapter for my forthcoming book, Bike Boom. Between 1934 and 1940, Britain’s Ministry of Transport would only give fat grants to road-building schemes if they included wide, protected cycleways on each side of the road. The MoT was aided in its cycle-friendliness by plans and guidance supplied by the Rijkwaterstaat, the ministry’s Dutch equivalent. Five hundred miles of such cycleways were planned; I’ve discovered that at least 280 miles of them were built. Some are wholly or partially buried, while others are still used as cycleways but not commonly known to be 80 years old. And some – such as examples in Durham, Sunderland, Manchester and elsewhere – are hidden in plain sight, not listed by local authorities as cycleways. Durham Road in Sunderland, for instance, has the sort of protection at a roundabout it is assumed only the Dutch can muster. The road has cycleways each side, but only one side is marked as a cycleway on official maps, and the roundabout side is not the one so marked. Not even the hive-mind has spotted it – this particular cycleway was built in 1938 yet it’s still waiting to be plotted on OpenCycleMap. Postwar Ordnance Survey maps show that the 18-mile Southend Arterial Road from Gallows Corner in Romford to Southend once had cycleways along its full length (they were known as “cycle tracks” at the time) and this cycleway linked to others in the area. That’s right: before the second world war, Britain had an 18-mile kerb-protected intra-urban cycleway. I’ve found these cycleways by digging – not in the ground, but in dusty archives, including poring over Ministry of Transport minutes held in the National Archives. And once I find a period source telling me a cycleway scheme once existed I use the spin-off from an American military mapping project to take a look at the location. Google Street View is an off-shoot from Google Earth, the descendant of EarthViewer, a CIA-funded project that was used by the US military in war zones from the late 1990s onwards. Google acquired EarthViewer in 2004 and rebranded it as Google Earth in 2005. Archeologists often use Google Earth – and other open-access satellite-imagery services – to find hidden hill-forts and even buried treasure, but this is the first time the satellite and street-level imagery has been used to discover 1930s-era cycleways. And now that I have found at least 80 such schemes I’ve partnered with an urban planner to bring at least some of them back to life. When I first told Urban Movement’s John Dales what I was up to he immediately recognised the potential of these forgotten cycleways. As he says in the above video, they are highly relevant today because the space for cycling that many planners and politicians say isn’t there is there. We created a Kickstarter campaign and within three days it had exceeded its £7,000 target. Up to 420 backers have so far pledged £11,680. Reaching the initial target will enable us to research and perhaps revive a number of cycleways, but by no means all of them. We have until 25 May to get as many pledges as possible – the number of pledges could play an important later role when we start seeking the institutional funding required for national-scale cycleway improvements. The sum raised is not a lot when you consider that remodelling one simple junction can sometimes cost £1m or more. The Kickstarter campaign will pay for the research work and the first plans to local authorities. After that our hope is to attract interest from today’s Department for Transport. And helpfully, the DfT now has quite the heartwarming backstory: long before modern cycle advocates were clamouring to “Go Dutch!”, the Ministry of Transport was actually doing it.
News Article | April 24, 2017
It took 10 years of living here before I looked hard at my town’s Ordnance Survey map. There, like most who neglect study of their closest ground, I saw my daily familiar articulated in a diagrammatic, unfamiliar way. Here notable historic echoes inscribed alongside its present. And I discovered that a footpath named the Jurassic Way not only glanced my door but set off from it, travelling 88 miles from this old Lincolnshire town to the unlikely end of Banbury, traversing a ridge-seam of limestone that gave Stamford its stone and the route its name. Drawn, it presents like a diagonal scratch across the belly of England. With spring here I decided to walk it piecemeal, beginning today with the first mile. With the town’s spires to my back I cross the floodplain of the meadow, joining the bank of the Welland. Its banks are plump with green, the water still but for the odd ripple from a surfacing fish. The path is a balding in the grass. These ways are everywhere, linking here and there. They harmonise with the flow of the land and slink around modern, bludgeon infrastructure, like ivy across the hard lines of a wall. Robert Macfarlane’s exploration of such in The Old Ways depicted these ancient routes as the “habits of a landscape”. Linearity is scarce in nature so when found it’s a way of relating a route ridge, river, edge line as a way to follow, nature’s navigational guide rail. Before, I’d viewed the rise ahead beyond the town’s edge as simply a hill. Now, as I walk on this storied path I see it as a geologically ordained passage, probably travelled in the paleolithic. Neolithic people may have used it to link hunting grounds. An important Roman route crossed the Welland here. Today’s use of this first mile seems for people to walk their dogs. As I walk along the way away from town I watch other urban lines diverge as modernity loosens and this old path asserts: telephone lines, railway lines, the road. Things quieten, until it’s just the path and the river. Then fields, up the hill, onward to Banbury if I wanted. And backwards in time, it feels.
