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Heinrich D.,University of Innsbruck | van den Bogert A.J.,Orchard Kinetics, Llc | van den Bogert A.J.,Cleveland State University | Nachbauer W.,University of Innsbruck
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2014

Recent data highlight that competitive skiers face a high risk of injuries especially during off-balance jump landing maneuvers in downhill skiing. The purpose of the present study was to develop a musculo-skeletal modeling and simulation approach to investigate the cause-and-effect relationship between a perturbed landing position, i.e., joint angles and trunk orientation, and the peak force in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during jump landing. A two-dimensional musculo-skeletal model was developed and a baseline simulation was obtained reproducing measurement data of a reference landing movement. Based on the baseline simulation, a series of perturbed landing simulations (n=1000) was generated. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine a relationship between peak ACL force and the perturbed landing posture. Increased backward lean, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion as well as an asymmetric position were related to higher peak ACL forces during jump landing. The orientation of the trunk of the skier was identified as the most important predictor accounting for 60% of the variance of the peak ACL force in the simulations. Teaching of tactical decisions and the inclusion of exercise regimens in ACL injury prevention programs to improve trunk control during landing motions in downhill skiing was concluded. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Aurora A.,Cleveland Clinic | Aurora A.,Cleveland State University | McCarron J.A.,Orthopedic Surgery Section | van den Bogert A.J.,Orchard Kinetics, Llc | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: Scaffolds continue to be developed and used for rotator cuff repair augmentation; however, the appropriate scaffold material properties and/or surgical application techniques for achieving optimal biomechanical performance remains unknown. The objectives of the study were to simulate a previously validated spring-network model for clinically relevant scenarios to predict: (1) the manner in which changes to components of the repair influence the biomechanical performance of the repair and (2) the percent load carried by the scaffold augmentation component. Materials and methods: The models were parametrically varied to simulate clinically relevant scenarios, namely, changes in tendon quality, altered surgical technique(s), and different scaffold designs. The biomechanical performance of the repair constructs and the percent load carried by the scaffold component were evaluated for each of the simulated scenarios. Results: The model predicts that the biomechanical performance of a rotator cuff repair can be modestly increased by augmenting the repair with a scaffold that has tendon-like properties. However, engineering a scaffold with supraphysiologic stiffness may not translate into yet stiffer or stronger repairs. Importantly, the mechanical properties of a repair construct appear to be most influenced by the properties of the tendon-to-bone repair. The model suggests that in the clinical setting of a weak tendon-to-bone repair, scaffold augmentation may significantly off-load the repair and largely mitigate the poor construct properties. Conclusions: The model suggests that future efforts in the field of rotator cuff repair augmentation may be directed toward strategies that strengthen the tendon-to-bone repair and/or toward engineering scaffolds with tendon-like mechanical properties. © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.

Van Den Bogert A.J.,Cleveland State University | Van Den Bogert A.J.,Orchard Kinetics, Llc | Geijtenbeek T.,Motek Medical B.V | Even-Zohar O.,Motek Medical B.V | And 2 more authors.
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2013

Mechanical analysis of movement plays an important role in clinical management of neurological and orthopedic conditions. There has been increasing interest in performing movement analysis in real-time, to provide immediate feedback to both therapist and patient. However, such work to date has been limited to single-joint kinematics and kinetics. Here we present a software system, named human body model (HBM), to compute joint kinematics and kinetics for a full body model with 44 degrees of freedom, in real-time, and to estimate length changes and forces in 300 muscle elements. HBM was used to analyze lower extremity function during gait in 12 able-bodied subjects. Processing speed exceeded 120 samples per second on standard PC hardware. Joint angles and moments were consistent within the group, and consistent with other studies in the literature. Estimated muscle force patterns were consistent among subjects and agreed qualitatively with electromyography, to the extent that can be expected from a biomechanical model. The real-time analysis was integrated into the D-Flow system for development of custom real-time feedback applications and into the gait real-time analysis interactive lab system for gait analysis and gait retraining. © 2013 The Author(s).

Ackermann M.,State University of Maringa | Van den Bogert A.J.,Orchard Kinetics, Llc
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2012

The investigation of gait strategies at low gravity environments gained momentum recently as manned missions to the Moon and to Mars are reconsidered. Although reports by astronauts of the Apollo missions indicate alternative gait strategies might be favored on the Moon, computational simulations and experimental investigations have been almost exclusively limited to the study of either walking or running, the locomotion modes preferred under Earth's gravity. In order to investigate the gait strategies likely to be favored at low gravity a series of predictive, computational simulations of gait are performed using a physiological model of the musculoskeletal system, without assuming any particular type of gait. A computationally efficient optimization strategy is utilized allowing for multiple simulations. The results reveal skipping as more efficient and less fatiguing than walking or running and suggest the existence of a walk-skip rather than a walk-run transition at low gravity. The results are expected to serve as a background to the design of experimental investigations of gait under simulated low gravity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kristianslund E.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Krosshaug T.,Norwegian School of Sport Sciences | Van den Bogert A.J.,Orchard Kinetics, Llc
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2012

Analyses of joint moments are important in the study of human motion, and are crucial for our understanding of e.g. how and why ACL injuries occur. Such analyses may be affected by artifacts due to inconsistencies in the equations of motion when force and movement data are filtered with different cut-off frequencies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of these artifacts, and compare joint moments calculated with the same or different cut-off frequency for the filtering of force and movement data. 123 elite handball players performed sidestep cutting while the movement was recorded by eight 240. Hz cameras and the ground reaction forces were recorded by a 960. Hz force plate. Knee and hip joint moments were calculated through inverse dynamics, with four different combinations of cut-off frequencies for signal filtering: movement 10. Hz, force 10. Hz, (10-10); movement 15. Hz, force 15. Hz; movement 10. Hz, force 50. Hz (10-50); movement 15. Hz, force 50. Hz. The results revealed significant differences, especially between conditions with different filtering of force and movement. Mean (SD) peak knee abduction moment for the 10-10 and 10-50 condition were 1.27 (0.53) and 1.64 (0.68) Nm/kg, respectively. Ranking of players based on knee abduction moments were affected by filtering condition. Out of 20 players with peak knee abduction moment higher than mean+1. SD with the 10-50 condition, only 11 were still above mean+1. SD when the 10-10 condition was applied. Hip moments were very sensitive to filtering cut-off. Mean (SD) peak hip flexion moment was 3.64 (0.75) and 5.92 (1.80) under the 10-10 and 10-50 conditions, respectively. Based on these findings, force and movement data should be processed with the same filter. Conclusions from previous inverse dynamics studies, where this was not the case, should be treated with caution. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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