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Orange, Australia

A new species of the planthopper family Issidae, with a feature which appears to mimic small salticid spiders, is described as Chlamydopteryx mammoides sp. nov., from Queensland, Australia. Phaeopteryx Kirkaldy, 1907 is placed in synonymy under Chlamydopteryx Kirkaldy, 1907, creating the new combination Chlamydopteryx sidnicus (Kirkaldy). Tetrica scapularis Jacobi, 1928 is transferred to the genus Orinda Kirkaldy as Orinda scapularis comb. nov. and Orinda bimaculifrons Jacobi, 1928 to the genus Chlamydopteryx as Chlamydopteryx bimaculifrons comb. nov. Some new records for Australian Issidae are given. A key to the described Australian issid genera is given, along with a checklist of described species. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press. Source

Thapa R.,Charles Sturt University | Kemp D.R.,Charles Sturt University | Michalk D.L.,Orange Agricultural Institute
Crop and Pasture Science

A successful recruitment event in perennial grasslands is infrequent and when it occurs, the rate of recruitment and survival is low, 1% in most occasions. This paper reports on two field experiments that investigate the effects of biomass manipulation, seed level modification and site preparation on the recruitment of Phalaris aquatica seedlings. The experiments were done through drier than average years, where P. aquatica achieved successful recruitment of seedlings. Recruitment rates proportional to total seed set were 1.313.3% in experiment 1 and 0.54.2% in experiment 2. The control treatment, on average, resulted in 352seedlings/m2 in experiment 1 and 16/m2 in experiment 2 compared with the best treatments which had 500 and 38/m2, respectively, on average. There was poor seed set in experiment 2 before the recruitment event. Presence of existing biomass compared with either removing or leaving the plant material on the ground had greater success on seedling emergence, whereas seed addition had little effect suggesting that microsites may be more important than seed availability for P. aquatica seedling emergence. Soil scarification in general failed to have significant effects in both experiments. Seedlings survived until the following summer, but few then remained through the ensuing drought. This research showed that minimal intervention was needed to encourage emergence and early survival, and provides data on the mechanisms involved for recruitment of a perennial grass species in existing swards. © CSIRO 2011. Source

McLeod S.R.,Orange Agricultural Institute | Pople A.R.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries
Rangeland Journal

The objectives of this study were to predict the potential distribution, relative abundance and probability of habitat use by feral camels in southern Northern Territory. Aerial survey data were used to model habitat association. The characteristics of 'used' (where camels were observed) v. 'unused' (pseudo-absence) sites were compared. Habitat association and abundance were modelled using generalised additive model (GAM) methods. The models predicted habitat suitability and the relative abundance of camels in southern Northern Territory. The habitat suitability maps derived in the present study indicate that camels have suitable habitat in most areas of southern Northern Territory. The index of abundance model identified areas of relatively high camel abundance. Identifying preferred habitats and areas of high abundance can help focus control efforts. © Australian Rangeland Society 2010. Source

Hopkins D.L.,Center for Red Meat and Sheep Development | Toohey E.S.,Industry and Investment NSW Primary Industries | Kerr M.J.,Center for Red Meat and Sheep Development | Van De Ven R.,Orange Agricultural Institute
Animal Production Science

A comparison of the peak shear force results for a Lloyd texture analyser and a G2 Tenderometer was undertaken using both sheep and beef meat. The G2 is a new version of the Tenderometer developed originally by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand and uses an electric linear motor to compress the sample, but still retains the blunt wedge-shaped 'tooth'. By comparison the Lloyd texture analyser can be used with a shearing head derived from the WarnerBratzler type of head. Analysis of sheep samples (n = 148) and beef samples (n = 192) of the same size revealed that the average G2 Tenderometer shear force results were ∼1.3 times those for the Lloyd when testing less tender samples. An examination of the repeatability within cook block samples for these less tender sub-samples revealed a coefficient of variation of ∼12% for both the Lloyd and Tenderometer instruments. For the more tender samples, the average results for the two instruments did not differ significantly, but for less tender samples it was observed that the results for the Tenderometer were more variable than those for the Lloyd texture analyser. Data on shear force generated by the G2 are not equivalent to that generated by the Lloyd and use of the G2 requires more replicates to be tested per sample to achieve an equivalent level of precision to that of a Lloyd texture analyser. As a guide only, G2 Tenderometer values can by multiplied by 0.75-0.80 to give approximate Lloyd results if required for samples of average toughness, otherwise the following model can be used Lloyd = 2.49 Tenderometer 0.72. Source

Khliji S.,Center for Sheep Meat Development | Khliji S.,University of Catania | van de Ven R.,Orange Agricultural Institute | Lamb T.A.,Center for Sheep Meat Development | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science

Given the lack of data that relates consumer acceptance of lamb colour to instrument measures a study was undertaken to establish the acceptability thresholds for fresh and displayed meat. Consumers (n = 541) were asked to score 20 samples of lamb loin (m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum; LL) on an ordinal scale of 1 (very acceptable) to 5 (very unacceptable). A sample was considered acceptable by a consumer if it scored three or less. Ten samples were used for testing consumer response to fresh colour and 10 to test consumer response to colour during display of up to 4 days. The colour of fresh meat was measured using a Minolta chromameter with a closed cone and a Hunter Lab Miniscan was used for measuring meat on display. For fresh meat when the a* (redness) and L* (lightness) values are equal to or exceed 9.5 and 34, respectively, on average consumers will consider the meat colour acceptable. However a* and L* values must be much higher (14.5 and 44, respectively) to have 95% confidence that a randomly selected consumer will consider a sample acceptable. For aged meat, when the wavelength ratio (630/580 nm) and the a* values are equal to or greater than 3.3 and 14.8, respectively, on average consumers will consider the meat acceptable. These thresholds need to be increased to 6.8 for ratio (630/580 nm) and 21.7 for a* to be 95% confident that a randomly selected consumer will consider a sample acceptable. Crown Copyright © 2010. Source

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