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Subang Jaya, Malaysia

Saleh A.,Oral Cancer Research Team | Kong Y.H.,Oral Cancer Research Team | Vengu N.,Malaysian Dental | Badrudeen H.,Malaysian Dental | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Dentists are typically the first professionals who are approached to treat ailments within the oral cavity. Therefore they should be well-equipped in detecting suspicious lesions during routine clinical practice. This study determined the levels of knowledge on early signs and risk factors associated with oral cancer and identified which factors influenced dentist participation in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: A survey on dentists' knowledge and their practices in prevention and early detection of oral cancer was conducted using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: A response rate of 41.7% was achieved. The level of knowledge on early signs and risk habits associated with oral cancer was high and the majority reported to have conducted opportunistic screening and advised patients on risk habit cessation. Factors that influenced the dentist in practising prevention and early detection of oral cancer were continuous education on oral cancer, age, nature of practice and recent graduation. Notably, dentists were receptive to further training in the area of oral cancer detection and cessation of risk habits. Taken together, the study demonstrated that the dental clinic is a good avenue to conduct programs on opportunistic screening, and continuous education in these areas is necessary to adequately equip dentists in running these programs. Further, this study also highlighted knowledge deficits and practice shortcomings which will help in planning and developing programs that further encourage better participation of dentists in prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

Saini R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Tang T.-H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Zain R.B.,University of Malaya | Cheong S.C.,Oral Cancer Research Team | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2011

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of HPV and p53 polymorphisms in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) affecting Malaysian population. Methods: We analysed frozen samples from 105 OSCC as well as 105 oral specimens derived from healthy individuals. PCR assays targeting two regions of the virus were used. PCR amplification for the analysis of p53 codon 72 arginine/proline alleles was carried out in a separate reaction. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 51.4% OSCC samples, while 24.8% controls were found to be HPV positive. HPV was found to be significantly associated with OSCC (P < 0.001, OR = 4.3 after adjustment for habits) when compared to controls. High-risk HPV was found to be significantly associated with OSCC cases (P < 0.05). Demographic profiles of age, gender, race and habits were not associated with HPV presence in cases and controls. However, significantly less HPV positivity was seen in poorly differentiated compared to well-differentiated OSCCs. No significant association was found between HPV positivity and p53 polymorphisms in cases and control groups. Additionally, we found no association of codon 72 polymorphism with oral cancer. Conclusions: This study indicates that high-risk HPV infection is one of the contributing factors for OSCCs. HPV 16 was the predominant type found in Malaysian patients with OSCC. Further, we did not find any association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and HPV infection or between the p53 polymorphism and the risk of oral cancer. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Siow M.Y.,University of Malaya | Karen Ng L.P.,University of Malaya | Vincent Chong V.K.,University of Malaya | Jamaludin M.,University of Malaya | And 7 more authors.
Oral Diseases | Year: 2014

Objectives: To identify differentially expressed miRNA between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and non-cancer (NC) and to associate these with clinico-pathological parameters. Materials and methods: miRNA microarray profiling was utilized to obtain the expression profile of miRNAs in four OSCC and four NC samples. The expression of miR-31 and miR-375 was further validated in 26 OSCC and three NC samples using real-time-PCR. The association between miRNA expression and clinico-pathological parameters was tested by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Microarray profiling demonstrated that 15 and four miRNAs were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in OSCC as compared with NC. miR-31 and miR-375 were validated as up- and down-regulated miRNAs, respectively. In univariate analyses, expression of miR-31 was significantly elevated in early stage, tumours with no metastatic nodes and those from the buccal mucosa. By contrast, low miR-375 expression was significantly associated with late stage disease, larger tumour size and the non-cohesive type of pattern of invasion in OSCC. The association between miR-31 expression with tumour staging and site and miR-375 with tumour staging remained significant in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: This study has identified 19 miRNAs significantly associated with OSCC, and expressions of miR-31 and miR-375 were significantly related with clinico-pathological parameters suggesting they could be important in driving oral tumourigenesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Malhotra R.,University of Connecticut | Patel V.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chikkaveeraiah B.V.,University of Connecticut | Munge B.S.,Salve Regina University | And 9 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Multiplexed biomarker protein detection holds unrealized promise for clinical cancer diagnostics due to lack of suitable measurement devices and lack of rigorously validated protein panels. Here we report an ultrasensitive electrochemical microfluidic array optimized to measure a four-protein panel of biomarker proteins, and we validate the protein panel for accurate oral cancer diagnostics. Unprecedented ultralow detection into the 5-50 fg·mL -1 range was achieved for simultaneous measurement of proteins interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF-C in diluted serum. The immunoarray achieves high sensitivity in 50 min assays by using off-line protein capture by magnetic beads carrying 400 000 enzyme labels and ∼100 000 antibodies. After capture of the proteins and washing to inhibit nonspecific binding, the beads are magnetically separated and injected into the array for selective capture by antibodies on eight nanostructured sensors. Good correlations with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for protein determinations in conditioned cancer cell media confirmed the accuracy of this approach. Normalized means of the four protein levels in 78 oral cancer patient serum samples and 49 controls gave clinical sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 98% for oral cancer detection, demonstrating high diagnostic utility. The low-cost, easily fabricated immunoarray provides a rapid serum test for diagnosis and personalized therapy of oral cancer. The device is readily adaptable to clinical diagnostics of other cancers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Farzadi A.,University of Malaya | Waran V.,University of Malaya | Solati-Hashjin M.,University of Malaya | Rahman Z.A.A.,Oral Cancer Research Team | And 2 more authors.
Ceramics International | Year: 2015

Recent advancements in computational design and additive manufacturing have enabled the fabrication of 3D prototypes with controlled architecture resembling the natural bone. Powder-based three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a versatile method for production of synthetic scaffolds using sequential layering process. The quality of 3D printed products by this method is controlled by the optimal build parameters. In this study, Calcium Sulfate based powders were used for porous scaffolds fabrication. The X-direction printed scaffolds with a pore size of 0.8 mm and a layer thickness of 0.1125 mm were subjected to the depowdering step. The effects of four layer printing delays of 50, 100, 300 and 500 ms on the physical and mechanical properties of printed scaffolds were investigated. The compressive strength, toughness and tangent modulus of samples printed with a delay of 300 ms were observed to be higher than other samples. Furthermore, the results of SEM and μCT analyses showed that samples printed with a delay of 300 ms have higher dimensional accuracy and are significantly closer to CAD software based designs with predefined 0.8 mm macro-pore and 0.6 mm strut size. © 2015 The Authors.

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