News Article | April 17, 2017
Ordnance Survey launches 3D aerial images to help people plan walks, cycle routes and climbs. A new digital tool produces 3D aerial views of countryside walks, cycle routes and mountain climbs. It has been developed by Ordnance Survey, which hopes the interactive maps will make the outdoors safer and more fun.
News Article | April 19, 2017
Receive press releases from Geospatial Media and Communications Pvt Ltd: By Email Geospatial Media and Communications is thrilled to announce its new Global Advisory Board, comprising of eminent thought leaders who are making a significant difference to the geospatial industry as well as global economy and society with their vision and acumen across different segments of the geospatial value chain. New Delhi, India, April 19, 2017 --( In this background, Geospatial Media and Communications is thrilled to announce its new Global Advisory Board, comprising of eminent thought leaders who are making a significant difference to the geospatial industry as well as global economy and society with their vision and acumen across different segments of the geospatial value chain. The Global Advisory Board Members will strengthen the vision, mission, values, and principles of Geospatial Media and Communications, which have been evolving along with the changing fabric and scope of the geospatial industry. Their diverse professional insights and personal commitment towards the larger objectives of Geospatial Media and Communications will be instrumental in shaping and supervising its business directions and dimensions. The Global Advisory Board members are: • Brett Dixon, General Manager, Asia Pacific, Esri, Singapore • Brian Nicholls, General Manager and Director, AAM Group, Australia • Chris Gibson, Vice President, Trimble Inc., USA • Dorine Burmanje, Chairperson, Dutch Kadastre, The Netherlands • Fabrizio Pirondini, CEO, DEIMOS Imaging, Spain • James Steiner, Vice President, Oracle Server Technologies, USA • Johannes Riegl Jr, Chief Marketing Officer, RIEGL, Austria • Kristin Chirstensen, CMO, Hexagon Group, USA • Maryam Obaid Almheiri, Director - GIS Department, Dubai Municipality, Dubai • Nigel Clifford, Chief Executive, Ordnance Survey, UK • Peter Rabley, Partner, Omidyar Network, USA • Prithvish Nag, Vice Chancellor, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, India • Rakesh Verma, Managing Director, MapmyIndia, India • Rob vende Velde, Director, Geonovum, The Netherlands • Sandeep Singhal, Senior Director, Cloud Storage, Google, USA • Tripti Lochan, Chief Executive Officer, VML, SEA & India, Singapore • Valrie Grant, Managing Director, GeoTechVision, Jamaica • Dr Vanessa Lawrence CB, Senior Strategic Global Geospatial Advisor, Governments and Inter-Governmental Organisations, UK • Willy Govender, CEO, Data World, South Africa While announcing the members of the board, Sanjay Kumar, CEO, Geospatial Media and Communications said, “We have been consistently transforming and evolving the scope, coverage, and impact of our media and communication platforms, while pursuing our vision and commitment to ‘make a difference through geospatial knowledge in economy and society’. Following our principals of shared vision and collaborative spirit, we have set up the Global Advisory Board to help and guide our team in evolving the organization to serve larger interest of geospatial industry and its relevance in global economy and society.” About Geospatial Media and Communications Geospatial Media and Communications is an internationally accredited organization, having committed itself to serve stakeholders of geospatial community and work towards opening new era of industrialization, while facilitating collaboration and demonstrating value and benefits of geospatial technology and information for governance, businesses and people. For additional information please contact: Harsha Vardhan Email: email@example.com Sanskriti Shukla Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +91-120-4612500 Twitter: @geoworldmedia New Delhi, India, April 19, 2017 --( PR.com )-- Location has become fundamental to every human activity and advancements in the fields of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, Robotics, and Big Data have been getting integrated with geospatial workflows and processes. This transformation is bringing a collaborative approach to expand the horizon of geospatial applications.In this background, Geospatial Media and Communications is thrilled to announce its new Global Advisory Board, comprising of eminent thought leaders who are making a significant difference to the geospatial industry as well as global economy and society with their vision and acumen across different segments of the geospatial value chain.The Global Advisory Board Members will strengthen the vision, mission, values, and