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Ozawa S.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Ozawa S.,Kanagawa Dental College | Ito S.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Kato Y.,Oral Health Science Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family comprises ERK, JNK, p38 and ERK5 (big-MAPK, BMK1). UV irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma cells induced up-regulation of gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14, stimulated p38 phosphorylation, and down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK. Human p38 MAPKs exist in 4 isoforms: p38α, β, γ and δ. The UV stimulation of p38 phosphorylation was not inhibited by the presence of SB203580 or PD169316, inhibitors of p38α and β, suggesting p38 phosphorylation was not dependent on these 2 isoforms and that p38γ and/or δ was responsible for the phosphorylation. In fact, inhibition of each of these 4 p38 isoforms by the introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNAs for respective isoforms revealed that only shRNA for p38δ attenuated the UV-induced up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. In addition, over-expression of p38 isoforms in the cells showed the association of p38δ with ERK1 and 2, concomitant with down-regulation of ERK phosphorylation. The usage of p38δ isoform by UV irradiation is not merely due to the abundance of this p38 isoform in the cells. Because serum deprivation of the cells also induced an increase in BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression, and in this case p38α and/or β isoform is responsible for up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. Taken together, the data indicate that the respective stress-dependent action of p38 isoforms is responsible for the up-regulation of the gene expression of the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Maehata Y.,ESR Laboratories | Maehata Y.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Ozawa S.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Ozawa S.,Kanagawa Dental College | And 16 more authors.
Free Radical Research | Year: 2010

The present study investigated the effects of oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2) and hydroxyl radical (HO•), on the expression of both BRAK, which is also known as non-ELR motif angiostatic CXC chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14), in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. When HNSCC cells were cultured in the presence of ROS, the expression of BRAK was significantly decreased whereas that of IL-8 was increased. Interestingly, the effects on the expression of both genes in HNSCC cells were much greater with HO■ than with H2O2. The effects of ROS on both BRAK and IL-8 expression were attenuated by pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. These results indicate that oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or HO• stimulates angiogenesis and tumuor progression by altering the gene expression of BRAK and IL-8 via the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway in human HNSCC cells. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Komori R.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Komori R.,Kanagawa Dental College | Ozawa S.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Ozawa S.,Kanagawa Dental College | And 6 more authors.
Biomedical Research | Year: 2010

BRAK/CXCL14 is a chemokine that is expressed in many normal cells and tissues but is absent from or expressed at very low levels in transformed cells and cancerous tissues including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We reported previously that the forced expression of BRAK/CXCL14 in HNSCC cells decreased the rate of tumor formation and size of tumor xe-nografts in athymic nude mice and SCID mice, suggesting that expression level of the gene is important for tumor suppression. In order to study the regulatory mechanisms governing the expression of this gene, we determined the transcriptional start site and promoter motifs of the gene. The major transcriptional start site determined by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end met-od was located 283 bp downstream of the first proposed site of the gene. Determination of lucifer-ase activities of reporter gene constructs with various deletions or mutations showed that an atypical TATA-like sequence, TATTAA was essential for the transcription of the gene and that the AP-1 binding sequence and tandem GC box were necessary for stimulating the expression of the gene in human squamous epithelial cells. The human DNA region was highly homologous (95% base identity) to the mouse gene. In addition, okadaic acid, an inhibitor of serine/threonine phos-phatases 1, 2A and 2B, stimulated TATTAA sequence and AP-1 binding-sequence dependent promoter activity as well as increased the level of BRAK/CXCL14 mRNA, indicating that these sequences are essential for the regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression in the cells.


Miyamoto C.,Kanagawa Dental College | Miyamoto C.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Maehata Y.,Kanagawa Dental College | Maehata Y.,Oral Health Science Research Center | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2012

We previously reported that chemokine CXCL14/BRAK (BRAK) has antitumor activity in several carcinoma cells indicating that BRAK secretion suppresses carcinoma cells. Rashomologous small GTPase (RhoA) and Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) are important regulators of secretory processes, and activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway stimulates tumor invasion and metastasis. We investigated the effects of fasudil, a specific ROCK inhibitor, on BRAK secretion and tumor progression in mesenchymal fibrosarcoma cells (MC57). We demonstrated the antitumor activity of secreted BRAK using MC57 transplantation of BRAK in overexpressed transgenic mice. Further, to eliminate the influence of change in the mRNA expression of endogenous BRAK, we produced stable MC57 cell lines expressing BRAK (MC57-BRAK) or mock vector (MC57-MOCK). Fasudil significantly increased BRAK secretion by MC57-BRAK cells in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the effect of fasudil on tumor growth, MC57-BRAK and MC57-MOCK cells were transplanted into wild-type mice. Fasudil treatment suppressed tumor growth only in mice that had received MC57-BRAK cell transplants. These results indicate that fasudil inhibits fibrosarcoma growth by stimulating BRAK secretion and suggests that fasudil therapy might have clinical efficacy. © The Japanese Pharmacological Society.


