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Dupont C.,University of Paris Descartes | Rivero M.,Ordesa Group | Grillon C.,18 Rue Of Labreuvoir | Belaroussi N.,108 rue Point du Jour | Kalindjian A.,72 avenue Victor Cresson
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Studies undertaken with α-lactalbumin-enriched formulae never addressed infants with colic. This study evaluated the nutritional adequacy, the gastrointestinal tolerance and the effect on colic of an α-lactalbumin- enriched and probiotic-supplemented formula. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 66 healthy infants with colic, aged 3 weeks to 3 months, fed during 1 month with the either experimental formula (EF, Modilac Digest 1) or control formula (CF) and evaluated for efficacy and safety parameters at days 15 and 30. Weight and height gains were identical in the two groups and complied with standards (10234±360.4 g (EF) and 10474±372.1 g (CF), NS; 4.2±1.4 cm (EF) and 4.3±1.9 cm (CF), NS). No differences were found between groups for crying duration. Feeding-related gastrointestinal side effects were significantly lower with EF than with CF (P<0.011). An α-lactalbumin-enriched and probiotic-supplemented formula guaranteed good weight and length gains to infants with colic and seemed to provide good gastrointestinal tolerance. © 2010 Macmillian Publishers limited.


Ramirez-Santana C.,University of Barcelona | Ramirez-Santana C.,Institute Of Recerca En Nutricio I Seguretat Alimentaria Insa Ub | Ramirez-Santana C.,CIBER ISCIII | Castellote C.,University of Barcelona | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Previous studies have demonstrated that the intake of a 1% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet in an 80:20 mixture of cis-9,. trans-11 and trans-10,. cis-12 exerts age-specific effects on the immune system: immunoglobulin enhancement and proliferative down-modulation in neonatal and adult rats, respectively. The present study evaluates the influence of the same diet on antibody synthesis of early infant Wistar rats during suckling and/or after weaning. Dietary supplementation was performed during suckling and early infancy (4 weeks), only during suckling (3 weeks), or only in early infancy (1 week). CLA content in plasma and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM and IgA concentration were determined. Proliferation, cytokines and Ig production were evaluated on isolated splenocytes. Cis-9,. trans-11- and trans-10,. cis-12-CLA isomers were detected in the plasma of all CLA-supplemented animals, and the highest content was quantified in those rats supplemented over the longest period. These rats also exhibited higher concentrations of serum IgG, IgM and IgA. Moreover, splenocytes from CLA-supplemented rats showed the highest IgM and IgG synthesis and interleukin (IL)-6 production, whereas their proliferative ability was lower. In summary, in infant rats, we observed both the enhance antibody synthesis previously reported in neonates, and the reduced lymphoproliferation previously reported in adults. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Selga E.,University of Barcelona | Perez-Cano F.J.,University of Barcelona | Franch A.,University of Barcelona | Franch A.,CIBER ISCIII | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life.Results: The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A) or by oral gavage (Group B), supplemented just during suckling (Group C) and control animals (Group D) was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip®Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix). Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1), galanin (Gal), synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), actin gamma 2 (Actg2) and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2), as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR.Conclusions: Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life. © 2011 Selga et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Roze J.-C.,University of Nantes | Barbarot S.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Butel M.-J.,University of Paris Descartes | Kapel N.,University of Paris Descartes | And 8 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety, tolerance and preventive effect on atopic dermatitis of an experimental α-lactalbumin- enriched and symbiotic-supplemented infant formula. A total of ninety-seven non-breastfed term neonates were enrolled into a double-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in which they received experimental (n 48) or standard formula (n 49) for 6 months. The primary outcome was weight at 6 months of age. Secondary outcomes were gastrointestinal tolerance and manifestation of atopic dermatitis. Faecal secretory IgA (SIgA) concentration and microbiota composition of forty-three infants were analysed at 1 and 6 months. Growth was similar in both groups. At 1month, compared to those in the control group, infants in the experimental group exhibited less crying or agitation, and more quiet behaviour (P=0•03). At 6 months, atopic dermatitis was less frequently observed in the experimental group (P<0•05). Decrease of faecal SIgA concentration between 1 and 6 months was mainly observed in the control group. This decrease was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis (P<0•014) and negatively correlated to the level of colonisation by bifidobacteria (P<0•005). In conclusion, compared to the control formula, the experimental formula guaranteed a similar growth, was better tolerated at 1month and had a protective effect against the development of atopic dermatitis. © 2011 The Author.