principles of Geospatial Media and Communications, which have been evolving along with the changing fabric and scope of the geospatial industry. Their diverse professional insights and personal commitment towards the larger objectives of Geospatial Media and Communications will be instrumental in shaping and supervising its business directions and dimensions.The Global Advisory Board members are:• Brett Dixon, General Manager, Asia Pacific, Esri, Singapore• Brian Nicholls, General Manager and Director, AAM Group, Australia• Chris Gibson, Vice President, Trimble Inc., USA• Dorine Burmanje, Chairperson, Dutch Kadastre, The Netherlands• Fabrizio Pirondini, CEO, DEIMOS Imaging, Spain• James Steiner, Vice President, Oracle Server Technologies, USA• Johannes Riegl Jr, Chief Marketing Officer, RIEGL, Austria• Kristin Chirstensen, CMO, Hexagon Group, USA• Maryam Obaid Almheiri, Director - GIS Department, Dubai Municipality, Dubai• Nigel Clifford, Chief Executive, Ordnance Survey, UK• Peter Rabley, Partner, Omidyar Network, USA• Prithvish Nag, Vice Chancellor, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, India• Rakesh Verma, Managing Director, MapmyIndia, India• Rob vende Velde, Director, Geonovum, The Netherlands• Sandeep Singhal, Senior Director, Cloud Storage, Google, USA• Tripti Lochan, Chief Executive Officer, VML, SEA & India, Singapore• Valrie Grant, Managing Director, GeoTechVision, Jamaica• Dr Vanessa Lawrence CB, Senior Strategic Global Geospatial Advisor, Governments and Inter-Governmental Organisations, UK• Willy Govender, CEO, Data World, South AfricaWhile announcing the members of the board, Sanjay Kumar, CEO, Geospatial Media and Communications said, “We have been consistently transforming and evolving the scope, coverage, and impact of our media and communication platforms, while pursuing our vision and commitment to ‘make a difference through geospatial knowledge in economy and society’. Following our principals of shared vision and collaborative spirit, we have set up the Global Advisory Board to help and guide our team in evolving the organization to serve larger interest of geospatial industry and its relevance in global economy and society.”About Geospatial Media and CommunicationsGeospatial Media and Communications is an internationally accredited organization, having committed itself to serve stakeholders of geospatial community and work towards opening new era of industrialization, while facilitating collaboration and demonstrating value and benefits of geospatial technology and information for governance, businesses and people.For additional information please contact:Harsha VardhanEmail: email@example.comSanskriti ShuklaEmail: firstname.lastname@example.orgTel: +91-120-4612500Twitter: @geoworldmedia Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Geospatial Media and Communications Pvt Ltd
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 4.73M | Year: 2011
National infrastructure (NI) systems (energy, transport, water, waste and ICT) in the UK and in advanced economies globally face serious challenges. The 2009 Council for Science and Technology (CST) report on NI in the UK identified significant vulnerabilities, capacity limitations and a number of NI components nearing the end of their useful life. It also highlighted serious fragmentation in the arrangements for infrastructure provision in the UK. There is an urgent need to reduce carbon emissions from infrastructure, to respond to future demographic, social and lifestyle changes and to build resilience to intensifying impacts of climate change. If this process of transforming NI is to take place efficiently, whilst also minimising the associated risks, it will need to be underpinned by a long-term, cross-sectoral approach to understanding NI performance under a range of possible futures. The systems of systems analysis that must form the basis for such a strategic approach does not yet exist - this inter-disciplinary research programme will provide it.The aim of the UK Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium is to develop and demonstrate a new generation of system simulation models and tools to inform analysis, planning and design of NI. The research will deal with energy, transport, water, waste and ICT systems at a national scale, developing new methods for analysing their performance, risks and interdependencies. It will provide a virtual environment in which we will test strategies for long term investment in NI and understand how alternative strategies perform with respect to policy constraints such as reliability and security of supply, cost, carbon emissions, and adaptability to demographic and climate change.The research programme is structured around four major challenges:1. How can infrastructure capacity and demand be balanced in an uncertain future? We will develop