Hod HaSharon, Israel
Hod HaSharon, Israel

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PubMed | The Ran Naor Research Foundation, Or Yarok and Ariel University
Type: | Journal: Accident; analysis and prevention | Year: 2015

Smartphone usage while driving, a prominent type of driver distraction, has become a major concern in the area of road safety. Answers to an internet survey by 757 Israeli drivers who own smartphones were analyzed with focus on two main purposes: (1) to gain insights regarding patterns of smartphone usage while driving and its motivation, (2) to probe drivers views on the perceived risk and the need to use smartphones while driving, as well as their willingness to use blocking apps that limit such usages. Phone calls and texting were found to be the most common usages while driving, hence, both were chosen to be further analyzed. 73% (N=551) of the respondents make phone calls while driving and almost half of them may be considered frequent callers as they admit to do it intensively while driving. As for texting, 35% of the respondents (N=256) text while driving and a quarter of them do so frequently. While phone calls were perceived to compromise safety by 34% of the users, texting was perceived to compromise safety by 84% of the users. However, we found that drivers place limitations on themselves as more than 70% avoid texting when they think they need to devote attention to driving. A logistic regression model indicates that perceived need and perceived safety are significant factors associated with being a frequent smartphone phone calls user, but only perceived need significantly predicts being a frequent texting user. Approximately half of all the respondents are willing to try an app which blocks smartphone usage while driving. The willingness to use such technology was found to be related primarily to perceived need. Less significant factors are work-related usage and perceived safety. Frequency of usage was not found to affect this willingness, indicating that it should not be a factor in designing and implementing interventions to limit smartphone usage while driving.


Farah H.,Ran Naor Foundation | Musicant O.,Ran Naor Foundation | Shimshoni Y.,Tel Aviv University | Toledo T.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M = 17.5; SD = 0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) Control: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents. The study showed that: (1) the Parental training group recorded significantly lower events rates (-29%) compared to the Control group during the solo period; (2) although directed mainly at the novice drivers, the intervention positively affected also the behavior of parents, with both fathers and mothers in the Parental training group improving their driving (by -23% for both fathers and mothers) and mothers improving it also in the Family feedback group (by -30%). Thus, the intervention has broader impact effect beside the targeted population. It can be concluded that providing feedback on driving behavior and parental training in vigilant care significantly improves the driving behavior of young novice male drivers. Future research directions could include applying the intervention to a broader population, with larger diversity with respect to their driving records, culture, and behaviors. The challenge is to reach wide dissemination of IVDR for young drivers accompanied by parents' involvement, and to find the suitable incentives for its sustainability. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Tel Aviv University, The Ran Naor Foundation and Or Yarok
Type: | Journal: Accident; analysis and prevention | Year: 2014

This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The studys objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents. The study showed that: (1) the Parental training group recorded significantly lower events rates (-29%) compared to the CONTROL group during the solo period; (2) although directed mainly at the novice drivers, the intervention positively affected also the behavior of parents, with both fathers and mothers in the Parental training group improving their driving (by -23% for both fathers and mothers) and mothers improving it also in the Family feedback group (by -30%). Thus, the intervention has broader impact effect beside the targeted population. It can be concluded that providing feedback on driving behavior and parental training in vigilant care significantly improves the driving behavior of young novice male drivers. Future research directions could include applying the intervention to a broader population, with larger diversity with respect to their driving records, culture, and behaviors. The challenge is to reach wide dissemination of IVDR for young drivers accompanied by parents involvement, and to find the suitable incentives for its sustainability.


Taubman - Ben-Ari O.,Bar - Ilan University | Kaplan S.,Technical University of Denmark | Lotan T.,Or Yarok | Prato C.G.,Technical University of Denmark
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour | Year: 2015

The study investigated the relation between the risky driving behavior of young male drivers and their personality traits, familial attitudes and conduct in respect to road safety, intentions to drive recklessly, and driving anger. In-vehicle data recorders were used to measure the actual driving of 163 young male drivers, who also completed self-report instruments tapping traits and perceptions. Personality traits were assessed near in time to receipt of the driving license, and actual risky driving and driving-related variables were measured 9-12. months after licensure to examine relatively stable driving behavior and attitudes. Findings indicate that (a) young male drivers' personality traits and tendencies play a major role in predicting risky behavior; (b) intentions to drive recklessly are translated into actual behavior; and (c) the parental role is extremely relevant and counteracts risky tendencies. Moreover, the results suggest that although trait anger and driving anger both contribute to risky driving, they represent different aspects of anger. Thus, for safety interventions to be effective, they must not only teach drivers how to cope with anger-provoking driving situations, but also address underlying personality traits and environmental factors. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Taubman - Ben-Ari O.,Bar - Ilan University | Kaplan S.,Technical University of Denmark | Lotan T.,Or Yarok | Prato C.G.,Technical University of Denmark
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2015

The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents' personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data recorders from actual driving of parents and their male teen driver with data collected from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The sample consists of 121 families, who participated in the study for 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver. The current examination concentrates on the last 3 months of this first year of driving. The experimental design was based on a random control assignment into three treatment groups (with different forms of feedback) and a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that the parents' (especially the fathers') sensation seeking, anxiety, and aggression, as well as their risky driving events rate were positively associated with higher risky driving of the young driver. In addition, parents' involvement in the intervention, either by feedback or by training, led to lower risky driving events rate of young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, higher cohesion and adaptability mitigated parents' model for risky driving, and peers norms' of risky driving were associated with higher risk by the teen drivers. We conclude by claiming that there is an unequivocal need to look at a full and complex set of antecedents in parents' personality, attitudes, and behavior, together with the contribution of peers to the young drivers' reckless driving, and address the practical implications for road safety. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Bar - Ilan University, Or Yarok and Technical University of Denmark
Type: | Journal: Accident; analysis and prevention | Year: 2015