Izukuri K.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Suzuki K.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Yajima N.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Ozawa S.,Oral Health Science Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2010

We reported previously that the forced expression of the chemokine BRAK, also called CXCL14 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells decreased the rate of tumor formation and size of tumor xenografts compared with mock-vector treated cells in athymic nude mice or in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. This suppression occurred even though the growth rates of these cells were the same under in vitro culture conditions, suggesting that a high expression level of the gene in tumor cells is important for the suppression of tumor establishment in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether CXCL14/BRAK transgenic mice show resistance to tumor cell xenografts or not. CXCL14/BRAK cDNA was introduced into male C57BL/6 J pronuclei, and 10 founder transgenic mice (Tg) were obtained. Two lines of mice expressed over 10 times higher CXCL14/BRAK protein levels (14 and 11 ng/ml plasma, respectively) than normal blood level (0.9 ng/ml plasma), without apparent abnormality. The sizes of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cell xenografts in Tg mice were significantly smaller than those in control wild-type mice, indicating that CXCL14/BRAK, first found as a suppressor of tumor progression of HNSCC, also suppresses the progression of a carcinoma of other tissue origin. Immunohistochemical studies showed that invasion of blood vessels into tumors was suppressed in tumor xenografts of CXCL14/BRAK Tg mice. These results indicate that CXCL14/BRAK suppressed tumor cell xenografts by functioning paracrine or endocrine fashion and that CXCL14/BRAK is a very promising molecular target for tumor suppression without side effects. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ito S.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Ito S.,Kanagawa Dental College | Ozawa S.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Ozawa S.,Kanagawa Dental College | And 7 more authors.
Biomedical Research | Year: 2010

We reported previously that the forced expression of the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells decreased the rate of tumor formation and size of tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice and SCID mice. In order to clarify the expression of BRAK/CXCL14 affected either the settlement of carcinoma cells in host tissues in vivo or proliferation of the colonized carcinoma cells or both, we prepared oral floor carcinoma-derived HSC-2 cells in which BRAK/CXCL14 expression was induced upon doxycycline treatment. Then 30 nude mice were separated into 3 groups composed of 10 mice per group: Group I, the control, in which the engineered cells were directly xenografted onto the back of the mice; Group II, the cells were xenografted and then the mice were treated with doxycycline; and Group III, the cells were pretreated with doxycycline during culture, and the host mice were also treated with the drug before and after xenografting. The effects of BRAK/CXCL14 expression were examined by measuring the tumor size. The order of the size of tumor xenografts was Group I > II > III, even though the growth rate of the engineered cells was the same whether or not the cells were cultured in the presence of the drug. In addition, the size of tumors was significantly down-regulated after xenografting the doxycycline-pretreated cells in Group III. These data indicate that BRAK/CXCL14 expression in oral floor carcinoma cells reduced both the rate of settlement and the proliferation of the cells in vivo after settlement of the cells.


Sato K.,Kanagawa Dental College | Sato K.,Oral Health Science Research Center | Sato K.,Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science | Sato K.,Tokyo Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Cell Biology International | Year: 2010

BRAK/CXCL14 (breast- and kidney-expressed chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 14) is a chemokine that is expressed in many normal cells and tissues but is absent from or expressed at very low levels in transformed cells and cancerous tissues, including HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma). We reported previously that the forced expression of BRAK/CXCL14 in HNSCC (HSC-3 BRAK) cells decreased the rate of tumour formation and size of tumour xenografts compared with mock-vector-introduced (HSC-3 Mock) cells in athymic nude mice, even though the growth rates of these cells were the same under in vitro culture conditions, suggesting that high-level expression of the gene is important for the suppression of tumour establishment in vivo. For the first step to study the mechanisms of BRAK-dependent tumour suppression, we compared characteristics between HSC-3 BRAK and HSC-3 Mock cells under in vitro culture conditions. The cell migration rate was lower in HSC-3 BRAK cells than in HSC-3 Mock cells. Also, HSC-3 BRAK cells showed more rapid adhesion than HSC-3 Mock cells when cultured on type I collagen-coated dishes but not on fibronectin or laminin 1-coated ones. This adhesion was mediated by α2β1 integrin. Immunofluorescent analysis of the cells cultured on type I collagen showed that HSC-3 BRAK cells formed much more elongated focal adhesions co-localized with paxillin and actin stress fibres than did HSC-3 Mock cells. Treatment of parental HSC-3 cells with recombinant BRAK stimulated the activation of Rap1, which is a ras family small GTPase, and formation of elongated focal adhesions, indicating that the difference in cell character observed between HSC-3 Mock and HSC-3 BRAK was not due to selection of clones of different character but due to expression of BRAK in the cells. The characteristic morphology of focal adhesions in HSC-3 BRAK cells was perturbed by the introduction of an expression vector of the Rap-binding domain of the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator, a target of Rap1, into HSC-3 BRAK cells, suggesting that Rap1 regulated the formation of the morphology of the focal adhesions. These data indicate that the expression of BRAK stimulated the formation of elongated focal adhesions of the HSC-3 cells in an autocrine or paracrine fashion, in which stimulation may be responsible for the reduced migration of the cells. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2010 Portland Press Limited.