Sanchez C.L.,University of Extremadura | Cubero J.,University of Extremadura | Sanchez J.,Perpetuo Socorro Hospital Ses | Franco L.,University of Extremadura | And 3 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2012

Amino acids have a determining effect on the nutritional status of the newborn, and their appropriate levels in breast milk are vital for this first stage of life. The amino acids tryptophan, arginine, glutamate, and taurine, for example, are suggested to have a positive effect on immune functions. The purpose of the present study was to develop a new method for the assay of amino acids in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) after hydrolysis. Breast milk samples were collected from 77 healthy mothers living in the community of Extremadura (Spain) with less than 2 months of lactation. The samples were then stored at -80 °C. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS technique proved to be a sensitive and efficient tool for the assay of amino acids in breast milk. The method could be used for the qualitative screening of 40 underivatized amino acids, and for the assay of 20. The resulting data will serve to improve commercial infant formula milks and bring them closer to the reference standard represented by human milk. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Plaza-Zamora J.,University of Murcia | Sabater-Molina M.,University of Murcia | Rodriguez-Palmero M.,Ordesa Group | Rivero M.,Ordesa Group | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Maternal milk is the first source of exogenous polyamines for the newborn. Polyamines modulate gut maturation in neonates, but no studies are available on polyamine concentration in human milk of preterm babies, even though they could be important for their immature gut. The present study aimed to determine polyamine concentration in human breast milk of mothers with preterm or term infants during the first month of lactation. Human milk samples were obtained during the first month of lactation from twenty-seven mothers with preterm babies and twelve mothers with babies born at term. The polyamine concentration in human milk was quantified by HPLC. During the first month of lactation, the total polyamine concentration was significantly higher in preterm milk than in term milk samples (7590 (sd 4990) v. 4660 (sd 4830) nmol/l, respectively (P =0·034)), as well as individual polyamine concentrations. Polyamine concentration in mature milk for preterm babies was significantly higher than that in mature milk for babies at term, and a similar trend was observed in colostrum and transition human milk. The spermidine/spermine ratio was higher in transition milk in preterm v. term samples, while in mature milk, the ratio was significantly lower in preterm than in term babies. In conclusion, the polyamine concentration was significantly higher in human milk for preterm than for term infants. This and the different spermidine/spermine ratios could influence the gut development of premature babies. © 2013 The Authors.


Sanchez C.L.,RWTH Aachen | Sanchez C.L.,University of Extremadura | Cubero J.,University of Extremadura | Sanchez J.,Perpetuo Socorro Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Human milk is a living fluid that changes with time, composition and volume. Circadian rhythms regulate a variety of biological processes in living organisms; and perhaps the most evident function is the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the circadian rhythm of breast milk amino acids and their evolution throughout the breastfeeding period. Human breast milk samples from 77 donors were collected every 3 hours over a 24-h period. The rhythmicity of the amino acids was determined by cosinor analysis. Colostrum samples showed no circadian rhythm in most amino acids except tryptophan. However, daily variations were observed in tryptophan and methionine at transitional phase, according to the newborn's pattern of intake every 3 hours regardless of whether it is day or night. During the last stage (mature milk), when breast milk has fully stabilized, most amino acids showed a circadian rhythm. In conclusion, breast milk should be given to the baby at the same time of day it is expressed. Thus, the baby would be adjusting its circadian pattern in harmony with his environment (day/night), which is crucial for the proper functioning and synchronization of all systems in the human body. © Journal of Applied Biomedicine.

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