The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data recorders from actual driving of parents and their male teen driver with data collected from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The sample consists of 121 families, who participated in the study for 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver. The current examination concentrates on the last 3 months of this first year of driving. The experimental design was based on a random control assignment into three treatment groups (with different forms of feedback) and a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that the parents (especially the fathers) sensation seeking, anxiety, and aggression, as well as their risky driving events rate were positively associated with higher risky driving of the young driver. In addition, parents involvement in the intervention, either by feedback or by training, led to lower risky driving events rate of young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, higher cohesion and adaptability mitigated parents model for risky driving, and peers norms of risky driving were associated with higher risk by the teen drivers. We conclude by claiming that there is an unequivocal need to look at a full and complex set of antecedents in parents personality, attitudes, and behavior, together with the contribution of peers to the young drivers reckless driving, and address the practical implications for road safety.


Musicant O.,Ran Naor Research Foundation | Musicant O.,Ariel University | Lotan T.,Or Yarok | Albert G.,Ran Naor Research Foundation
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2015

Smartphone usage while driving, a prominent type of driver distraction, has become a major concern in the area of road safety. Answers to an internet survey by 757 Israeli drivers who own smartphones were analyzed with focus on two main purposes: (1) to gain insights regarding patterns of smartphone usage while driving and its motivation, (2) to probe drivers' views on the perceived risk and the need to use smartphones while driving, as well as their willingness to use blocking apps that limit such usages. Phone calls and texting were found to be the most common usages while driving, hence, both were chosen to be further analyzed. 73% (N = 551) of the respondents make phone calls while driving and almost half of them may be considered frequent callers as they admit to do it intensively while driving. As for texting, 35% of the respondents (N = 256) text while driving and a quarter of them do so frequently. While phone calls were perceived to compromise safety by 34% of the users, texting was perceived to compromise safety by 84% of the users. However, we found that drivers place limitations on themselves as more than 70% avoid texting when they think they need to devote attention to driving. A logistic regression model indicates that perceived need and perceived safety are significant factors associated with being a frequent smartphone phone calls user, but only perceived need significantly predicts being a frequent texting user. Approximately half of all the respondents are willing to try an app which blocks smartphone usage while driving. The willingness to use such technology was found to be related primarily to perceived need. Less significant factors are work-related usage and perceived safety. Frequency of usage was not found to affect this willingness, indicating that it should not be a factor in designing and implementing interventions to limit smartphone usage while driving. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Taubman-Ben-Ari O.,Bar - Ilan University | Lotan T.,Or Yarok
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2011

Young drivers in Israel, as in other parts of the world, are at an elevated risk of being involved in car crashes more than any other age group. A Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDL) has been introduced in Israel, requiring new drivers to be accompanied by an experienced driver during the first 3 months after obtaining a driving license. In an effort to ensure the effectiveness of the accompanied driving phase, a novel program which targets both young drivers and their parents, called green light for life (GLL), was initiated. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of GLL by comparing between young drivers who participated in the program and those who did not. Additionally, this study examined a structural equation model to predict young drivers' involvement in car crashes and additional risk measures. The study utilized quantitative measures through a questionnaire completed by 738 young drivers (437 men, 301 women; 362 of whom participated in the program, 376 who did not). The results obtained indicate that GLL participants showed more positive views regarding the accompanied driving phase and were less involved in car crashes. They draw a comprehensive model of associations between various aspects of accompanied driving and risky driving measures. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Prato C.G.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Toledo T.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Lotan T.,Or Yarok | Taubman - Ben-Ari O.,Bar - Ilan University
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2010

Novice young drivers suffer from increased crash risk that translates into over-representation in road injuries. In order to effectively confront this problem, a better understanding of the driving behavior of novice young drivers and of its determinants is needed. This study analyzes the behavior of novice young drivers within a Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) program. Data on driving behavior of 62 novice drivers and their parents, who voluntarily participated in this experiment, were collected using in-vehicle data recorders that calculate compound risk indices as measures of the risk taking behavior of drivers. Data were used to estimate a negative binomial model to identify major determinants that affect the driving behavior of young drivers during the first year after licensure. Estimation results suggest that the risk taking behavior of young drivers is influenced by gender, sensation seeking tendency, driving behavior of their parents, amount of supervised driving and level of parental monitoring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Toledo T.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Lotan T.,Or Yarok | Taubman-Ben-Ari O.,Bar - Ilan University | Grimberg E.,Or Yarok
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2012

Young drivers in Israel, as in other parts of the world, are involved in car crashes more than any other age group. The graduated driver licensing system in Israel requires that all new drivers be accompanied by an experienced driver whenever they drive for the first 3 months after obtaining a driving license. In an effort to make the accompanied driving phase more effective, a novel program which targets both young drivers and their parents was initiated in 2005. The program administers a personal meeting with the young driver and the accompanying parent scheduled for the beginning of the accompanied driving phase. In this meeting guidance is given regarding best practices for undertaking the accompanied driving, as well as tips for dealing with in-vehicle parent-teen dynamics. Through 2008, almost 130,000 families of young drivers have participated in the program. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the program, injury crash records of the young drivers who participated in the program were compared with those of all other young drivers that were licensed at the same time period. The results obtained indicate statistically significant lower crash records for young drivers that participated in the program. Limitations of the evaluation related to self-selection biases are discussed, and practical implications are suggested. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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