Ikoma T.,Kanagawa Dental College | Ozawa S.,Kanagawa Dental College | Suzuki K.,Kanagawa Dental College | Kondo T.,Kanagawa Dental College | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

The chemokine BRAK/CXCL14 (BRAK) is expressed in normal squamous epithelium, but is not expressed or is expressed at negligible levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Malignant cells are known to be dedifferentiated compared with normal epithelial cells, suggesting a role for differentiation cues in the expression of BRAK. Thus, we examined the relationship between BRAK expression and stages of differentiation level in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BRAK protein was expressed in cells above the spinous cell layer in normal epithelia. In HSC-3 cells in culture, expression of BRAK mRNA was significantly upregulated by cell contact in a cell density-dependent manner, and mRNA expression of cell differentiation markers such as involucrin, cystatin-A, TGM1, TGM3, and TGM5 was concomitantly augmented. Furthermore, the upregulation of BRAK induced by cell contact was suppressed by chlorpromazine, a specific inhibitor of calmodulin. We previously reported that GC boxes and a TATA-like sequence in the BRAK promoter region are associated with the expression of BRAK. Using a promoter assay and ChIP, we demonstrated that binding of the stimulating protein-1 (SP1) transcription factor to a GC box upstream of the BRAK transcription start site was necessary for cell density-dependent upregulation of BRAK. These results indicated that upregulation of BRAK was accompanied by differentiation of epithelial cells induced by calcium/calmodulin signaling, and that SP1 binding to the BRAK promoter region played an important role in this signaling. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Oral Health Science Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan) | Year: 2010

We reported previously that the forced expression of the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells decreased the rate of tumor formation and size of tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice and SCID mice. In order to clarify the expression of BRAK/CXCL14 affected either the settlement of carcinoma cells in host tissues in vivo or proliferation of the colonized carcinoma cells or both, we prepared oral floor carcinoma-derived HSC-2 cells in which BRAK/CXCL14 expression was induced upon doxycycline treatment. Then 30 nude mice were separated into 3 groups composed of 10 mice per group: Group I, the control, in which the engineered cells were directly xenografted onto the back of the mice; Group II, the cells were xenografted and then the mice were treated with doxycycline; and Group III, the cells were pretreated with doxycycline during culture, and the host mice were also treated with the drug before and after xenografting. The effects of BRAK/CXCL14 expression were examined by measuring the tumor size. The order of the size of tumor xenografts was Group I > II > III, even though the growth rate of the engineered cells was the same whether or not the cells were cultured in the presence of the drug. In addition, the size of tumors was significantly down-regulated after xenografting the doxycycline-pretreated cells in Group III. These data indicate that BRAK/CXCL14 expression in oral floor carcinoma cells reduced both the rate of settlement and the proliferation of the cells in vivo after settlement of the cells.


In order to find a suppressor(s) of tumor progression in vivo for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we searched for molecules downregulated in HNSCC cells when the cells were treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF), whose receptor is frequently overactivated in HNSCC. The expression of BRAK, which is also known as CXC chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14), was downregulated significantly by the treatment of HNSCC cells with EGF as observed by cDNA microarray analysis followed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blotting. The EGF effect on the expression of CXCL14/BRAK was attenuated by the copresence of inhibitors of the EGF receptor, MEK, and ERK. The rate of tumor formation in vivo of BRAK-expressing vector-transfected tumor cells in athymic nude mice or SCID mice was significantly lower than that of mock vector-transfected ones. In addition tumors formed in vivo by the BRAK-expressing cells were significantly smaller than those of the mock-transfected ones. These results indicate that CXCL14/BRAK is a chemokine having suppressive activity toward tumor progression of HNSCC in vivo. Our approach will be useful to find new target molecules to suppress progression of tumors of various origins in addition to HNSCC.

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