methods for modelling capacity, demand and interdependence in NI systems in a compatible way under a wide range of technological, socio-economic and climate futures. We will thereby provide the tools needed to identify robust strategies for sustainably balancing capacity and demand.2. What are the risks of infrastructure failure and how can we adapt NI to make it more resilient?We will analyse the risks of interdependent infrastructure failure by establishing network models of NI and analysing the consequences of failure for people and the economy. Information on key vulnerabilities and risks will be used to identify ways of adapting infrastructure systems to reduce risks in future.3. How do infrastructure systems evolve and interact with society and the economy? Starting with idealised simulations and working up to the national scale, we will develop new models of how infrastructure, society and the economy evolve in the long term. We will use the simulation models to demonstrate alternative long term futures for infrastructure provision and how they might be reached.4. What should the UKs strategy be for integrated provision of NI in the long term? Working with a remarkable group of project partners in government and industry, we will use our new methods to develop and test alternative strategies for Britains NI, building an evidence-based case for a transition to sustainability. We will analyse the governance arrangements necessary to ensure that this transition is realisable in practice.A Programme Grant provides the opportunity to work flexibly with key partners in government and industry to address research challenges of national importance in a sustained way over five years. Our ambition is that through development of a new generation of tools, in concert with our government and industry partners, we will enable a revolution in the strategic analysis of NI provision in the UK, whilst at the same time becoming an international landmark programme recognised for novelty, research excellence and impact.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 4.56M | Year: 2016
Today we use many objects not normally associated with computers or the internet. These include gas meters and lights in our homes, healthcare devices, water distribution systems and cars. Increasingly, such objects are digitally connected and some are transitioning from cellular network connections (M2M) to using the internet: e.g. smart meters and cars - ultimately self-driving cars may revolutionise transport. This trend is driven by numerous forces. The connection of objects and use of their data can cut costs (e.g. allowing remote control of processes) creates new business opportunities (e.g. tailored consumer offerings), and can lead to new services (e.g. keeping older people safe in their homes). This vision of interconnected physical objects is commonly referred to as the Internet of Things. The examples above not only illustrate the vast potential of such technology for economic and societal benefit, they also hint that such a vision comes with serious challenges and threats. For example, information from a smart meter can be used to infer when people are at home, and an autonomous car must make quick decisions of moral dimensions when faced with a child running across on a busy road. This means the Internet of Things needs to evolve in a trustworthy manner that individuals can understand and be comfortable with. It also suggests that the Internet of Things needs to be resilient against active attacks from organised crime, terror organisations or state-sponsored aggressors. Therefore, this project creates a Hub for research, development, and translation for the Internet of Things, focussing on privacy, ethics, trust, reliability, acceptability, and security/safety: PETRAS, (also suggesting rock-solid foundations) for the Internet of Things. The Hub will be designed and run as a social and technological platform. It will bring together UK academic institutions that are recognised international research leaders in this area, with users and partners from various industrial sectors, government agencies, and NGOs such as charities, to get a thorough understanding of these issues in terms of the potentially conflicting interests of private individuals, companies, and political institutions; and to become a world-leading centre for research, development, and innovation in this problem space. Central to the Hub approach is the flexibility during the research programme to create projects that explore issues through impactful co-design with technical and social science experts and stakeholders, and to engage more widely with centres of excellence in the UK and overseas. Research themes will cut across all projects: Privacy and Trust; Safety and Security; Adoption and Acceptability; Standards, Governance, and Policy; and Harnessing Economic Value. Properly understanding the interaction of these themes is vital, and a great social, moral, and economic responsibility of the Hub in influencing tomorrows Internet of Things. For example, a secure system that does not adequately respect privacy, or where there is the mere hint of such inadequacy, is unlikely to prove acceptable. Demonstrators, like wearable sensors in health care, will be used to explore and evaluate these research themes and their tension. New solutions are expected to come out of the majority of projects and demonstrators, many solutions will be generalisable to problems in other sectors, and all projects will produce valuable insights. A robust governance and management structure will ensure good management of the research portfolio, excellent user engagement and focussed coordination of impact from deliverables. The Hub will further draw on the expertise, networks, and on-going projects of its members to create a cross-disciplinary language for sharing problems and solutions across research domains, industrial sectors, and government departments. This common language will enhance the outreach, development, and training activities of the Hub.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Training Grant | Award Amount: 3.35M | Year: 2014
Our 21st century lives will be increasingly connected to our digital identities, representations of ourselves that are defined from trails of personal data and that connect us to commercial and public services, employers, schools, families and friends. The future health of our Digital Economy rests on training a new generation of leaders who can harness the emerging technologies of digital identity for both economic and societal value, but in a fair and transparent manner that accommodates growing public concern over the use of personal data. We will therefore train a community of 80 PhD students with the interdisciplinary skills needed to address the profound challenges of digital identity in the 21st century. Our training programme will equip students with a unique blend of interdisciplinary skills and knowledge across three thematic aspects of digital identity - enabling technologies, global impacts and people and society - while also providing them with the wider research and professional skills to deliver a research project across the intersection of at least two of these. Our students will be situated within Horizon, a leading centre for Digital Economy research and a vibrant environment that draws together a national research Hub, CDT and a network of over 100 industry, academic and international partners. Horizon currently provides access to a large network of over 75 potential supervisors, ranging from from leading Professors to talented early career researchers. Each student will work with an industry, public, third sector or international partner to ensure that their research is grounded in real user needs, to maximise its impact, and also to enhance their employability. These external partners will be involved in co-sponsorship, supervision, providing resources and hosting internships. Our external partners have already committed to co-sponsor 30 students so far, and we expect this number to grow. Our centre also has a strong international perspective, working with international partners to explore the global marketplace for digital identity services as well as the cross-cultural issues that this raises. This will build on our success in exporting the CDT model to China where we have recently established a £17M International Doctoral Innovation Centre to train 50 international students in digital economy research with funding from Chinese partners. We run an integrated four-year training programme that features a bespoke core covering key topics in digital identity, optional advanced specialist modules, practice-led team and individual projects, training in research methods and professional skills, public and external engagement, and cohort building activities including an annual writing retreat and summer school. The first year features a nine month structured process of PhD co-creation in which students, supervisors and external partners iteratively refine an initial PhD topic into a focused research proposal. Building on our experience of running the current Horizon CDT over the past five years, our management structure responds to external, university and student input and manages students through seven key stages of an extended PhD process: recruitment, induction, taught programme, PhD co-creation, PhD research, thesis, and alumni. Students will be recruited onto and managed through three distinct pathways - industry, international and institutional - that reflect the funding, supervision and visiting constraints of working with varied external partners.
News Article | October 29, 2016
TopUp Consultants, a leading international PropTech consultancy based in London, will speak at the Innovation Forum at MIPIM UK on Thursday 20 October at 11.45. Kyri Striftombolas, TopUp Consultant’s Managing Director, will be joined by James Terry, Product Manager, APIs Digital Engineering, Products & Innovations at Ordnance Survey and Dan Hughes, Director of Data & Information Products at RICS, to discuss the journey of developing a technology application that will disrupt the time-consuming process of compiling data for commercial property valuations. CVP, which stands for Commercial Valuation Portal, is the result of a partnership between TopUp Consultants, Ordnance Survey and RICS. The idea came about after market research by RICS identified that commercial valuers waste a significant amount of time searching multiple websites for accurate information on property and surrounding areas. The portal will make it far easier for commercial valuers to get all of the trusted data they need by combining the 28 most used data sets in a single place, all validated by Ordnance Survey. Customers will be able to make a one-off purchase, sign up for an annual subscription or integrate data directly into their chosen platform. “CVP will become the single source for UK commercial valuation data. The portal will combine all the essential and nice-to-have data sources in one place – saving hours of work for anyone involved in preparing valuations on commercial property. The feedback we’ve had so far has been tremendous from both independent surveyors who make the odd one-off purchase and valuers at large corporates – both of whom can’t wait for us to launch.” Kyri will take to the Innovation Forum stage at MIPIM UK on Thursday 20 October at 1145 to explain the process of developing a product in partnership with two high profile organisations (Ordnance Survey and RICS). Contact [email protected] or visit stand D28 at MIPIM UK if you want to be part of the beta testing or early adopter programmes. Formed in 1997 and headquartered in London, TopUp Consultants are EMEA’s largest independent software consultancy for Investors, Owners and Managers of multi-national Real Estate. TopUp Consultants are a leading provider of Real Estate software applications which improve key operational efficiencies of the residential and commercial property industry. TopUp’s areas of specialism are: New country implementation, financial reporting, Tenant and Workflow solutions, Business Intelligence, Software Development and Retail property solutions. For more information, please contact Richard Duddy – Marketing Manager – [email protected] / +447718 578663
News Article | February 21, 2017
Joanna James, a Geo-spatial data company, supports the projects of Architects, Civil Engineers and Planners providing them with access to maps and data through a 24/7 Map Portal. Users can search, locate, mark out sites, order and download a wide range of maps and data, including Ordnance Survey MasterMap, Aerial Imagery, British Geological Survey data, Height and LiDAR and 3D models of the built environment. Rob Stringer, Managing Director said: “I’m certain Joanna James will resonate well with Architects, Civil Engineers and Planners across the UK, providing good value products in a timely fashion.” Stringer further explained: “We only work with best of breed data suppliers. It’s very important to us that our customers can rely on the data supplied, enabling accurate and informed decisions to be made at all stages of a project.” The ethos of “new kid on the block” Joanna James is derived from the RIBA Plan of Work which they believe gives them a real edge when understanding their customers’ mapping and data needs. The online Joanna James Map Portal is free to sign-up, doesn’t require any software downloads or installations. It can be used on any web browser (Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox Safari) via Apple Mac or PC and works anywhere in the world 24/7. Visit and sign-up for FREE at: www.joanna-james.com Notes to editors: For more information please contact Rob Stringer, Managing Director.
News Article | December 17, 2016
As we press on along the ridge above the wood, on the north side of the path we find ponies raising the browse line as they stretch high into the hollies. A large white one strains every muscle in its neck to get at the most tender branch-end leaves. Forest ponies eat a huge quantity of holly during the cold weather. People often cut branches to make life easier for them, but this group don’t need any help. On the other side, we spot one of the woodland’s giants that has come to grief. Possibly dating from the origins of Red Shoot Wood in the 17th and 18th centuries, this huge oak has been caught by some vortex-wind, and lifted enough to break the myriad of cable-like roots anchoring it into the shallow clay that coats the underlying gravels. Its fall was not long ago in forest time, yet far enough back for the first bracket fungi to form along the shattered boughs, and for the creamy powder from the holes of tiny woodboring beetles to hang in balls on the spider-webs below, as though nature has created seasonal baubles. Reaching the valley bottom, we come to the small pond by Lindford Brook. In summer, water lilies add colour; now their decaying leaves paint an oily sheen on its surface. We cut back across the heart of the wood, following a route that appears clearly marked on the Ordnance Survey sheet. We feel confident for a while, but then unease creeps in. Just where are we? We have become completely lost in a confusing maze of footpaths. With my GPS still at home, and two smartphones that cannot agree where north is, we have to work by instinct. As we make slow progress, we notice that we are being watched with interest by a roe buck. He doesn’t move as we study each other for several minutes, nor when we go on. If we hadn’t got lost, we wouldn’t have seen him. Something positive to ease our embarrassment.